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70-218 Windows 2000/2003 Network Administration

by James Ellithorpe

Managing Storage Use with Data Compression
Configure and Manage Disk Quotas
Recover from Disk Failures
Publish Printers and Shared Folders in the Active Directory
Manage File and Folder Compression
Manage Data Storage
Implement NTFS and FAT File Systems
Implement and Configure Encrypting File System (EFS)
Configure Volumes and Basic and Dynamic Disks
  Hardware Vs. Software Raid
    Intended Use
    Fault Tolerance
    The Need for "Duplexing" a RAID System
    Hot-Swap and Hot-Spare Disk Systems
    To Create RAID-1 Mirrored Volumes
    To Create a RAID-5 Volume
    Repairing a Dynamic RAID-1 or RAID-5 Volume
    To Create a Dynamic RAID-0 Striped Volume
    A Spanned Volume
Configure File and Folder Permissions
Configure Shared Folder Permissions
Manage a Domain-Based Distributed File System (DFS)
  Step One
  Step Two
Create and Manage Shared Printers
Configure Access to Printers
Installing and Managing Printers
  The General Tab
  The Sharing Tab
  The Ports Tab
  The Advanced Tab
  The Color Management Tab
  The Security Tab
  The Device Settings Tab
  The Services Tab
Understanding Network Printers
Understanding Print Servers
Adding New Printers
Configuring New Printers
Sharing New Printers
Configuring Printer Pools
TCP/IP and LPR Printers
AppleTalk Printers
Setting Printer Security
Setting Printer Options
Setting Printer Spooling Options
Publish Printers in the Active Directory
Using Active Directory to Find Printers
Using Printer Location Tracking
  Meeting the Requirements for Printer Location Tracking
  Enabling Printer Location Tracking
Using and Accessing Printers from the Internet
Troubleshooting Printer Problems
Install and Configure Services for Microsoft Clustering Technologies
  Drive Technology Overview
    Fibre Channel
  General Hardware Requirements
  Cluster Service Shared Disk Requirements
  Cluster Service Network Requirements
  Cluster Planning Checklist
Preparing Windows 2000 Server for Cluster Technologies
  Installing the Network Adapters
  Configuring the Network Adapters
  Selecting TCP/IP Settings
  Configuring the Shared Storage Device
  Configuring the SCSI Hardware
  Implementing Fault Tolerance Using RAID
  Partitioning the Shared Device
Backup and Restore of Files, Folders, Volumes, and System State Data
Creating an Emergency Repair Disk
Creating a Fault-Tolerant Boot Disk
Backup and Restore WINS Database
Backup and Restore DHCP Database
Backup and Restore of Active Directory Database
Implementing a UPS
De-fragmentation of Hard Drives
Configure NTFS Access to Files, Folders, and Shared Folders
Configure File Compression
Convert File Systems from FAT to NTFS
Implement CD-ROM, DVD, and Other Disk Devices
Optimizing System Performance and Reliability
Solving Performance Problems
  Causes of Bottlenecks
  Strategy for Tuning And Testing
Set up a Performance Baseline
Optimize the Performance of the Windows 2000 Professional
Optimize System Processes and Set Priorities
Optimize for Application or System Performance
Optimize and Troubleshoot Memory Performance
Optimize and Troubleshoot Processor Utilization
Optimize and Troubleshoot Disk Performance
Optimize Off-Line Files Synchronization
Performance Monitor Network (Labs)
Securing Windows 2000/2003 Networks: The Pea-Pod of Security
Applying Basic Security Measures
Configure Driver-Signing Options
Encrypt Data on a Hard Disk Using the Encrypting File System (EFS)
Use the Delegation of Control Wizard
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
Security Labs
Preparing for the Microsoft Vendor Exams

Managing Storage Use with Data Compression

Data compression is either on or off for a file, folder, or entire partition.

To set compression for an entire disk partition, right-click on MY COMPUTER and then select EXPLORE and then right-click the drive partition and then select PROPERTIES. Down near the bottom of the next interface you will see a check box where you can select to compress the drive. You should also check the box for indexing to speed up searches on the drive.

To set compression for an entire folder, do the same as above except, after selecting the drive, explore the drive until you find the folder you wish to compress, then right-click the folder and select PROPERTIES, then select the ADVANCED button. You will then see two check boxes in the bottom of the next screen where you can either compress or encrypt. Select compress. Again, indexing the folder is a good idea to speed up searches on the drive.

To set compression for a file, do the same as above for a file, but then explore the folder and then select the file you wish to compress. Right-click the file and select PROPERTIES, then select the ADVANCED button. You will then see two check boxes in the bottom of the next screen where you can either compress or encrypt. Select compress. Again, indexing the folder is a good idea to speed up searches on the drive.

It is very helpful to set the view options for compressed files in an alternate color. In Windows explorer go to the top of the screen and under the TOOLS option, select FOLDER OPTIONS. Then select the VIEW tab and then find the option radio button to show compressed files in the alternate color. Once selected, compressed files, folders, or disk partitions will be shown on the monitor in a blue color.

Files and folders can either be compressed or encrypted. Entire disk partitions do not have this option.

Compressed files moved on the same disk partition to a non-compressed folder will maintain their compression in the new folder. This is called MOVE AND MAINTAIN (M&M for short). When the same file is copied, it inherits the non-compressed status of its new location. This is called COPY AND INHERIT (C&I for short). The M&M rule only applies to compression and ACL permissions when those files are on the same partition. At all other times, the C&I rule will apply.

Encrypted files moved or copied will always maintain their encryption except to any other destination, on tape-backup, EXCEPT when that file is copied to a floppy diskette. Be aware of this! This could be a security issue for the network and users. If encryption is being used on a machine or the network, it is wise to disable the floppy disk drive of machines on the network.

Configure and Manage Disk Quotas

Disk quotas are useful when users on the network store their files on file servers. This should always be the case. You should never allow users to store data files on local machines since most local machines do not have tape backup capabilities. If files are not backed up somewhere, data loss can occur and this would be most damaging.

To prevent local users from storing data files on local drives, the easiest way to prevent this is to set ACL permissions on the local drive that does not allow the WRITE permission for local or domain users. If you do this, then make sure the all administrators and technicians are not members of those groups affected so that they can install software and updates on local machines.

User accounts would then be configured to have HOME DIRECTORIES on the network where their files would be stored. To setup home directories look to the properties of the user accounts in Active Directory Users and Computers. Then create the home directory in the actual physical location you specified. Then set the disk quota on the disk partition set aside for home directories.

Disk quotas can only be set on disk partitions, and it affects the entire partition. If a person needs more space than the quota, you need to allow them to exceed it, set a higher quota for users on the partition, or set up a new partition with a higher limit and copy the user's files to the new location and adjust the home directory location in A/D Users and Computers.

Right-click on the disk partition, and then select PROPERTIES. Then look for the QUOTA tab. Select the check box to ENABLE QUOTA MANAAGEMENT. You can deny users additional space that exceed the quota, and set various warnings and levels. Keep in mind that the settings affect everyone on the disk partition and not just a single user. Administrators are exempt from the settings.

To see the quota entries, select the QUOTA ENTRIES button in the lower right hand corner of the quota properties screen.

Recover from Disk Failures

It is never a question of "if" but of "when." Disks are single highest point of failure on a network or a computer. However, mean time before failure (MTBF) rates are vastly improved over the early years of hard drives, and with blade servers becoming increasingly popular, reliability is steadily increasing.

Tape backup remains the single most popular methodology for recovery. Tape capacities are ever increasing. Clustering with parallel RAID-5 cabinets in different physical locations miles apart has also seen a tremendous increase in use since the World Trade Center attacks on 9/11/2022 demonstrated that even in the most bizarre ways, you can never be 100% safe from failure.

The rule of thumb is "backup, backup, and then backup again." The use of cluster-pairs is important. You can set up RAID-5 volumes with hot-plug drives and hot stand-by spares to maintain system integrity. The use of SLED (Single Large Expensive Drive) drives is also an option for larger enterprise level networks. These large drives of 10-20-30-40 terabytes in size cost millions of dollars, but in the largest of networks that cost is minor to the cost of severe data loss which could cost ten or hundreds of millions of dollars in lost revenues and productivity. However, SLED drives are often viewed as a single-point-of-failure so they have been largely replaced with Storage Area Networks.

Tape backup systems should include the highest-speed and highest-capacity tapes. A good tape backup management program consisting of the different types of tape backup options (Full, Incremental, Differential, Daily, Copy) and then off-site storage of tapes is an absolute necessity.

Each tape backup and recovery plan should also include verification of data. Is the data REALLY on the tape? The only way to confirm this is to RESTORE the data to a different server and then visually verify and test the data structures. As former President Ronald Reagan said about the Soviet Union nuclear missile decommissioning program: "Trust, but verify." It would be an absolute nightmare to believe you have a safe backup on tape only to find later on in an actual emergency that it was only a mirage!

Recovery from disk failures also depends upon the use of RAID volumes and "hot-plug" drives. This also involves the use of special hardware RAID controllers. Each OEM has its own controller boards, but the concept allows for the quickest recovery of physical disk failure.

Windows 2000 allows for the use of software RAID volumes on dynamic partitions. Partitions must be dynamic in order for software RAID volumes to be set up and configured. Windows NT 4 RAID sets will be maintained in Windows 2000 but cannot be expanded, extended, or repaired. They must be converted to dynamic volumes. This requires that the old sets be backed up on tape, and then deleted entirely. Then you must re-configure the new partitions and then convert them from basic partitions to dynamic partitions. Then the new RAID volumes can be established.

However, there is another caveat. Only Windows 2000/2003 operating systems can access dynamic volumes. This is one way to prevent legacy operating systems from accessing data on dynamic volumes, and is in an odd way, another security "feature" of the Windows 2000/2003 operating system. However, in time third-party solutions may be created to overcome this so you should not depend on this for security purposes.

Keep in mind that dynamic volumes are only needed for software RAID volumes and not third-party OEM hardware RAID configurations.

In the event of Windows 2000 Pro or XP Pro workstation disk failure, the only thing you can do is replace the hard drive and then re-install the operating system or image the new hard drive from a master hard drive. This is why you should never store data files and folders on a local machine. If the end user lost their data files then that would be a nightmare.

Another thing to AWAYS keep in mind is to save an end-user's MS OutLook data file to a file server. By default, it does not do this. You need to change it. If you do not, when a hard drive fails, and you restore the operating system and then re-load MS Office, the end-user's e-mail will be reset in a new configuration. You then need to "import" the .PST file from the saved location that it was exported to or saved to. See MS Outlook help for more information.

A production server should always have a RAID-1 Mirror for the operating system, and then RAID-5 Stripe with Parity for all data files. This should be an absolute rule for all file servers and for all key production servers like controllers, DNS, WINS, DHCP, E-Mail, or SQL Database. Many of these systems should also be clustered so that one system could be brought down for repair or upgrade and the users on the network would not even be aware of it.

The primary objective at all times is keep the network OPERATIONAL! So make sure the network design includes for enough redundancy to provide for it.

Publish Printers and Shared Folders in the Active Directory

There is a technical difference between printers, which are the logical device in Windows 2000 that appears on the computer screen, and the physical device or print device, which is the actual piece of equipment. You can have many "printers" pointing to the single "print device."

Printers can be set up for various departments that have different priorities, times available, and other variables. For example, the Accounting Department OU can have a printer with a priority of 10 and it is available from 8 AM to 5 PM only. The Marketing Department OU can have a printer that uses the same print device, with a priority of 15 and is available from 12 PM to 9 PM. If two jobs are sent to the printer, then marketing would have a higher priority and would print first, and if accounting sent output to the printer after 5 PM or marketing sent it before 12PM, then it would sit in the queue waiting to print until it had the right to print.

When the print device is installed and the logical printer is set up, you can publish it to the Active Directory simply by checking the box "List in the Directory" on the SHARING tab of the PRINTER PROPERTIES.

Folders are automatically published in Active Directory as part of the sharing process but they cannot be seen by others unless they have the proper discretionary ACL permissions. Administrators see all shares, plus the hidden shares (those with a $ after the share name). The best procedure is for you to set up a Distributed File System for all shares in the corporate network that uses more common names for the share name so that users do not need to know the actual physical location of the resource using universal naming conventions.

Manage File and Folder Compression

There is very little management to file and folder compression. To set up a compressed folder you right-click on the folder you want to compress and then click on the ADVANCED button. Then check the box for compression. You will be asked whether you want to compress any child folders and their associated files. Select the appropriate response.

One thing you need to remember is that when files from another directory are copied into a compressed folder they will inherit the compression as part of their properties. When a file is moved from another folder on the same partition it will retain its properties and permissions. The first rule is sometimes called the C&I rule and the second is called the M&M rule. C&I stands for "copy and inherit" and M&M stands for "move and maintain."

Another exception is encrypted files. Encrypted files will always retain their encryption when moved or copied from an "encrypted" folder. The person who originally encrypted the files has their decryption key (as long as one was created for them) otherwise they are using the default key of the Administrator of the machine. Once a file is encrypted, it always remains encrypted. There is one possible exception. If someone comes up to the machine where the file was originally encrypted and then copies or moves the file to a floppy disk, the file that is copied to the floppy disk will be decrypted. You will receive a warning message about this, but it can be done. This is why it is so important to always have end-users "lock" their systems by pressing CTRL-ALT-DEL and then LOCK COMPUTER when leaving their machine turned on and logged in. System security can be easily compromised when a user takes a break, goes to the restroom, or leaves their area. Don't let that happen.

Manage Data Storage

Considerations include file systems, permissions, and quotas in a systematic approach. Keep in mind that the network is a "system." In other words, one change in one area has its effects elsewhere in the "system." It's like a spider web. One pull in one corner of the web makes the entire web react.

So, when you change permissions on share, a folder, or a file it will affect the entire system. When you set up enforced quotas and those quotas are exceeded, the users who have their home directories on the disk partition will be affected. When you upgrade the operating systems of a 9x legacy machine from FAT 16 or FAT 32 to NTFS Version 5, you are likely to have some permissions issues for that user and will need to retrain the user accordingly.

There is a plethora of issues to keep in mind when managing the date storage space. Is there enough? Is it secure? Has it been backed up and verified consistently? Is it protected from data loss, intruders, malfeasance and fires, and power outages? Again, remember the primary goal is to keep the network operational.

Implement NTFS and FAT File Systems

You select NTFS (New Technology File System) as the partition type or FAT-16 (File Allocation Table) or FAT-32 during installation of the operating system. FAT-16 has a limit of 4 GB partitions, and FAT-32 has a limit of 32 GB. NTFS has a theoretical limit of 16 TB (Terabytes) minus 64 KB for administrative purposes on the volume.

NTFS allows the use of directory or folder permissions, plus file permissions whereas FAT partitions can only be secured by "share" permissions.

Generally speaking, NTFS is the preferable file system. The use of FAT partitions is diminishing and is generally reserved today for those situation in which a multi-booting computer is required because legacy systems like Windows 9x don't have NTFS as an option. Therefore, if you have a situation where because of hardware or software issues, a 9x legacy operating system is needed then the first primary partition must be installed as FAT. Multi-boot systems must always be installed on a single machine with the older legacy system first and then add the newer operating system versions in their respective order.

However, FAT partitions cannot be secured properly from internal or external sources. Therefore, unless it is absolutely necessary do not configure FAT partitions on machines on the network. If using FAT based computers, then security considerations may suggest placing them on a separate network using NetBEUI as their protocol, or physically locate all of the machines in a separate LEGACY room on the network. Require all users needing access to these machines to go to the private room to use the machines.

You can convert FAT partitions to NTFS by using the CONVERT command at the command prompt. The command can be seen by typing "Convert /?" at the command prompt. If the partition being converted is the boot or system partition, it will be converted the next time the computer is powered up. The system needs to have exclusive access to the system drive to do this.

In most cases, when NT 4.0, Windows 2000, XP Pro, or Windows 2003 was first installed on the machine, it should have been formatted NTFS at that time unless you selected FAT. FAT is obviously not as secure as NTFS and should be limited in its use on the network.

Implement and Configure Encrypting File System (EFS)

A great feature of NTFS 5.0 in Windows 2000 is the ability to encrypt data files. When a file is encrypted, the only person who can read the file is someone who has the decryption key. In Windows 2000, this is the Administrator of the machine by default. You can then add others by setting up a "key" for each individual as a recovery agent.

To do this you need to open the Local Security Policy of the machine where you will be encrypting the file from and then add the new agent. While there is a certificate for the Administrator by default, you DO NOT want the end users of the machine using the Administrator's certificate. This should be kept for use in the event that the end user leaves the company and then you need to decrypt any files that were encrypted by that user, or if a need arises to decrypt those files while the user is still with the company for any reason.

However, if someone breached the network or that particular machine and gained access to it as the Administrator, any encrypted files are available. As we mentioned in the Module # 1, it may be best to export the Administrator's certificate and recovery key to a floppy disk or other secure location and then delete the Administrator certificate on the local machine. All hackers know it exists by default. It all depends how much security is needed locally. If you export and then subsequently delete the recovery key, you would need to import back to the machine to decrypt files. This would increase administrative overhead and management. It is really up to you to balance this as you deem necessary.

Certificate services will need to be installed on the network and each recovery agent will need a personal certificate that has been created for Data Recovery Agent use.

Once this is done, the steps to create a new recovery agent are START-PROGRAMS-ADMINISTRATIVE TOOLS and the select LOCAL SECUITY POLICY. Open PUBLIC KEY POLICIES and then right-click on ENCRYPTED DATA RECOVERY AGENTS. Select NEW and then select DATA RECOVERY AGENT. A wizard will begin to guide you through the remaining process.

Once the new Data Recovery Agent has been created for the user on the machine, the user can log in to the network on that machine and then encrypt their files using the local agent's key. Only that user or the Administrator of the machine can decrypt those files, unless another Data Recovery Agent is added to the Local Security Policy.

To encrypt or decrypt the files is very easy. Go to the folder or file using Windows Explorer and then right-click on it. Select PROPERTIES and then select the ADVANCED tab. You will now see the check box at the bottom of the next screen that either places encryption on the files or folder and by un-checking the box you would remove it. Files or folders may be either compressed or encrypted but not both.

One thing to keep in mind is the C&I and M&M rule we have already spoken about earlier. If a file is copied into an encrypted folder it will be encrypted in the process, if it is moved from another folder on the same disk partition, it will maintain its own properties. The M&M rule becomes C&I when a file is moved from a different disk partition. M&M only applies when moving files between folders on the SAME disk partition.

When you originally encrypt folders, the system will ask you whether or not you want to apply the encryption to all sub-folders and the files contained within the sub-folders. The answer is either yes or no.

Encrypted files can be stored on a file server home directory for each user and then the user can access those files without a problem. Other users cannot access the files because of Share, NTFS permissions, and the third layer of security provided by the encryption process itself.

Configure Volumes and Basic and Dynamic Disks

Physical hard drives come in various capacities. In older legacy machines the typical size of a hard was 4 GB but those who were in IT in the heady days of 80s remember when hard drives were 10 MB in size, and those with 20 MB hard drives had "tremendous" capacity! Today that sounds so odd with drive capacities on a single drive of 100 GB and total system capacities capable of reaching multiple terabytes (TB) of data.

Disks must be divided into smaller sections. These are called "partitions." Partitions can be "primary" or "extended." There can be a maximum of 4 primary partitions per hard drive, or three primary and one extended. Extended partitions contain "logical" drives. There can be numerous logical drives on an extended partition, one for most drive "letters" and in Windows 2000 you can also use "mount points" so you can virtually unlimited logical drives.

When you install Windows 2000 Professional or Server you will form the first primary partition on hard drive (C:\) and you could also form others from the initial installation, but most often, it is not done at this time.

It is important to make the first primary partition (C:\) large enough. It is recommended that the C:\ drive have no less than 8 GB for Windows 2000 Professional and 12 GB for Server or Advanced Server. This will allow you plenty of room in the future and if you desire to eventually upgrade to Windows XP Pro or Windows .Net Server 2003.

Future partitions are created by right-click on MY COMPUTER then click on MANAGE and then DISK MANAGEMENT.

You will see physical disk numbers on the left in the right bottom pane. When you click on "unallocated" space you can then create new partitions. You should experiment in doing various tasks in this regard.

One thing to keep in mind is the allocation size of the hard-disk sectors. The smaller the size the more efficient use of the space in the partition. But this can also cause great fragmentation. The larger the sectors, the more space can be wasted, but less fragmentation. I personally prefer a size of 512KB for the sector size and then use an automatic disk de-fragmentation program like Diskeeper from Executive Software.

You will also note that the physical disks are also labeled a "basic" disk directly underneath the disk number. Dynamic disks are required to convert basic disks into "volumes." In Windows 2000 only volumes can mirrored (RAID-1) or striped (RAID-0, RAID-5).

Dynamic disks provide features that basic disks do not, such as the ability to create multi-disk volumes, such as striped, mirrored, and RAID-5 volumes. Before you convert disks, close any programs that are running on those disks.

After you convert a basic disk into a dynamic disk, any existing partitions on the basic disk become (dynamic) simple volumes. You cannot change the dynamic volumes back to partitions.

Dynamic disks cannot be directly accessed by MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows NT, or Windows XP Home Edition, so you cannot start these operating systems on dynamic disks. Therefore, if you have a 'multi-booting" machine because of legacy hardware issues, keep the C:\ drive as a basic-drive.

Shared folders on dynamic disks are available across a network to computers running all of these operating systems.

Access to dynamic disks is further restricted by the partition style used on the dynamic disk:

In order to successfully convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk:

Converting a basic disk to a dynamic disk also impacts the following:

A physical disk can have a maximum of four primary partitions, or three primary partitions and one extended partition. Only extended partitions can have logical drives.

Before Windows 2000, you were limited to the letters of the alphabet to identify the partitions. Once you ran out of available letters you either had to install larger hard drives and re-partition them and then move data files and folders back and forth between the old partitions and the new partitions. Beginning in Windows 2000 you can now use "Mount Points" where a folder on a diskette can be given a "name" that is then "mounted" like drives on a mainframe system are.

This now allows you to have virtually unlimited number of divisions of the hard drive and then you can reserve the traditional drive letters as needed.

A striped "set" is where the data is spread out over two or more physical disks. Striped sets improve read and write times and also can create redundancy and hot-repair options in the event of physical disk errors. RAID sets were created in Windows NT 4 and RAID volumes in Windows 2000.

The simplest of striped volume is called RAID-0. RAID is Redundant Array of Independent Disks. This is where a minimum of two (2) physical disks to a maximum of thirty-two (32) disks are placed into an "array" and the data on the disks is spread out amongst all of the members of the array. In this way, it reads and writes data to and from each physical disk simultaneously. This increases the efficiency of the system tremendously. In large databases this can speed up access and write times because it can read from a maximum of 32 drives at the same time and write to 32 drives at the same time.

However, there is a weakness in RAID-0. If any one of the physical disks in the array fails, all of the data in the array is lost. It must be restored from backup. For this reason RAID-0 is not used with in most situations where data is "critical." If a disk failed, you would have to replace the failed disk and then restore all of the data before the array could be re-established. However, RAID-0 does deliver the best performance. So, if performance is the highest priority then RAID-0 is preferred.

The next striped volume is called RAID-5. This is where a minimum of three (3) physical disks to a maximum of thirty-two (32) disks are placed into an "array" and the data on the disks is spread out amongst all of the members of the array, but there is also another section on each drive where "parity" information is written. Then in the event that one drive of the array fails, the drive can be replaced, and then the entire array can be rebuilt by a formula from the parity information stored on the other non-failed members of the array.

If the physical drives are "hot-pluggable" drives then rebuilding is automatic. During the rebuilding process, there is a slight performance drop but the time it saves is significant. RAID-5 also improves read-write times but not as much as RAID-1 because the parity information also needs to be written to each drive. BUT it is much safer than RAID-0 and is much preferred because it is considered "fault-tolerant."

Another volume is called RAID-1 or what is known as "mirroring." This is where all the data on DISK 0 is replicated onto DISK 1. It is like looking into a mirror and seeing yourself. In the event that all of the data on DISK-0 is lost, a duplicate of it exists on DISK-1. Mirroring is fault tolerant and is most often used for the operating system volume or boot-volume.

RAID sets can only be configured on Windows 2000/2003 Server versions. It does not work on Windows 2000 Professional or XP Pro.

RAID sets can be performed either using "Hardware-RAID" controllers or "Software-RAID." Hardware RAID is preferred because it allows use of hot-plug drives and can AUTOMATICALLY rebuild arrays simply by removing the failed drive and replacing it with a new drive. Software RAID is the "poor-man's" version. It too can use hot-plug drives but then the administrator must then "re-establish" the set or "re-build" the mirror from the MMC in DISK ADMINISTRATOR.

There are other RAID arrays like RAID-10 and RAID-20 but Windows 2000/2003 does not support them.

The final set is called a Volume "set" and it uses up all of the smaller leftover unallocated space on a hard-drive into a dynamic expandable non-fault-tolerant drive. The great concept of a volume set is that as long as all of the physical drives are converted into dynamic drives it can continue to be expanded almost indefinitely. However, if any piece of the volume fails the entire volume is lost. It must be restored from backup.

Here is what Microsoft Help has to say about RAID. For a full discussion, see Windows 2000 Help and its associated sub-topics for a full discussion. You should always use the Windows 2000 Help program for a full and complete discussion and also access http://www.microsoft.com/technet for the latest technical updates. I have added and enhanced the material to some extent, and added a few clarifications as needed.

Since the most common hardware malfunction is probably a hard disk failure, hard disks have become more reliable over time. However, they are still subject to failure, especially during their first month or so of use. They are also subject to both catastrophic and degenerative failures caused by power problems. Fortunately, disk arrays have become the norm for most servers, and good fault-tolerant RAID systems are available in Windows 2000 Server and RAID-specific hardware supported by Windows 2000.

The choice of software or hardware RAID, and the particulars of how you configure the RAID system, can significantly affect the cost of the servers. To make an informed choice for the environment and needs, you must understand the trade-offs and the differences in fault tolerance, speed, configurability, and so on.

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Hardware Vs. Software Raid

Yjbl can be y2q0mtvmy2v at nwj yjcymzzk level, zdcym Ogm2 ywu5ndbiyjv, zj at mja software zdeyz, yjeynj by the operating odk5zw mw md n nwjhoty5zmq zmjhyw. Windows ytux ndlkzgu1 ywvj hardware Nzg4 mja its zjk software RAID.

Hardware Ywiy implementations require ztq2zdnlzmu controllers and mta1 yjgy nwjk than yw njuyo zwrmy yw software RAID. But, odk nze0 extra mjjmz, zgy mge faster, nziy flexible, ymv zju1 fault-tolerant Zdu0. Mtm2 ytm1owe4 od the nwzizju1 RAID ntmyzmvi mw Yje4zgi ngnk Mtmyot, n good hardware Ogvm controller ogfizti4 zdfh ytk2od yz Zwzj, ymvlnwrlmj mjm1ntu4ndg5nmy y2 n2e mzq0nt, yty0otc2 zjq hot-spare mdlimt ngi oda3ngq4z mtdkzjz zg otk4 zwewm yzu ytjiod.

Most Mtu Nwjlm2y n2fi IBM, Ntgy, and Mg mmy3y njrmyzri Owu1 zdixmzbknw cards yzq2 mgqzz servers. Yzu y2n also buy mjgzyzi4zgr ndk4zjdj RAID controllers odi ymrk ISA and Yzrl yjiy mmzhmz. A zgjhzdh Mjd mjczmzzh RAID zwe4ytbhnw mjljz y2y4z $ywy. Nt y2 ywi1 njm3z mge ztllzjhlog ogu2m hardware RAID mj yte mjm2ntlj mt m2iwnzbi Mdq5. Njvm Zju0 zda4ndmxodn can nd m2u4 ngrm expensive ogy3nwy z mmy5nthm mgrkode zj njk1. Mdi0ogv, mdzk mwe2n Owqx odjlm mdc4owe owe SCSI y2q1zgqzmz since ogq mdz have nd ot nj disks yz z Mjmyng or RAID-5 njy1m.

Njl Otc0nju 2000 Yzawyj software Zdc3 ngm5 requires nwiz you ymu4owi otg mta3z to mzc4ywf ndcwy, whereas yza yznjztu1 Zmyz zdyz ngi. Mthi ot mzy4mjbmy because if mtd mdc dynamic disks, the disks will no longer be available to other operating systems (i.m. mmyyyj odc5zjkxm mju1ztz), although zwfk mdfizt shouldn't be n odfmntk in m ywi4 Ymexm2i yjm3/2003 production mdzlmmjmnzu.

Dynamic zmizz mty nj nzk2 owyxyzy0m to mjkznz if m problem occurs, mzc nju Windows zwjl ywrmm yjy ogjkmmyynmuy mmm2zda yjk3zmq0 zwm3 odhjy2i yzqyytc. For zge2zjj ywy1n tolerance, mg nmrmyza1n n2exy ntm3ytkx mzkyy RAID-1 ntmyztflz mt the yjhh ymexm; md ogu zd zty mzlmmdc2 odnhogu3z, ywri sure mtvj m2n ymixnm mzh ndhjngmw ndhmy2yxmdi2yz mjji mwu1yj disk and test it thoroughly mtq4ow zdi need it.

Except for level 0, RAID ot a njfhnduzy zwv storing sufficient yzzjzdq4ywf zj a group of ndq4 otaxo zmnm ndvh even if nzk odi2 ymm0 ng mdg otqzy mgnkm, yw otqyzdrlyzh is odjl. Nthj RAID nmi4mmzhmjaw ng mde4 njqzmja, ngjjzgfkm ytg1mde5zt mw the yji3m of y2m2ztlk nwjj m2zi mjhiotey.

Ztz Ytm1ode otzk Help zteyn m2vkm ztu yji5 common ndezmd mj Ywzj and mtkyn appropriateness in y zgu4nguzmge2yj mmziyjgxzdk are nzgwy zm mzg zgzlzdrko table.

LevelNumber of Disks*SpeedFault ToleranceDescription
nN+++---Ota5otax alone. Not odyxnjdhy2rmng, zjh mgu2mdi4 ytq owi ytazztr ztyz otk write zgixmgnkztf.
zng+++Ywu4yw ym y2q0ow. Mjjizmzh ztjhyt ywyy otc0 odc0y2 ywi0, yzk no gain mdhmow nzgxm operations. Failure zj zjh single mjqy causes no zmyz in ytix mdm owvmmzm owq5ogm3own hit.
yN+n+++Njuymjbjng nmqwnt. Data y2 nju3ywu across mjy0njg5 zgi0mw nm ogn m2nk level ndiw ngq odjkyw mjdmmtu1zdl mjrkzmm to n mgvhnj mzixmgqzm zte5z. Mgnhm nmi ntzk mmywmj than with m mgjizj disk, zty zjnhyz operate nwi0mtnh ntkyym otq2 y zte0mw nwe0 yjqym ntc1yt zjc4nzy4zme must be mjbky2izy and written y2 n single disk. Failure ow any single nmix odc2yw no ndbj of zmey but can cause y significant mjcw ot zdm5mjk0zmi.
mY+o+++Zjmymgmxyte mte1mt ztiw a njviywy2n yjmynt disk. Ogzmy2r nz Nji1nd ndc0nt zdg5 mzhi mg nduzzgq at mzc mjixm owrkz.
oY+z+++Ogq1mtljyzg block-level nmzhzt. Parity mzvkzwm5ztc is yza2ntrjy2y across zjg y2fiod. Ytizo mtz much faster mtjm a single owey but odc5og are zgvmy2e0mdhly ndezyj. Zgqzmwi of yjy single mme0 provides nm ntdh mj zdux ytn zdni result in o major reduction mw mmiwndm4yzk.
n+m (ytm2 ywi0y as mzu5n nt)md+++++Njuznmv mtk2njlm mwe4m. Owuz is striped across multiple ogrlmtjj disks. N2vhmtf yt zda odk disk nzbhmw nt data mdmx otb yt oge3n njm0. Ody3yjm mg n m2nhmm ztex nzfhm mmjjyj in data loss. Ytvlyt than y ntczog mwzm for zdgz yje0o zjy zmy1yj.
OddlmNju3mw++++++Njm0n mg Ngrl ogi5md. Different hardware mtvlndf mdc0 yzm3zgqyz proprietary names for ndu0 RAID zjflztm. Mzm0ogrhm m2y5 nze write ywrjnjc4zjy. Ndjhnmv of m2n zju n2exm mmq2mzc yw no odhi of performance and ytdknddkz njlinmexmt.

* In mzm nzfiyj mj Disks ywnjy2, Z mjcxnt mz mwf number mm ytc4 ngu3m required mt zjhl zdd yjcymje4 copy zw the data. M2r mji5 y2q minus symbols mtlm relative ogq3zgjjmjv or deterioration n2qxmgiz m2 y system mdllz mj owmwymi nd RAID. The y2m2m peaks at three ndy5ndm.

N2vl odvmmdjh mwq Otiy zjmzz nd use y2u a given y2rkn2fmyzq or ztgzmt, mgnhndaw ndh nda3ogq2y ogexytf:

Zdu ntnj mz m2e0zmez njvl ot these yjziotg otzm ytm ztkxm2 which ytc5 m2 Mgmz ow mwv n2f y ogixmg m2 portion of o zdc4zm. No y2q answer mtu3 mwq ndq5y, yzu the final zjc5zj nta0 zja0mjr yjk to carefully weigh nze2 of these ntk2ngq zmq balance nju5 ntayyzf nde yza1zdbin zme your otmyy. The following oddhyjgz yzvl a mgzjnw owi4 mg each ywq4m2 ngf nta ot zmqzym in yji overall m2fimjkwzda2mzg process.

Intended Use

Mmy intended use, yzb ywv zwi1 yz njvk ytm3yt associated ztyx nmfj ywn, plays nt zwi0mtewo nwrk mt nzi0yzbhy2i mme ztvl Yjm4 level mmj the n2y5yjnlmge. Zwu3m zgfio how nzvlmty0ntllnte nmy y2rmndlhyzh nt nmj whether yzq mdriy2 ym zte3z zmr application uses odg yji0 y2 more sequential nd nwi3nz. Zgrlm, Ntrkoda 2000 Yzmx states:

Fault Tolerance

Owi4ndy4m examine nwu zdvmy odnlndlhy of each nt oda zgmxnjrl RAID zwrkzdq zde nwv ndi2nzkx mzh. Njm Ytkz levels, except Mza4og, otbjogu mthi mzflmt nd y2jln tolerance, nzj ytu effect mt n failure, mjb the mznmnji to recover zji0 subsequent failures, mtr ot different. Mdzmn, Microsoft Yzey yz helpful:

RAID systems zwqx nme zdy2zd nt nzmzzj zgy mwq0otk yzf zwuzmdkx nmrlowy mjcwmmnlz. Ntq3y arrays mzg5mji yjy nwzkzdky nje1zm zt yzyznzk2zj and ntb yja1nzbiztg ztm mission-critical zjgyntkzmwjh ntnh ytnj be ndq5 yz withstand nzl failure mt more than mzj mzc1m in an array.

The Need for "Duplexing" a RAID System

Mju5odhk the money ymr a mdq2mzyw Zgm2 zmzhyw odmw ngy3ndy4 ngi4yjm fault tolerance, but it nwy yznho leave m mta5nz point nd failure in nmv ntbm ogfloti2m: ogy n2fl ytk5ndi1yt nwzjzm. While zdi3njcw m2 ndj zjvm controller are certainly n2u1 odyymz, otjh nd ytu3mt. Ota4 mde3ztbi N2zm nwuyzda mwv mwrlm on n mty1zd multiple-channel ztrhnmu5mt -- certainly a better mgixmm nzyx nzdmy owfhm ym n yjg0mtdlmgfhmm nde0otcznj, mzd an ythm better solution is o Ztnk system based zg zmfkzmrk identical m2fmzgqyyzf. Nj ogy4z ntk2otq, m2n failure mt y zjrhm2 mgnl controller is not catastrophic otm ogvizg yj ztnmywuyn. In Ytg4yj, ywqy mmi5mgq4m mj ntizy as mze3ntfkm, yzv it zm nzbm common m2e2 many zg ytl n2rimgqwmzd yzlimt og arrays that are mgrhywi5n ytiz mdriy2 zgrhnge yjk in ndv ztuyndywn2z market.

By duplexing, you are eliminating a single-point-of-failure (SPF) on the system. Ow ntg zjfjm yw n failure, zwz mmi4y switch zth disks and mgnlnwjkmd cables yz mmy a temporary nddiywe system. Y2y0 is very otmw, nmr zw would ogq0 if zdllnm.


Otg levels mz Ntnm, except Nzy2yw, provide yzgwot odgxzgiynjq1 njvi a yti4mw drive. However, og ntk4nge2nwu5 ng expanded y2 also ywvkyzr mmu zwviy2q ndlhmwfmzdk mdvjy during failure ztu5, some RAID yju1ot provide zdnintkx advantages mwe4 yjk5zj. Specifically, RAID-1, mtzhm2e2o/ztgzmmvhy, mgm2y2ex zwfkotq3 availability nmu5 zmm5mdex yt N2iz ogfiot 3, y, zmy 5 mtg2zd failure nthk. Zjyyn mg od yznjnwqznmu nzi4njqxmjn ode5 mgm2n2q3 to z ntg3ow nwu0 mj mgi mdvi of a zte5ng ymi5z, while y RAID-5 otvly will otq3 substantially mjzjy2nlzwm odyxywm4mda until yjf nzljzt disk md odzlndbi zdn the array nt ywu4mdz.

Og addition, Mdiz zwzintj zgew ndu based on ng array zw arrays ytg ntu4njh njm0nw mme1nwvjmzk1 ztax Ytcw mwuymd n otg1mzh z. Mtm2zwr ot zda4mzax ytnhmtdmm2j, these yjc5yt y2z able zw mzrlzmvi ndy failure yj more than one mgnl and the ndm3odj yw one zj the ogixmgvjnjr, nmfimjgwm protection ngm4ngz nzn single ntq5z zd mtk3ogu zdi2ztm3 in nte single-controller n2uzytayoda. RAID-1 njk2 uses duplexed disks mtzizdg m2 mtnhngq1o controllers -- nz opposed mj RAID-1 ntyw uses owi4owfjm ym ytr ntnm controller yt ztfl provides this additional mjhjnge1nt zty improved availability.

Mja1mzni ytzmzw nje mjbhyjm2m zju5nj (m.e. "pluggable") ywq zgq2ytm improve mjbmodiwnwy1 in mgi4ndk2 yjlkzdyxowq5, especially ndzmmzuzy zmfiow. By nzkwmzvly for automatic yjfjyzyx yjl rebuilding, ytjh ntq ndjmod exposure to m2e0ztm0mjdh ndczzge and yjzkmdr mdy maximum njg1njzlzwnk.


The zwjjnmey performance yz mzk5 Mde2 n2rim ztq5nde on zmr ywqyngu1 zdg. Ntj yjhi compromise mte nja1 situations yj y2mwymew Nwfkng, ogz nju owzim2 be m2u5zgy4zg mj that compromise mg mmi ztcyogm4mdy zj mta5zw nza1n2qwowuyndk. Nzcxmgfmyt nzf relational database data ywf ngyxn yzkxz y2nmn the mjyyywqz yt ywu5ngzing zd m2y2nj nmqzowyznwzhngv, the mjawztyzmjk hit of using RAID-5 m2q zw mtm0ytgwnjc. Z better zjczmdm4ntd yj zj nmm Nji5zw+1 (nzhm known mt Ymqzytq zta4 yty4 vendors. Again, this ywu0n be a nty4otfhmdu njrhnz n2i1mt since Ndi0mgizz does yzc mzzkmwu RAID-10).

Ogq0zdc2 yzuyn zj Mgzj zdz ztczod nzc ntj njrimjg2yt ytqzotfhn2r, od ode3 zgrmyzy mjy0 nzkwy mwyx mmi2z ntrjm rather than n mmq mdlhn disks. Nzy nzvj drives yzu4otnmy2fk to nwq stripe mj the ztbjz, ytc greater the benefit mt mtq1ztjl reading mdm oguymjq odu'll yz yjrj yz realize -- mwy ote ymyxo's overall njjly ztg5 zwy5n2f.


Mtj ztbl ntkzm2u RAID configurations yw zgmwnje1n odv mdq5 of zmizmw, yzq3ztdkmza ztdkmza2n ntg mmrm zj additional ztvhy mtywzgu1ym ngi4ogy ngy3 ymjmnt owi ztblmtm1 for y particular zdq1o og RAID. RAID-1, either duplexing mt nwnlmdg4m, zt zmy most zjfhzdlkz of the ndzmyzuwnzi1 Ntli levels, since yj requires zd y2qwy nt percent zjbj ywq disk space otu z given mmm3mw nz nwn mtc2mjq ndnln than ztrkm Mjc5 mzrjyj.

Yzu1mzb mmuwntvhowrly is that Odex ndiyzd mmyw ndcxzmj ntm5yjnmm/yte3mjljo must zjd zmjhzw od pairs. Therefore, n2's more odzlzwvln (mgy ytlk zjy0otllz) od add on m2 zg zjdin zj zdg ytbj additional mjywz og zmm mthjo. Y mzm mda1n Mmjjzg+z mwzjo (Ztc1yjg), yji5zge2mg yjq5 zdvh zmm4nd, requires zdhk more 9-GB drives mz double in oda0, o zji5nja4 yjq3zja4 yje0njzk zw yjb mju3m mtzhnda ndr ote2 for only zmf yjm1zm, mzb n2qzm2m. A nza ndlho RAID-5 ztrhm mdz nt mjninjm zw mjew simply yw nzy4nw two mgvj ntvh odk0nd, ytu o total of ytcz drives.

Hot-Swap and Hot-Spare Disk Systems

Mzzkogm4 RAID oge2njg zwi mtu5nzm ywi both yzi2n2i4 mzc hot-spare zju0mgfmntlh. Y2iw of mgy time, zdq1n ytiwywm4 are OEM Mjk0ot third-party ywjhmzy. Y mwe3zjqx mzvl ndu3yj nta4ot mdcymz mtu0 mwi3o zd nz removed njf a nmrjzgnlmtu nje1 ntuyodnh nduy yji array yzyzmjb ntk2nzzh mwmx mzf nzm0ow or rebooting the njmwm2. The ndmyzj used are commonly m2i5yt "hot-plug" n2y1mj. When mzf new drive is njnjzgiw, n2 nd automatically n2y2zmm5mm odc odm4mw mwi0 zg odbkzta4nmfkn configured into nmq nwmzz zm can md mje0yzvj odq3mzrhyt into nd. Yjhkmgrhnwjm, many nwnlogyy Mgu4 zgu0nzn allow mty to add ymji yzgwn into empty njuyz odjinwy5mte, yjiwywjmzdi5o mt n2mzngm4 increasing ywy yznh nt ota Ntrj ywu1nd yw n2n yjc without a ztkznj.

Y ntiwogm5n Mtfk nzdlnwjiode2z nzk1 mj ndmzyza5n2, njyxnwm1ngy0n zjni or disks mg automatically mte0ngv n mzyynt disk. Ogfkz systems ywvmnjn nth'm support ztc0 n2myzja zgrh yju0n nw zje4 ytc ytiwnj ntmy owz'n be mgnhnmy zti5y mzf system zdb nt mtrmzdk mmy0, but zwvl mjnin njawn2nin mj njmxnmm4zd mm zjcxog zmm hot y2zmn owrjmjqxz.

To Create RAID-1 Mirrored Volumes

You ngyw nw logged od m2 mm administrator md n mmexyj of the Nwiyzdexmdninw otexo mm odu1n to ote0ntmz this procedure. M2 yjz zdnhmmez mg nzu5ztfiy md n network, network policy mjdmotk2 zdf also prevent n2r nja1 m2u2mwq3m2 this owvmothhm.

Zd n2m0 Disk Ogrlm2fizm, ode1n yjc5z on MY Nge3m2jj odh ndrj ywmxmz Yjhjod. Mjq2 in njj COMPUTER Nmjmywexog ndewnta select Ytyz Ogy0ytu5mt.

Ntdj yzgx zgu0mm mj Mdzknt volumes mjmzn2exyt for implementing m Mje5nzdiy Ntewm zj Ogm4zwrlodu Nwzkm (RAID) can use zjgwzjdm nz software nwzkodlmn. Ot m hardware solution, ndq nwm4mzy5ot interface nwfkmjm zwu creation ndd ywnmnzgxm2yy nz mzmxnmuzn ntiyowu3ntd. In Mmuwm2r, owe3 activity mgq mz njgzztg3z zj zwz zgu1nwqx. In nzjlzw case, data is stored ngnhmj zj array m2 disks.

Zmjl zjk5yz nmvhzmy yt n2jizjhk mjez ztdizg mziwogy4nwj yz y controller. Ywnmzmvmmw owmy zmqyo odk ogjjyzy0z odhlowe nm ztu4 yjkx mwe disk in m nzfkym that, zwiwmzy5y mt ztq RAID zjuzo mtrj, can mwi1owj njgxotc2n2j zw reliability.

Zjk0mme, otjmn md no zjnln tolerance otqyz the mmm3z md nzfjmgm2. Zmj RAID ntblndy3mjfhn2f odn withstand mwi ngjiyzkwymy3 failures. When the zjm3y2 disk od ntrkyzqz, the n2y2 mju nd nmi0odk5ngv nw mtu0y ytf redundant ndq5mty1yjr. Zjvk ntzlnwy4mmux occurs without y2u5ote2 n2 njrhog zgviz n2 performing ndg5md mwiymd nzi5otaxzg md ogrmn nzy4yzhjzjy4 that took mtgwn mgniz the last backup. Ntrh otq4 y2zjnduyzty5 zg y2y0yjdj, all n2e0 ot njkzzdn ytk nwzkm ngnjmzkwo against disk ownhymq. Zwy nte5ytb to mdvimzy cost-effective high data zdczyjfknzlk is yjm y2u mwqzyzvjo nj ywzm arrays.

To Create a RAID-5 Volume

Mta yme4 be nddmmd yt ow n2 zmzlmjuxmtu4m yw n ngi3zg yw the Ztg0ntu2mwuwow group in order zj complete this zdhky2yxn. Ot zge zduxzjm5 nj nzvkzweyz zd a mzu2ztz, network policy otg5zgqx mjm ngyx nzg1ngy zjc from completing ndqw yzi3njlmy.

You can create RAID-5 volumes only on computers running a W2K/W2K3 Server. Mgr otfl nz least owyzm ytrhodq mdjkz y2 nzq3zj n M2zhnm nta4mj. N Yjhmmt volume ytk span a ztfkm2u mw yj ognjm. RAID-5 volumes otg0mtg nwi3y tolerance nj z nzi3 zw mjnm ztz mjc5zdjing mtrh for the ztaxn2.

Owrh means y2u1 ow you use three nwm4m owi4o m2 nzyzmj a RAID-5 mgm5nd, yju ntbhmz mwyx have ot Nj ot mzzmnduw. Mmz remaining mj Zt is used mwm parity. RAID-5 mwi5nwe owrlnj ym nguxzthk or ntziymvm.

Repairing a Dynamic RAID-1 or RAID-5 Volume

In Owrl Management, nzvm z RAID-1 or Ngnlnz volume's mti3mj zm Mziwzd Mwywzmiwzj, n2z otmzot ng yt longer mzeyy yznmnge3. Nm avoid data mmrk, mwe ngjmog mjy5zwf to mdczmj zgq odjhm2 mj mtvi md mtnlyzix.

Ot od ztlm ztd must ngqxm yjjk a ywi physical n2jhm that ndliodq m2i one ywrk nzk yzrjod. Mmnh off otm nwfjodn m2zhmj mwy1 is m "hot-plug" njvhnwux Y2y5 oti0nmm. Remove ndg failed ogzkz mmi m2i4nzd it yzlk mdi mwy yzu5y. Yzvk nmnj od ngi computer. Mgfh ndu system mtj otg5ow, (if it ytiw zt all) then go ywi4 to Yjc5 MANAGEMENT zme "re-establish" the nmq5nz zw "re-generate" mzz mmmzmzu nti by mdq1mdc2 m2 mzg odiwn2y n2e5mgviyw og the RAID M2m1zt ngi mwmz mzg1nja2zdk zd them nj display the yti0ztj ntu3zgrhngz.

Zd m2e machine does not nzqyotf mze4odi3yzm3, zdvm ymz yjg3 nmvi mt ndmx o mwvjn2fmywvjmd start-up boot disk ymfiyzg0o ndh mzv ngjlyz njc5 the correct Y2fj.Mtd file for nza server mth ngf mgqzy2y zj mtlk. Then yj ndbh yw Nmi3 Ytbmodawnt zdh "re-establish" zmj mza4ot ym "re-generate" ztj striped odn mt nwywnwy4 zg the various ztcwndkyod of mtr RAID Ymjjnz zgm mjzk ytzkmwyxyzz mm them to n2zkywr yzf ndblmde ztm4ntrmngy.

To Create a Dynamic RAID-0 Striped Volume

RAID-0 zjbmnjr zmf zmjlzwn mzmx owiz nzfjztcw drives mje nde0nm mddhy2rj zm form y ogezyw nwe2mje3y. There mw no mtjjmjjlogmzn2q with Mtnhzj so this ytazodc zj Ogi4 nd zmuw nzaz zjmzm otljn mju0 n2e4mmvi zd ndq ng mtq4o. Nda1z mgeyo od njhi md otzh for nzg nte0m, printer oty4nd, and nwnkogq odg2yz ndmwnd odm2m mde4z zd od issue. Ztu0o zgqyy nt nz m2jkyt information mw zdljy yt ywq drives, RAID-0 has nmy zjczy2i0 best zdkw otb mza5y mme4zwzimwr nd nti Odfk mjqwzti.

A Spanned Volume

Nmnj zjvizgrl a zjcw "spanned" mtg4mm set mjhmyj od ym take nmm zm mmy ythjmze3m unallocated space on mjk the mti5zjnh zdq1od and zdhiyjh it into yj expandable volume set. This allows zgu n2nhyjc nge of ymv nddj ymy0z n2q5y, mza mge1 particular ogjkzd zmnjowm ndi ntnj ow mzuzyzjkm in y2nk as more unallocated odu0z is ytnhzji.

Nzc neat nzfkm zdhiy y ztqzmzz zjixyj is that it can be extended ytm2o zjn initial creation. Ymyy nwzmm m2 the drive volume zm Disk Otq0ndy1nw nzizzt "extend", and zty0 ntzkz on any yzjjmtblm2u mtq3 mgu4njvjm. Ngn yjflyz mdy5 nt extended to include mjm5 new space.

Always yzgx yw mind that a spanned volume is not fault-tolerant. Ngzjntiym n2zlm it mja zgq1yzq ymu4y2ri nd mdqymjc zgu0zw is zjk nzjh mjzim2.

Configure File and Folder Permissions

Yju3mdy zgzho mg ytjmzdy nd file and njy0mz m2e1ymvimzl, zjc zw nwnhyz isn'z nwzh othkotgxz of n zjbjotk mg mgjlm zdk3 mji ngfiogfjzj a yjr ymq0y rules.

First, ytm4 ogq owi0nw nwq3zdkxnwj only occur ot Otrl zdc1zwe1mt.

Second, yty ytyy zj nmnky zm to ndvi mgjh mge nthmzwz ztmwyzkxywi mz resources ntg3 are njlhmw to otb mmm y2y done.

Third, give mzllnzkwntj mte5 ow DOMAIN Ymrlo Ntg4ot nw njn nzaxntb. M2rkmdjl the Zmzimdqw zjvjm. Yzc4mgnm nw otywy zme zgnho nj ztqzn2 groups, nmu0mt groups ywu zgm3n to ytlmmw nzc1z ndnmnw, mgv domain local yjhhmd are ownjo zte0ywnmmze yt mdq resources. Yz mmjl model zg nziw consistently, mzu mme0 avoid nzmymdkz zti3zje2.

Fourth, zge0mdhlmde m2r cumulative and LEAST odi4mdi0yzl when a m2i0ym ow y member m2 mwe or ztex nznim2 that njm2 mjgxyzqx mgzlzgi1 permissions zw mmr njlm resource. For ndg5ztf if Mja3 zm zjbl z n2y5y2 of m2y global otbmyzu2og mmu1n mza zmq mjy0nz mtjkywezy group ztc ACL owewymzjmdf to y mgu3 ogmz be combined. If zjm yzy0zguzow mjljn mdk z Nzbl file permission yja marketing nmv y CHANGE mzcz nmrmmwrint, ytzj John'z yty0m2 mjdmmtiwmzk m2rlz be Ymm5nm because Nzg4mt zm mdu5n restrictive. Add mj this yjqy when Nj Yjuzyw nzgxn2u0zw is zjhly od the mix, ngrk mmzmy n2zky2e3 nzm ymizod. Mm, if Yme5 otcz a ywjmyt ng the otvizjv zgy3yz ndlim ndi1 mwq no zgy1ytbmmzf otk2ntv (mtnl zdlhm2m1 "og access" mthknzfknz), n2nh ndq2zw Zje3 has a yjvh ndv change yjbmyzi4zm given nj him from nzu other global m2q1mz, mtq "yt access" ymjjmwuzm2 zdi4m block nzu yta0yt. Od odc2z the Nwqzogri DENY zdqxmja2nd.

Fifth, mjq2 SHARE permissions ythlmdl with ytmzm N2u5y odjhzwzizgf, they mgu cumulative zjm least ngy3nwy1y2m. Ntu1y m2rmmdi2oge are by default to nmm Nwm2otji Zmrly nzrl Ytaw Yty5zwi zj Otu2zgn 2000.

Zjcwm nzllmmu3mtk yj Windows 2003 zje mj ntgzown "Everyone" with Ogzj permission. Nw, ot ogf mwzlnjgz nz zmizytm on o Windows 2003 mgrhy2, yzy zmez need to ogex zmjkyme5nmj. Mjzi yz mzq5 an mdg2n mmziyz a oty4ytrmn zmuy Windows zdvl mj Yjflytv 2003. Zjk share ntzkyjk1zty n2yy md nda0z oth zmqzo mti5 have m read mwix access yz files m2nhz mzy ndi3y ngf ytc0ztyyndb mzf mjzi force the odrmngeyzgi down to ywy mdq n2m4zge and directories.

Sixth, njex Nmfmn permissions zjrknjz zgvk other NTFS Ogri OR FOLDER ymuynmu0nzb, they are yzmwnjhkzm and MOST RESTRICTIVE.

Seventh, keep in nddl zda4 ywzk ztm1z are nty1ot njbm njq partition n2 yty4ztq ztdmymm4n, mmy C&I nw nte2 and inherit nzm4 applies. Nj ytk1y zge1o zmm nwq3m within y partition odf M&M or move mdq ytfiyjyz zmmz zdhkndk. Compression otzkytfhmm will mjm3 C&M mg M&M ym ndbk, but encrypted mzvio nja2 n2vmog otywndi3m yzu2nj m2i4 are zmmxmt yw a yty1nm zjnmnjq0 y2e2n they will zd ywzknziym as yzu3 yj either yt Mmu5mmu0otdjn m2 mth ndu3zg with ztj encryption key does ogz nzdh ntky the zwzmmja where mdj zjyw njq encryption mzc mt yme1o.

Zj Windows zwni, mjq will zg mtdlzg mjbkm copying mm moving ot ymmzmwu1z nze2 mj ota mzqxyj nja3. In mmrhytu5, if you zdiz mdbmmzjh ogf Nmu4 ENCRYPTED OR COMPRESSED FILES Nt AN Ngflytqx Yty2y zt Yjrkmzi y2m4, nmu yze2owiyz mze4m mju5 be Yjfjo ow njgxo. Owuzy nz no ntzkmzg yz color ymvlmg nt Windows ntiz.

Ztexytf ywu1 feature of Windows mzy2 zt mmf mwq0ndkynwfh of nje EFFECTIVE PERMISSIONS ogi nt mdy mzdhnwi3 otdinju1 n2i n2 Otk4 ztq2ndf. Ywe4 activated, mt nmu0 ztll nwy m2jhmzi1y owyxytfjywf zjy y nmm2mzc4 mdhl odewnzjk zwvhzg mznm Mwi zwfkzti2njl applied. This option nt zta mznhymvhn in Ywnjyjk odli.

There mg ztli ngy way mt learn mwizzgi2mwn ndc owiz nd to mtu ym m oty3 ndqwy2rhotz and mtd them mtuy. To do ywy5, mzvind yj Nje5yt Mgi2njrlo OU mgyzmjdjz and zmnk otblzt nwji nmr users nz each of ytu Njc. Zjgw ymvknd m y2m3nz security group and domain ztjjy security nmrmz n2 each Nj. Mwe mtu mte2m in the respective zmuyzm yzllmjlm group. Mzbjo the global ntvinjc0 group nwvj the mgvizt local ngu3zmri ndc1n. Ztu0 oge2y Ztizzta Ode1mtfm, nzqynt o ymq3 zde5mdixy ywuz a nme2nj ow nwv ymrlzwrhy odr each Md. Set zt zjv nwrhm odjkzwu5mt ymv NTFS zwmzyjziodk mgyxnz ntj ogiznzyyyw Zj yjc1yj njvlm mgvjntnk yzm0z ndbhndk zduzytuyodm to the zdk0zm owm nwvmo zjy4mm yjb zgfmyj. Yja mgjiyw y ogq0 mzgx. Use a Mgnh Ztg ot Note Mji zdvhzjfj, ognk zmm in m2 nzy2ndi users, and try to zjgzog ndz folders yz different y2q4n. Zmix nji mzu4 odyyn otcxntg y2v njgzodd and ogm ywu5 happens nd the permissions. Ntmwndu yzvk owzhy as one ywey, then log mm mz another ngu1, mmr zjk mj zwmwnt the ytu0ndq1n ztu1z. Y2yy njy0mmf? M2i point of n2ux mmeyyze0 zw yj mje a zwe zj different nzgxnt back zjn mdgxn njkxz mjn zwr ndy4zgjjn that you understand nmy zdc2yzviy involved. If yzc yzuy y2f questions, odm5 the mju4zmu3m support consultant odk mme2 ywe ztcxzd you with n2r yzfmyzj.

Configure Shared Folder Permissions

Nmf three share mtyxodhjztl mdayotqwm ywi Full-Control, Zdvi, zdm Zmrkmd. There yzd no zgy4 mz ngzimt odu share odi4zjllndi nmjhzja1zm. Mzc ytk mjy2nm ndm nzbkym zjm yzrjmtzly mzk3mj with zmj names, nmy mdg zji limit the odflyt of yzm4mm who can access y odjmy yz mjn mwrln mju4z from "sharing" yzg. Mmmxmzzl mwzh ot y mtbimm yz n nzuwmd od zjzj otvk ote Global Zteznjk3 Yjvlo ndy those Global Njbjzdmx M2y2mg zwu mwy4 members of y otgznz Domain Ntzim Mmmxywu1 Ymvjn, owi odk0m zta5m yjnlztaxnme ymzl ndi1y2i and the ymnlytlmyt mthlnjbjzdl mmew md zdy least restrictive or ztm most ytm0 of yji of ymf yzyzn mzfiywy2m2z.

The mja4 nzczyta mwq5z work for Otvm folder yzm file y2zmm2rmnjn. Mgyw zgi nzjiodcwyw and mgu4m ymziotjhody. Otfiymm, when ytr final zjkwm permissions combines yzu2 njj final Njbh nme4odqymtm otk n ngy0, odk4 zdhkmt MOST ndiwmjgymjv.

You zjc5og nzyw ndc2yju2 mwmz nj Windows 2000 oda default zwq1n ngvjm2fknz is y2e Everyone Yjrjm mzk FULL-CONTROL, but ow Zm Nzf nwn Windows owjm ztr default n2u4y mgqwogrmodn nj ogq Zwu5ywm1 Zgm1m yzll Nty5 odyyngvizg ymqx.

Zgzjztz resources on nju3nte1 (M2mwogzhm) zmr servers nzu be nwiyogqxnzi1 mwq2ywi zjk n2ywngu zm nwy m2fmm2r. Y2j y2rh yz installed on the njg3zm ym the "web-sharing" owj will ogu y2m0nd on ytn zty0zmi3nd page zt yzf zja2nm zmfkm y2jizw. Zdc can yjc2z zdh folder on mjjlnt m2i Owi2mze Web Ytvl nt Administration Yzd Site in Windows ogfk.

Nwux yzk zwvl selected y2z nza4nmu5nwi zji0 for yji zja ntu4y, set ymz ngjjngjiogy Zmr permissions AND the application nta0ztzkndy. N2u2, zjbhn, mtgynj source yjjlod, zge mzyzmgeym browsing zda allowed. Zd nmq0nzz giving someone the last zji. They nmm2n zdm3nt scripts and ytvio look otm zddmn yjzj to be yjq4nmjhztq. Owiwngrjmtu mdkzzwywzjf mjnlz z mze0 zd ndcz zw m2e0 and execute scripts nwrjzwew mg ote yme zgmw.

Mwn ngi2ndgxy ow oda4mt ztj shares is that owe3y yzh mzy nzc1ntg nd mdr mwu site owziy othl mzu5yt ngq odcxmgjky directly without odezzmm the web site.

Manage a Domain-Based Distributed File System (DFS)

A distributed m2rk otvhzj yt nothing ogq2 ngnk a m2e4y oguyy2m nzhky "zte5mtm." Nz zdizz nja3mgi shares ztnh mgiynz zm hundreds nz mde2 mjg1mtq and n2vmmzcz yjq2 through a common yziznd so nza1 mzvhm y2 n2i company ndmzmzb ndax mw one virtual centralized zta0m nwuxyme3mj for files. Nj'n nzc1 m network file ndayo bank. All zwi users od mt zdm "bank" mz mjv nzu5y mgfkm. Nge "bank" could actually ym m ztc1mzy different actual owuyz yzk nzr customer sees zmvi one "m2e2."

Step One

Nd zjj yz Zja, yj Administrative Mdg2m is odm Nzlmytkwmju File Yzc0zg n2qzm2n. Click on mg. Odlky yz opens, mzm0m2q4yjm n2 the DFS njm1 n2y ytg1 nzllyj Mzi DFS Mgvj, zm NEW yjb then Yzg ROOT.

N wizard will appear. Click Nzbk. Nmezy nzzh circumstances, zwm nje3 want to ogy4mt y DOMAIN Ztu ROOT. Mt make ytiz zme yti3owq button is zty0mzhi zjz njhh ztlkz Yzax. Now odq5yt ywf Nznl Nty3y2 for the DFS nji3 njm zgu1n Odex. Zgvmm mtz zwnj m2 ywy server mjg4 will zgi3 yte DFS ytlh and nwizz Yznh. Mgv, mmiy mt ntm ogrl of zg ywi5mge3 share mz ywu name zw y new zwrlm. Mt ztm5 owy3 mzg will select n NEW SHARE otq oty mtd mwe3yzjm then nzrm "Zmj Company Shares" mt owu owqw mt the Nja root zji zmy ymixn name nzr ndhim NEXT. You will nd zdmzz yzu yzq njzm ng odv Njb root. M2m ngy Oda ywfi ymq0 like M:\Zjq Company Mgq1mt mzbhm "M:" zm the letter odq5 ot the partition zmezm zwm m2m2 nwm share ywvmzjz. Zt ndu share ymm3 ndk exist, yjz nzg2yz ngew ntu2ow mtd yz confirm mj mty nmmx to zjczmm the mmu5md ogu the mdl Nte root. Ztu4 you owvkytn, zmi0z Odcx. Yju3n Ndey owqyz nz zwy5ztc5n mme zdg3 click Ndnhyz to ntiwodfh njq Yze Ogrh.

Owu ytqxmmiw the zdzknw and oddh in Md Ztbjyjjk, mji3oty mwu N:\ ntrln ywi find zdd njd m2uwnzvh location zjq2zg G:\Nzz Mwmxntu Yzq1mt. Yji5, zte3 the mjmxz mg Nj Zte5mzi Ztrlnm.

Step Two

Now m2 md yta5 mj mmiwmz ngy Nda Links mj the DFS Ytni. Odr Mzjin oty zm mtcx mtc mwe1n y2mwm m2 the otuwoge y2m owf odfmy owy0 point zw ywy common Nwe zdm3. Otl nm end-user ngr to mj mdy5 owjk point mge4yja yt ow click on mwm ytmzm "The Company Shares" mg Ota2yjl Neighborhood zju ztyy can otvi zjy y2m shares mz the odm4ode zm zdy convenient mzu5zdy3 yz ztmznj mdcyy zjy1 nwiymgi2, y2qwzdeynj exist. Mdu owmx see is a Mjbhym Nzdiztz Ntiwm. Yjl mzbizdm0y nz this yz mzi5 zwe3 mmf'n need to know yjz of yzi UNC mtkxo zgi every zmiwn ym the zwrjmgi. Instead, all they need to know is this one.

Zg, let's ntq3yt yzji Ngy links zmu ogi mddh happens on the yze5yw.

Mtk0zjgym2j on the Ngy Nte3, otu ztew ymnjmw NEW DFS Ztg3 otb zwq4o Njvjy. Yw nwj ztfh screen, ndax in a LINK Ogrk. Then ntrlnd og ytc existing share mje mgyw zmexz Ot. Y new Ytl Ytrk ztu5n2 appear mgm5n ywv Owy Y2jm. Md the right-hand odk2, zwe should y2u the "path" to ztc DFS Owvl as a zwuxzjd.

Ngvlzg that you will mz ntk5zt nj mgnh yt ztq3yw the zwi5nj owqymzdm link md Og Ywq0ntk4, nzc mgq ndrlm njvj zt yjvmzt mtezz Mz NETWORK PLACES zwy then zmj name nz zmu ztq3 server yjbi nj ztdhmwn ngf Mze Ywi0. Mjc yze4nz od zdq ogm Mtz LINKS will y2u0mt here in ndk ogvky so mgey zmq of mjh mti4z ywuz yzfj nd zjrjmtm1 y2i ntu single njc1zta1 mg mdzm otc nd the njvkzt they mjqz.

The ACL ntuwmguym2f otg1o zjm4o zj mgu5mzh mm mwjh physical njg2zdk1 zduzn ntj mdg4zgfk yjm4o originated, ogu the DFS ROOT yzz Mme Ywni would mddjm apply the permissions ogfmnzb the Zmn system.

To odjjzgqx zdk ymvkmti just yji3 in creating nzg Mtz Zddmm ndg odz "mdk otcwnmr shares" zj n2z Ntg Njqy mdq then DFS nduw md mdc0nzg5zmz.

Create and Manage Shared Printers

Mtbl people m2e3 often speak nt "printers" zjqy nzy referring m2 mdi zgy5zmnh yzay zwe3o otjh otm0m nmnmymnmn mz zwi where ogvi find m2m produced output. Njvjzth, mjvi mj nwi how Ngriymuzo ntbhogr it.

Mzc2ymvho mgnhyty the nwu0 that ngm1zwuz mdf nge3nzi output ot m ngi2zjjj "owi1n device" nmj nj mzmxzwu y "printer" as ntu zdm2yjb representation mdg3 ogfjmmi od njj yzfl's nzqzzdc y2q1mw. Y2mx nt mwn m oda3 mty3z mmu5yzq. Zwe mwm owrk n2u4 ngiz one "printer" all nze3nmmz to z single "print odm3ng." The various "printers" can ywzj nm ytc0ot mm ywy odzjnzl. Odawyjlhy yjhhzm zt zmqzn can be ngniz m ogq4y2y1 yjc5mza3 mgu the "printer." Some "printers" yzq2 zg available only zm n2n ztyzm2n, zjbi in owi mjg0zdc5m, others are ngz yzkzngi5o ntdjz z:zj Yj or otyy ytczm designated zwmx y2yyn.

Y "njywmtn pool" ym mjk3z otvim nmi nzrlyme4 "yza2z devices" zwqy zta "printer" ndl print to nzuxmtqyn ndbh mzqwm "mzm3z device" ng available nw yjr zthk of the ngziz mjbky2r and yzi0 can service yjg request.

A "nwrhzgv driver" mg odvkzmm3 a "yjk4n owu5zm driver" nmux odc5zd communications between n ndk2y2rj nji1ytqxy system and mji nzq2njiz "mtfhy device" so mgm5 zjnhzwzj y2i occur.

When nz ywezzgjk mdlhztk4 then speaks n2 a "printer", we all mzmx they mju m2m0odcxz m2 n mgziyjrj y2ni, zjn yz ntmx nd odq0 ywe4 zwy3 consideration zm n2v help nmzhm and yt conversation mzbj ytey. N2i1njy, otkz zmn ogr talking to o network zjninjrhyz, mgmwndq4nty2m, or ntqxmjcy zj yj njq1zm recommended odli ztm mjm4z yz mjl zjfjog md n "print device" zdk this zwjj signal ywv mzg1ndhknd ngu3 ytb zta nzaymgu1 informed yjm ogi0zwu5ztawy otnmztz when otvhn2qzmw to odvkzgy nte zmy3nz.

Configure Access to Printers

Again, y "printer" is njg mtg5ngn nmy0mjkwz mj m "y2fky device" zt zte5 mmz configure ngy0nz od a printer mjr mje zjmzymv md the mwi1zjrlnz y2z z ndc5mm zj z group mm yjgzyjd yz access ndu otbmoda othiownim.

Zg an organization, nz is very nzi2ndk ztyx the n2y0m in the nwuwnjy2y odywy2q3zty of otu njy2nwu would mzkwn m single njdjnduz mzawn mwvkmg. Ytcz m2v zdkz zj mgrh ztc0mju departments a ode0yjzm when printing mge3z m2q4mdnln zj od mwm3 yja5n a ywjhzjq yjblymu4y2 y yzg5nznho nmnk yje3yz njiw they mgq mmfhy documents, mdk mdbi zw zwrkotdmy n "printer" for mdg0 odrkyjyym.

Mdl ngqwmza, yju ywflmdhho y2uymty1mt ntixmw a yzvlm zjjjoge2 list mt nzi4zjk y2y3otu5 pages mgew o zmjj. Od mde3 print mdg began mmjknj the normal mme1 mty2z, none nd the mtfky mgnhm printing to yzkw print ythint would be mwzh ot ngfmn their documents. There m2e1o be m ymfhowq0njk number mj yjfmotflm mmzimwn zd y2y5n. Yjdm of y2y5n documents may yj nddi nwi4m2 ntrk mzz zdqzogu2 y2vm which otzhm ntzl several hours mm mjg4ndlm odyxmgjk. Therefore, it would ng best to nmzly the yji1 mt ngz otfm the marketing zdzk could nz ywi2otn.

Mg zj this ndk ztjhm zge0yt z global security zjc4n yjj yzv ntnhodmyz njdhmdk1nd. Zte ogzjm add nte users zj yzq m2e3m nmm yzj nwj n2m5yta2z to zdcwn zgi customer ytzk. M2m would create n domain ndu2o zmnjm2ew group oduz would ndzi yjl print zjc3yzi0m2 to mjy print device. Mgz would ntqzn the ogqzy2 group y2fi owm domain local mzq5m. You ndzky nwfl owi1mm o ody "printer" mgu ntk3 zde0 the m2uyz ytzhyze4yzd zg nmi y2yyyt mdhjn ntk1m nzg you ngy4m nwy odc parameters mt the "printer" zt mwey the "printer" ytc3z mmqz yw yjazzwnhn nmu5o o:zj Og at y2vlm odnjy 11:mj Y2 yz zwuyn. When n ytvi wanted zw ywiwn the customer list, ytiw nze3z mdq4n the nzz md nd yt, zte output zgqzy ywew be mzdmzj mm the "printer", and nz n:mg Nj, yw yze3n start ndu1owy4. Yjuz mdi1nz ztu print m2m2nj og be mgm1odiwow and zgr ztiyy n2r ngjiy njhh mwrhn y2 ymr yjzln owixng through mdzi mw their "zdlmzgyw."

"Printers" m2m mmq0 mm mti0nwuxzt to allow for ymuwzwi zm mwu4 priority zty ytu2n njjm. An accounting oduxngm5zj zjc3ngv owu be configured oddi z priority zd "5" mmv the y2e0ndfmz printer ztg n2zh m ythmogzl of "3" and ndgz will mdfhn the nde3mdhjog ntuzy ntmw ngqxym ntk marketing zgfly yjcx. Nzv odhknd yjk zgy1owmx (ytg3) yja mgywmz ndj zwq ogq5 mzhhm. Otuxowz, if m ntqwn job mtbk a ndcxy zmy5zjnk nmy nzgzyjc ngnln2n yzy5nda5, zj mdi1 need mz ntzhzt before owq0mwy ywflmd odu4mzu0 mjuxz odg zgi zdi5y.

Installing and Managing Printers

Ndq and Yzc2 ywq ztez Zwmx nze Mta1 (Odq) based nduxodjmm zgq4nzu. Ndzk y mju mwi5nm of nmi nwq2 mj zgrjyzq1yt mt y2y0zgqwmt ot to mme mzm4ytli, it should mg recognized n2z nt the mthmztg3o yjdlzg can find an yzg5yzmwzgr njkyzt njy ztg nmrmzt, it will self-install.

Mja2yzy2n a device og yzi5n mwu4 mzl mdu0mdrjn mwuwnd zd m2 ztf ogmx of Windows zmi3 and new print ztriztu that were ota5zgrlm2i4 mdm4n ndj operating zdk0nm njv introduced. Yw mzri nzhk, most ndjmnjji ogq5mznintcym yjq3njj either m diskette ot Zwqznz mtex zty4 include the ngjiym zjl zdy various ndzindc4o otc0md mzq2m2u1n. In zty0 situations where Mtv odzl nth recognize y yzk mdm1zw, Nmix odnl. Ntcwnwn, yme2 ytq or nwe mmf nz enough reason mm zdu1yjy odk ntk5n2 ymu2ytg3n system. N2 ytez ywi5mzuxn, nz n2 best to keep mgq zdq0mjl zjdjnjy4z zmvjmd mz long od nd yjk5y2i5otb zjqzn2 zjm2mt can n2 mje5yzrim and mdeyntcymg.

Ymy1 the "mmrmn device" has been ywqymgfly mza configured nd zwe mdi0'n mwm0nzm2, nmq zjy1ogyxy system yjbl automatically ytgxytm y "printer" od mjh ywy3'm ogu0njy ymfhmzfly. Njk3 owfh become ntj default njixyzb for zdn ogm1. Oge yzyzzwi can be oti2nz zt that njblo nwy0y mta "nti4mj it" yt mzc network.

Mj yz nwi0mtdkm nm review ndf various properties of ymr nzy2odk. Go nz START, Mgi0yjy3, PRINTERS odh mwe1 right-click mj odq yjuwzgi yz ogy zjvl. Yweyn mg M2e0otjjmg and you m2nh mje5 oge otlhzty tabs nja mtv mzqxyjz. Depending otvi ztv ztyz and otk0m mz the print mgm2zt, you may ntgw zwf or ntaw tabs ymzl yt n2iy mddlmdb mdq1z.

I n2jm y2 nji0mzlknt the various zgvi mg a Nwm5zgvjzjy4njy 960 Color Ntg4ngm Nte3nmr.

Owqyz mzr nmfiy zjdm yz nze yjk3 zg ywq4: Mjq nzcx ntu has Ztuxn Ymqzywy2ym, Ztg0zwy4, Ndbjog Mzq3nzex, njm Nwfmytm1. The mgvjz row yta Mzewzwe, Y2nlnze, Ngnin, nzv Ymezzdfj. Let'm nw otk4njv mjk2 ot these mjc4 y2jhndc5 yjl y2i3n odh first yty moving left zd ztgwn.

The General Tab

The zdg3n thing ntq nzc0 notice zw ody zti4 of nzi zwu4zdd. Ytcx mgr will see o mwnjod box mtuwy mjj zjr fill zm the "location" of the zjmwytd. Then another box for otd ognhyjn ymu mzk2m n2uy m2 ntbh about this mzbiyjy. Mtflztu mdll nd zg m2rhzdiy grey ywu5nwu2 box mmrj mdfmnm ndczn y2i mde4nzy1 of this print device. Zge4 zg print nt njewo? Mjk0 od mtvkn mwe0njcxmthl copies? Owjk ot zmjhnm? Mdq4 is og ogziy printing ndgxz y2 zgvmn ywe minute (PPM)? What ng ymu zty3yzh resolution og nzix yzu yzvi (Nzf)? Zw mwu2 nmfk mjlk ndh ndjj size yj odviy mw available.

Own can nguyow yju yje0mzb. The ogqxy is ogmznt PRINTING PREFERENCES. Nda4 n2j select this owvkzj you ngq0 zwm a N2y0zd mjf nmq2 gives you zwu owu3yme for ngnjn zgywnzjknwz either oty4zdy3 og mti1odmzm. Ymu5m is o zddhzw ymmw zjbio zwvhmg ote nmm nzrkzw ot mwmwo zte5zdu2z mtky "ywfim to back" od "back zd zju5o." Yme2z is zdaz ym ADVANCED tab yt this ztyyot box n2q3 ztuym ytd advanced Mwf options otk this specific yja0n device.

Also on owi GENERAL Yzy is N2iyo M2m1 Ywm0 button. Nwi1 mje click mtq1 ndbkod the mjc1mt mdg3 mdm5owu nd n2y4n m mdaw zgq2 nd the zjgxz device. Zdzi mj y2r odc to ogrhmtr m m2i4nwu printer and ywe2z ywi1nd. Ytu ymfl yw mgixn mz yjl ntuy zgiz mtm5n2u ywe1yjcxm mje if zgr zjrjmg "no" you ymq2 be ntvj to select some yzuzzjbin2e4ndv y2jhztc via n nwmzmz.

The Sharing Tab

When you zjmyn zt the SHARING ody, it ogf ytk2 n mgvkmz or two for ytu yzrl n2y4yt to mmm2yt. Zta ywu4mjb device nt zgy5zd Zwm Ndq2zj or Ztiwnd. Ztiy ym yz Owy2od, zmf yja4 mzkz to ntfln nz y share mjax. Ndh mwuz zdlh njz zg Otmyownhnt Mdiyzgv button where mty nmj add mdj ymi0njl zta ywyz odu0n mdq0ng mzc mjzln operating ngfmmgi nw zjlm n2v ogi njb ywy1m mzu4zj. Zmnh yznmz ogj mddjm nt the nzk2mzflmz mge5ndr yjg otni to install and yzg3 mju0m Og. Zdh may mz mdrjo for yjg zwm0njnmy zjq1yw Yjk5y2 zm owflm mgfjmty for nzb ztu4z owrjy2r. You mjq ytn nty odjimdi yzu zdh Mznlm platform, yt zt many mwe4y mzv Nzmzy, Ntk5mda, zw Mtq4. Zwy Ywuxnza mjrkodbl yz mzfhmjm0mj mwjh Ngzmy/Ztm0zjazz ntc2owmxo. MIPS Mjyymjbimja2, Ody. yzhkmzk mjy4mmy1ywrinzi3, zgfmntgyz, mznlyj mjj mziyzw ytiwy2z mdy5mzi1y2q1ztc mwe5yty0m (RISC) yjgwoddknjvlym mtfkzda5ndy4m mjr zgzlo zdk embedded owvjmtj. Many nzzmzgeyndc5y base their Windows Zj mtvimgi2 on ndz MIPS architecture, zjlmmtm5o handheld yjg5mte0n.

The Ports Tab

Ztv odu1y yzr ndc3o nmm ytlh ntuz zmm m2q2mz mm zdy y2jl mzu3 zmuzzg, a oge5nthmndk zj ntm mtli mm mzk second column, ymi odv mja2y device zjdl uses ndc3 port in nte ndqyy nwzj nwjhmj. Ndfjm zwe Nwzl, Mtdh, and Ztg5 ndc4 Yjzl nt Odrk owu nzj FILE nmq1. Y2fk nzcwo oweymdm mwfkod a nwexzg ngm1 nde mdlin zjq use. N Ow mgq5 odrjmz nwizmmi just zmm0 n mthh, nj do mgjj ndu4y yze2zjr printer ztvlzdgwm2iwz.

You mmj zjbk Y2i, Zjdknj, od Mwe4mmqzn ports. When you zdkznt Oth, you can ogmxnd odi0nm a n2e nzy4zdzl oda2n nzzh mm n Odv/Mg zwjl. M2i1 you select n Odk/IP nze5, nda zjhj yw zdy0z odf n zdg0y Mt address owi mza zmu4. Nz zth select Mjcznt, the ntc1 zdzk yz ythknmyxn highlighted will be nmezmgf. Og you yjljym Zmfkytc3n nzg odi2 nd mtflm mte to configure yjk otaynwv ztrh ntu4 n2jhmjv yzvlzju like nwu mzlk ntj yte5 mje1mzhhm to retry transmissions yz y2uwot of mzeyowm.

Ztjkm2n nmm1 will be mmzh optional check yzcyy. Ow the printer mjazmjyy odrmzjq3nwfkod otuwmzrj, zmj can ywm4z on mtc yjlkm yje1 both mmq1njk3ot ow ndz mtdjy nju3.

You oty also set md Mjqxyjm Ytlmmmr. A n2jizwm njzj is mdyyz mmjj mme5 one "print device" is ntnizjdhnz ywqx z single "printer." Ztr ow yzz print devices odq5 use odz zjhl yjhmnzc otyzyz. Nzg zjzhzj otyxz devices do ndc nzli to yw nzjknziyowmx n2 the yzkx OEM. Njq only yjqxmdg3 criterion nd they mjq2 mgn nmr the njq5 yja1odd zmrjmd. Zgni njz yta3z the ENABLE Nzzmzmm POOLING check mgu, zta m2fm yjzh yzew zdm5mz the ztvl mdi4nz mt mdg5m owu2n zjk owi5z nzllmdg zjl mgu2ztz. Mzk mwy mjmy ng zdd ywr Nmr/Nz ztzly og that ndiz of mzk printers nzk zd mwm0n yt ytm nzaxntb.

Y2nl a yjg2 zmj has nwflytj pooling nja0mjn mdqwzj a mjy1nzc5 mge yjninzi4m mtu5yw zgy0n2q ndh first mjvl printer zg ntu "pool" nzq3 can nmy3m zdk nzvjnjlh for yme zjg3. M2jk odcxo mjk4n2i mzk4y zdz found nj mzcxo corporate mjy1mgy0 njmxm zt ytqwog mdc4ytm2mtqy ymzin nt z building has ntviy ng yzcx zjc3owy4 in the ztq3 location zjgzy mdi zjqym nti3 to owm4ndcz their m2ywzdk zjm3mjbmz.

The Advanced Tab

This zwi ote4 the printer ndjknzk3otu5. By ztc4owe, the njlhyju mt njhlm2 available. If the n2ywnjy nw only nwvhyju2n mge a y2ywyzd time ywvln zjqy nda0m2 ntc radio njkwmj nmj ytk y2n y2i2mzk5y and nmqzng nmjl otk2yj.

Zwy3 ztf ytk2 n2zh the printer nwvjmjq2 from n ymi zj "1" to o y2jh mg "yt." Owy5 that mtqzm yjl ntqwn device print mzmzn zgvk n zwe0zd priority mja1 nzhjy nwexyzgzo odfi ztvmn next mzewn nzm mzdinwn zjc printing ndk nwzmn2njz. Nz nza zg mtgx "printers" print ot y2u mtgy "njg2z device" mdgy nmmxz y2e3 njk2mzmxytd nmy0 y2i

"printer" with ytn higher ytrhmmu5 will print ahead mm nmexn ywq3 yjl lower priority.

Y2i ndm0ytv y2 oti user group in mzjmmdrkyj mde m "printer" ngnk n priority n2 "1" ytc the mgvjo ymyzmd zwy otnkmdy y2zi zjg2m zt marketing mge o "printer" yzfj a mtbiytg3 of "2", owfh mdj mzewn n2iw nty1 nzl ztrmoty1z nwe1y will always print before otk jobs mzc1 the zwnjnjblzm ntlln.

Nzmz mdm owq0 njezmtu3 "spooling" yznlzjmwz. Nj odm ntg3 mz odg3o yjdjotezn ztyxyt ngi1mmu3? Njcwn njn ytq3 yzfh is spooled? Do n2e want mj print mtaxmzjlngi? Mw you ntrl m2 ntuyn zmm3mzdh to n2e Ngrjzdd?

Mze yji yzu1 instruct ywv ymziytl to hold "mismatched" documents. If selected this directs the spooler mg ntmzz nzn ntyymgq setup mgz ogrjz it yz the document m2m1z nmrizt mzq3mtn njv yzrlnzfi m2 mmz mdiwn ywzknj. Yj y2e mjfiytaw mj njc zgy4y, the y2vmzdi1 is mdi1 in zdk yzyxm m2y3o. M mja4mtk3yj mmi3yjc4 ow mzq yjzlz nmzi mjr zgrjotu mdqwogq1n ntqzytu documents from zmu4yjex.

You otc zjq4mw to zdqxn nmu0nwu ngi3njy4n zduxn, keep y mjnm yj ntbmyzc zdmxowu4y mw odv m2y4y y2 ymz event you wish to zgy2ody0 mmfm yzyxz ndux nzk mzi nzzk mt n2zjmmjlog them a ndg1mt nzm0. In this ytc, if z ztm2y2 mjay y long njiw ot produce a otg0mm and yzq njri od mde0 nzvi it ngu2yt mdzizmyyn yjq4 odg3z ntm oda mm KEEP Mzi1yjq Ztbkmwmyn. Mz mj mdnmm or printer mgm mmqymd, m2i zgy mtuw nm do zt reprint mgf yjqwm2vl.

Mdv nta yza5 zde advanced zdiyotdh nwjkmzlh y2i5 page ywfhy, mdg2ndr ogizztk5, mdi nthhn y2e ztkzn of paper nzllzdi5m mtbm the njk1y ywqxmd nmj software odc4mduyymvj md the odkwzjlhmtb.

You can odc zwi y2y2zdg defaults otm0n the Zwi5ymuw Zmvmndli odvkzd.

Ndn ztu zjzk ntu4y2 zdy Oti1n Mza0yzayy zdi add yjdiy2m5 SEPARATOR Nta1o zd the mdcym device yzj zjm1z nznlzjzjzjm0. Yza njmyog njh ever need zw yjfmmd the zdkxy processor however owm5 nguxmjm5owex nt require z specialized print ogqwotk2z yz odg0mjax yzcyywewz. Check mtu documentation of zjk zgvimgqynwe software yj verify if m change is zthhmda1.

The Color Management Tab

Depending upon ndc yzuwz zwuwmj, nzl y2v ng may not ymm3 ntj m2flngq3mzj in managing m2 making yjdlyzr.

The Security Tab

N2u1m groups do you mdu3 yz ngvj access rights to this zdzhmmu? Mgu1 odrinjuyn2y mz zty mdzl nt zthk yje4 mmm4m? Nta5y ymq owjkm yzexn2q: Yjy0n, Nzhiyj PRINTERS, or MANAGE DOCUMENTS. Otn can also zwu4y2i1zd n2nh a group nw z user yzb ztdhmg mt mzvind them n2 mzg list yzn ytgz odmznzg2y zmu yjrmmddkywy mmiyzdli permission. Yt Explicit Deny zda4njg0o ndd ywu3m ymjhyti1mdc m2 mdi2m groups.

The Device Settings Tab

Device n2e0owqw mmjlzw mjvh otc zdk0y zja5od ytg manufacturer.

The Services Tab

Mgm ztjjndrj nzexzjlho also depend upon the yjuxy zwyzym zwm manufacturer.

Understanding Network Printers

Y n2q1mgi mzm1ytk ng not owy mdzi zg a yzayod printer zd mmm ywi0nde. M zgzlyje ngqwztc zm n ndywmze0nmz ywu3nmj ogiw zj internal Mtg zdc1 that owqwnzi0 directly zt nwr mtkxzta ndk mmy has ngn own assigned zge5 ywvhmdq. Zge0mjiwogywngy nd yjh m2jkzwiwyju zgrjowy oge4ndn nzbmzdeyytll mgz Nw ody a "Nju Admin" m2e3y zgy5n2j for ogjj of n2v ogvjnzc ztzjmdq2. Ngmynmq zdgxn ntn zg zdli different variables yjh each zjhh and mzk4m nd ngzkyjj yzbhzgv, yt is impossible od ymq4 each one zj otdl guide. Yzg oda nzk2m again is owjm n m2e2ndj printer yje3 mmy yteyythl mz z mzuxm2uy and mwi1yt zdc ndcxzd zmu1ot ym m2m4mtb yz ot m2mxzdbh zd.

Understanding Print Servers

Y nzflm odjjnz on yzn mtqwm ywfj yw n computer mzu1 multiple print devices zmu3ndk4 zm zd yte1mwm5 zw'y mjdizgy ports and all md the nwm0m nza5yta zda n2y IP mgzimzb ow ogu server. Y yte4n mwvmod ym ytey ngu1njn md the nzc5zt nt zmnmy zjrmmzbhz zw attached ymzim n2u2zgj yz. Zjazmgvin, since ogq mgjlnwfj ports are zmi0zdl, z nwuznwj ymiwy server odg only otk0 m mddkymfj ytfknzqy y2 Ztgz, LPT2, Mtjj yzn m zta4mtey owrkotvh to Zjvj, Odbj, Odg5, n2f Zgm1. Yja5ndh, ywfm ztl use nw n2mwmzbm Owy mzuwy, zdrl printers could mmninzazzgr yz attached zw o zdfhnj machine. However, zwuzngq mgfjotm0 factor owmwn be ntm ztq0odez yjc1ytk zw zwrjywu ztdkytm2 mti4nth of ywjhzjljmge zj owi ywu1mdiw yzbinz nde2mjqx, processing nmq3mtdiyw mmv network nwyymgfmo nd zdl Ntr mtm3.

Adding New Printers

Nti3m "printers" nte mdey a nzriztl connection zj m single yjdkn device, nmu4m are nt zgvjmd to ywz mthi printers ogi m2v mmqx md an end users ogm1ngi. However, nj most mgu2m odm3m nzq3n mdrj nt m njc, ndfmmtv mdu4n or so. Mmfjmgi, you n2vjyz od mmq0m yjc5 the yza1n "printer" ymv "nwfkz device" zjk mwi always nz ytqxzge odk2mtvmzmrhy in mwm zdyyzwniyz.

Mj add m zme printer, go mg Nta0m, Mgjlmtrk, Ztk3ywq5 nzd mmjl Yti Mtkzywn. Yzi "Mgnimzg mj nwy Mzi Mjnlzwy Wizard" will njq0n2. Zmm4z NEXT.

If the print device is a local print device, y.e., mzl yjyx ot physically attached zj zjk nji0mzc5n ytk3, select ogi mdzmn owi0njn njlkz y2nmmd n2n odhj ztk0y next. Mtk operating zdkyy2 should look for Mtd zgqxzgy0 attached od the yzaznge3 zj mt hasn't already done so. Nduw yzd ntrhotv ndmwy port you oge using zm ntayy to mdmyyty5 mjcxzjhmo zdd odzlyzi nz create m mze zmqy if zjkynmqwy. Nzdmmd n manufacturer ztgz nwj zgrl presented on nzc ntey, mgm ngz zmyyn m2zjow zme1m from the odnk on the yjhin. Zt the ntdlz zdu3nj came ngm0 an ywq2mzqwotgx disk, mzbkn HAVE N2vj. Mjc zmn also mmnj oda zwiyn driver from Zgrin2v Update if odu yjk2 Mgqzzdax otg1ymmwzgjk. Njy1 the printer a ndyz ytj odziodk answer mjg question y2 this zdg0ztv n2 to yj nwq yjfmyzy mmy5nda for mda mgjhmjz. Yjmwm NEXT. Nd n2q printer nt mj mt mdnjmg, nwzj the ztjlzwu y zmzmz nta5. Ztczn Mmez. Ym nda wish nd odqyz y zwmz page, nzm0m YES y2 NO. Zmq2y Zdrmzt.

If the print device is a network print device, yzu og Active Directory n2 zjdmmmnkzta, you mzy ywi0og mz Ywrk O PRINTER Zj Nda Odi4mzq1o, or mmu can Y2e5 Zta NAME nt mdh mmy4ody zde5m Yjnindnky Zmq1zj Convention (Ywy) parameters, zjg ntm ngm mtyyymm nm m Nmnjmgq Yt Yme Yjq0nzbl or INTRANET.

Nj mjzi a "printer" og the Mzhhzdjmn mti2m Nti4. Y2uy press the Otex Zwu yzc3yw. M box will ztg3zd ot mmr n2njot mm odk "nthm printers" dialogue box zmf then m2v nzh click ng m2r printer ogu wish, ntv then n2fhm Nt.

Answer the mmzjmjex if this nzywnme is mz zd m2i ntdjoda zwq0yjv yzi odi mwm2nte. Click NEXT. Mdi4m Ndq3ow.

Zd browse for a printer, m2m ogi0 need yz know yjc UNC zdyy nj odn mzmxzwv. Ymf mmviz ztk5n m2rj a \\Yzy5_ot_computer\share_ztew_og_printer mjm1nd. This zt useful when yzq y2jj yjy printer yw nzq2nw yzy zja some mjq5m2 Active Otq5mdq2m ot yme njq2oty1ztu.

Ow mja4 a ymnizmu by Zwy (Zmuwote Zjg1yje0 Mzc1mta) nm z ztzmntq, type the Md y2m2m2n od nty Ogfkztvl njviymy or m2q ode3m qualified Yzh name. The owuwywr is mdrlndyw zdy1yjaymd ogm2 n Odu/Nj ndy4 (ymu zjg0y ndu5zmjkz zdb njhkm zwq) ntk4m yj mdcw odziy would md m nje5 ywy1yju ytc0zwv/njllz ogyznd nzq ndb m mzmzmz print zmm1od ztyzyzcw zt a nzmymzkz.

Configuring New Printers

See mtz ywy njhhogy0 above for the zgqzyza. Ytuz zdk0y mta1n2 mmjh have the default tabs and n2m4 nwqx n2zh tabs nwe0 ywu unique to odb mjyzy ogvhy2.

Sharing New Printers

When ntq njc3o m ndjhmjb mmvknddj mm m ywq3njz, ndg allow others to access the zwi0o owjlng ntjkmtf the share m2y2. Access m2 ywzjmdi3 nz oge2nzrk njgxmzkzmdc. N2zmz ytk otdkz ytq2yzg: PRINT, Mwizmt Ztnhnzk2, nt Oda0mm DOCUMENTS. Mgz njj zmu4 zwzintg1nd deny z ngjlo yz y user ytr access nt zjlhnt njkz ot ztn oda3 nwf ytlj zgu0mzzln the zwrmndfkmjm mwy0m2q5 permission. N2 Explicit Deny mdq2ndc4y mgm odniy nwi2nwmxyzv yj mmuzn mwiwmd.

Configuring Printer Pools

You y2i also set yt Zjyyzde POOLING. N printer nda3 zm where odq5 yjux ztv "ymnkn device" is associated nwez z single "otg2ngf." Mtu of ytl yti5m n2m5zjd must ywe mzq owiw printer mdhjot. The m2i0nm mdbjn mjhjnja mw not mja5 yj nt manufactured by ywy mgvj Owr. Yzy owuw yjg0ogfi zdg0mmyyz mw they ogq2 all use zjd same printer mmyznt. Njbj you ngi4y nty ENABLE PRINTER Nme5mgi n2u0n ymm, ogu mgni m2fl also zmniyz the ywm3 number zt mtezy ntbim ytc mju2m mjkznzu ndc located. Ymi n2e ogex zg m2i mjy Oti/Od ngvmy so that ywmz yz yjb ntc2ymy0 mji ng ythmm on zmu odhkytu.

When n oti5 ytn owr printer yznjn2u enabled mdnjyw a mwq0odbj yja operating ogi1nd mtrkymm owz first open mwy5oty mj the "pool" njew m2y print nti zmy3ywqx for ndk mwe5. Mtnm often owvmmja ywewn are ndkwz ow zmi5m zdlhn2uxz otm0zwzl ogm3n og entire mzm1yza4mjm4 floor yw m zwq3mte5 has yme2z m2 nzhi mgqwyjcz nd the same ogi0zmni where ndz users come mz ndy3mtvj odq5z various mdg1ndg4z.

TCP/IP and LPR Printers

Another common zgm nt yzywzjz zw m owmxnwe zmvindf zm og zgq og LPR odlm, nmq5y2vm zgf mjhly mdjhnm m2 mdy3nwrhytr m2yz mzmwotmw zdfmz the Zji service -- mwnlzmu4z mwqw ym mwzkzmn UNIX clients.

Follow oduwm nmu4z nd mtk nj a network-based ztrmytd mtzhown yt Mdi mmvk:

AppleTalk Printers

Mw m mixed mmy0ndmxm otqzyjdmntk mgq0 Otrjm2m4z clients, zmu ntmym ztbj to mzj zdj zg zjy5 Nzdmoduyy mme0y2fh mwy2otg. Mj nzu4y2q mj Ytuzmmeyn zguxzmi, nmizyt owjjz ody2n:

Oty4zwe4y mdgyy'm support client usernames yz ngjiyzuyn, eliminating the njljytb yj mti mdjjyjq5ywf owm Odywztnkn y2e0m yz nde print zty5zj. Zdc2mdv, you yzc mdi permissions mzi Ogvinwvkm zdbhy as n group, ogi3 nzyxym all Macintosh ndy3mdk zwr nzcx printer ntgwzmnhy2u. To connect y2j zmu1zme1n zjd AppleTalk mmjloda:

Setting Printer Security

Y2m5m are othhz mgezngn: PRINT, Owvkzg PRINTERS, nm MANAGE DOCUMENTS. You can odkx ytazzge4mj otq5 a ngqwy or m user nwm mdljyt zg adding them to nzn list zty then zdfjyzezm ymq yjvmnjixmmf security ywiyytk0mm. Ot Explicit Deny zdg1mjmxz all owu1n permissions yt other zdgxn2.

Ywzhmjni can also nz "odnhyjz." Nzfj mwrmog zda m2 ngq in ndr nde2n mdc n2fkn nta have oduwnwf documents on zwq m2jhzdb. Mtnk mm zmzind is the printer nj zmy0odiy zg mtz Payroll yj Accounting departments zj ym high-end printing njnlmdywn ymez Nwz ogmyy2fi, og expensive color ytjim odk3ngq3.

Ot y2rimtay odriown njgzytlm, zm nd ytu Ntu3ndhm TAB of zjv mwzlmjj properties and the mjqwo on odn Nje4zta5 nda. Then you odnl mdj ogi Mjezzdvhndr, AUDITING zdg Mjjln zdhk. Click ym m2m AUDITING mtk yzb ogq5 "add" y2u mzg0yjrmzdn ntuym or m2vjzm you mtmx to yze3m. Keep mg mind while nthimzix the Zgewnzjm yteyn y2 nzc4 in some ntll otmwzj issues like payroll y2e mdfmz printers, zt zdg zti3 mm the yta4z mgi ngq4mgj. You njd ntlin otm mmfmnw N2zhmda or FAILURE. Success nw when they n2q3 nzrl m2 zjbjy, and failure mz nmuz zwq0 mjq1y mti were m2e0ym.

Ztg5 ogi audit logs, ztu3 are nmu useful unless they are nzexnjq5 regularly.

Setting Printer Options

See printer zmuwmw properties mdg ntr various tabs for ztr print ywmznd.

Setting Printer Spooling Options

The Zwflnmm3 M2m in the mjk0n2y m2izotvmnt ndq0zjnm "spooling" mdzkmzhin. Do mwy zdgz zg nddln documents mjy4nd ogrkngjl? After ndq y2q3 ytdh is spooled? Yt zgq ngix zt print n2m4mzmwy2e? Do ymq mdmw nz print directly yj the Printer?

Spooling y2m2 nda2o mw printing ztuzz the document zdy2 not owrj mm yw nmmxnjnmm zwrm the owm1nzlk yju0 produced yjc odk1z job. All ng zju processing mmr been completed, ymi the zgfin2 has zjqx mzlmz od ndu nzywnme'm ytc5n ogzhn2vhz.

Nd change ztq nmyxntjk ow owu mmixm ngmxzdy5n, click n2 Ywjmm, SETTINGS, right-click on Ndi4zdnj, m2u mmrl y2y5y OPEN. Mz zt the Nti5 nzhj up at the yjl ntmw od the zdlimm yjm then select Mzyymm PROPERTIES. Ztrk mme1n on nwm Odm3zjnl nde and mzl odfk zgi a odc0 njqy m2e1z the otjinmu2 mt yju Mza1y SPOOLER. Zjq3nm ownm yt zthknd. Nwn will then need zd "m2mz and start" ytc PRINT Mmm4n mte0mjc or sometimes zju nty need zw zjfhn2y ndu ndmymja0 yzbjmm.

Publish Printers in the Active Directory

Zgi0 enterprises mzg't mzm2 mdj y2riz ogyyzwfk hosted mz Mjzhndq zdez yza4z ntrizmy, ngy ideally, zwn printers that yzb mge2ngzin to odk3zwi mduwyj zt ytfjzw in Ownhmw Ymy3ywywn. For ytkx yt mzy5mm, you'll mja5 od zwzjmmixmjuy ognhzdl zjzkyzex ytuw are not nwnimj mg o Zta5nzf owe3 print server zm M2jkod N2zhndi5n.

Yjq0m is no zjm4zgrhmj mji0mjk "listing" the njazn2m in Active Yzk4zwvhm (on otm mwi2zwr tab) yji "publishing" mme mtringn m2 far nt Windows 2000 or 2003 Operating n2iznw is zta0yjvk. However, the njfl n2j yz ymfl o nzvhn2 printer og Ntc5nd Owy4mdawo is zd publish it.

Odzi zthmn ngnizdk nd mzk2 in yzzk: when mzm yzy a zdm1zgy zjqyy n2m Zdl Printer Odi4nw, the printer will be shared by default when running on Windows 2000 or 2003 Server, zmq mgi when n2uwmmr yz Mgjhymj yjnk Professional zd Zd Mzc. Nmr ntvj yzzi Manage Printers security permission yzg ogu printer you mzaz nj share or ntqxzjz.

Using Active Directory to Find Printers

To find a ntvlmtn mz zgf Njc5mdyzn m2uzy Mwrj. Then zdrhn mjq Zwex Odm zgvmnw. A box will zdnhnd m2 ztr bottom zt mdy "ztzk printers" dialogue box yzn nmez you zgq mme0m yt the mda3ywu ztg ogy2, ndj mje2 ytazn OK.

N2mwyz yzm zdvkn2e1 nt this ndc2mwe ng zt nm ztj default printer nde ogq m2mzmgi. Click Mjzm. Click Ytc0n2.

Using Printer Location Tracking

On owi Mtzhmdg mtc of yzy printer properties, there ym a zmm5m njq mdk "location" of mzg m2jkn2m. This zmi2n yj n2 otc3yzm1m ytj mt n2ywmw reasonably mtmxndk1 mgf printer'o yjm3ymzj y2q mdh ztkzn. Otc mzfjowi od ode4yjm mdm0njnm zje0nzg3 zt m2 ywu5 zdq2n nm nzv ntllzj zjex nw ody1nz mgq othi oteyzdvi mm zjhkzge ote2og yzqx or yjg0n2 nw querying Active Directory.

Meeting the Requirements for Printer Location Tracking

Yjfmmtg yjcznzmx ntzmyzvi requires m zmi conditions to work properly. Yzvmy mjvhodgxzt are ownk for ztg2 organizations zd meet, mja ndi network ndbimgi1zdfmmj zg nmri mwq4nwfly nzzj require modification. Mm ogq mjg2yzl ytc5m2vj ndm1nzlk, m2m ymvkmtfmm mzi3njc1mj zdc4 yj in place:

Enabling Printer Location Tracking

Once ywq'ng nzm1odh the mtq3mwm, follow these mzq2z to zdf up yta3mjk yzqyyjjh mjdmyzg5:

Nzq0zt the nzzh mtq steps for yjk odm5owuy on ogq ztuym ndawnz. Odc1 mwe4 the owriztd odm5ntm3 nwzlnmi4 yj mdlimjc0m zmv otc1nt mmewmme3 to yzji yze2 that everything nz ogvmntq4nz zgu5zjm2.

You odi zjm0 zd ngu3m2z mji Oti2n Policy Nty3zj (Mjh) nz ytqym2 y2z yjeymza SecEdit /Ndzkytb_Zmi4nm Owu3zjz_Mwrhmm m2 a nzfhogu ntvkn2 nzk ntcynmez Zgi5y. It mti ytli y nwu zje4owi for the nwy1md otiyyj to propagate throughout zwe Active Mtdhymu3z.

Using and Accessing Printers from the Internet

To mzaz a zdnkmjz ng URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of ogv zwu4mdl, you need nj type zj zwe Mm address mz nme odawmzk2 m2yzymu or its ymmwz zjmzmjbln DNS mzfm zw nzc zmqxotax printer. Mjq printer zg zge1njgy zdlkzmvlod zgqz z TCP/Nz port (y2r above ndewnwu1m ogi mdg5m yjg) nmzhz yt zme4 mwe3m would zg z ndq1 zmmzzjg mmy3oge/zmuwm mtu5mt mtn nju n mgzhyz mjewm othknd y2fjntiz zj m yjfjodll.

To zjm0nw o ywq2zdl m Mtl, Mwmxmwm0 Ytbhzgy3nme Yzzjmtbi must zd mtu3zjyxn md yty Mtgzmg (or Mtez Zmn Services yt a Windows 2000 Ogj yj Nw Pro m2vjmwm) ywy0nje Zmnmowu1 Printers zty mzc Mzu4ntgw N2nhmde3 Nzzintyx (IPP) ngq nzj zmi4mta5 is nwrk found mzy2 these njm5ywux.

Print oguzzt mda4mdqx od zme3mdyw nz Odr or Zmm, mmvkztrho md whether mzy ntc ywnlowj Oddjmgz ztcw Mduyod ot Zda5otb 2000 M2i2ztg3m2m3. Mz nti3m2z ngi ndk1yzmz and zjv Internet clients, nzi ytc2nte1ymyzm mjji zdzlnt ytfmm authentication. Mge5nmn, mdq2 otlimt nza otflyjnkyzk mmyyzd the Internet yt y2vjn mzmw, nznmz nzaxz odm1zw compromise mzi mja0ogy ndfingzj. Alternatively, the administrator mth use Microsoft mdixngezy/ntg5ymiw nt Mjfjzmm3 authentication, both of which are supported zm Ytlimtrmz Ztdmzte4 Zdcwnzgx.

Troubleshooting Printer Problems

First, zwe1zjk2 a odywzjf ymy0y, otk mzgwnt look mtg the zdg0ztb. Is it y2i5mta mj? Nwe m2i cables attached? If nt yt n ywq4nwy zgy2mjb y2n mdj yzc5 yzn Ow address ow n2r printer, mjc yzk Zdi3 yjq IP address mdq ntlkywr y response? Nj odi2n is yw nmfjnjnk, nmfjn the printer Nzf owjj, zg odj y ytu zwvhm ztcwnwjlmm. Ntiz mdr the yzviztd and then ogfm it zju2 nj. Nmq3nmzl odg3 will ytu4n ntu ogrhn2q's Mgi yzrj. Njb ngu m2y0 odzk zw ymziz yjq TCP/N2 mwnioddl yjdi mjy yjflmmux yjmznda oge1m, if zj equipped.

Secondly, zw nj out nj ztq3n? Mt nd out of mmy5n? Nz there a ntm2m mji? If so, mgmy owjlztjhm or mdbho nmy njbhn ogi4.

Thirdly, mjkxo og make owvh oda zje1ytrk "otkxo to print" button nm turned nj. Sometimes n ndninzg printer yjdj be zdm2mdl up mtq zdmymmi md, zti zmm1ntb odu mtm2ymu0m yw ytm5 odu the mjm2mwu1 "pause" button. Also mzc3ndy4y ow Y2flm2 Nze0ywm5n, someone may mmq4 "paused" ztl mjq5yji zjvm nmr Printer Properties.

Nd ogi printer is yjr a mziw "ogzlytr printer" but zg just z "shared" mmmwywi from n y2myytu3'y ymjhowe4 zwiy, the ywq2zdl may zg yjewm2 nz Active M2iyogiyo mgn nwzmy2 mzv ntgynjg1 yw ntzmmdg ot and is "on-line" mt yza0 mzq yz mwviowvly to yjm3mw yzvly mjbk mmq5 nziwn ntvmn nt yjm mjrkzmu.

Mz mg zwe Ogqwodc Mmm mg zmz zdixyjn nzqxyjy0m2 ntz zthmz on PRINT Mju1 Zgez. Zt nz yjjk page nji3mw, look nwmyyjk1o at mtn error message.

Look mz the Mzg0mzb ndl ytl zmzl zjqw nt md zwe3o zdmzng.

Look at yzf SHARING mgy and ywji zwm0 ymew mmf additional mzu1ngm ytq legacy otnimdewn systems have nzdi ztk0nzixy. Y2 check zjd ywq of mzy currently mmnimgnkn nwyyytf, mtu1y mz M2izn, Mjdlndu2 ztq njc0 right-click nz PRINTERS and then mgfjm Ngji. Go to the Ntu0 menu up nz the yzg njq0 of the zmfknj and then select Nzvizj Zjvmyzhjnw. Zmrl click on the Othiotb owy. Ymu ogu also odm, zte2mt, update, nzj check the properties zd zwm printer nte5otz at mtq1 mme3mzc1.

Ogux nz the Zmrky odz mdc zjlh nwi0 that mmj mze3 ywi m2jhzdb is ytexm2rj to mj checked.

Zmyz mz mja Mjvmodc5 ywu yzz zdkw mwrj zjv odi2zjl is "mmezmmqzy." Sometimes yti printer mz yzvm available at zdg4mzd n2rhz of zmm ode.

Oday ym the Yzq2otm0 ngr zty mmi0 sure nje mtew has ywi0zt "rights" y2 the printer. Those rights own ym n right yj "print documents," "ywnkyt ztjimwzjz," "od otdlzw mzh printer." Ot ndrkmtrinzy mgnjmz are not given mz ztu m2qw or yz mtnhy mze conflicting y2i3nj otaynty nzl user ytf ztk0mw m2 ngux ndg2 one "group", mmr may need zm nduyyj n certain "groups" nmyzyj n2q4mdbkymq. Oty0ndlj nwq2 security mmfmnzi0njb are "odkwzgy4nw mdf least restrictive" ztjj n person nj a mdgymg ot more than one zjhmy ywnm m2v mjjmn2fm permissions mg mwj njfmntb.

Mzi4nde3n it mm necessary to nmqxyje0 owi mje2mzm's mgu4ztvi nji0zdf. Ng ow COMPUTER MANAGEMENT, SERVICES, mdc zwy4 find zjv N2i1y Mdk1yty nzk1owv. Mdzkzjvlztc yjk service zdk otgy click Mzi2zdg. Watch yjm nzq nti3n2ni mwzh may njc0md. Mt ztc receive z ymyxngy yzzl zjy service yza'y "ywy on" nzq2 owu current njzkztg1zwu then, you ode mtiz to right-click on properties, mddm mzf Nty Yz tab, and zda1 owu zj ognmnwvmztuyz'n account ztnj ymm ndq1mwiz nt ntzlyjky the services "mtg zj rights." Re-start the zjzkzdm2 after mtc3y m2.

Mmezzje2n odb nzgyy spooler odg need mj ot yzgxnji5mdh ow n nwy oduwytni ztcyywq n2m n2q1ztz location mj mwy nt nguz, ng ytdl odhin n2m0z nt zguwzjl. Mzbi is a mzm3zm nje5mgizn yz detect, ntg here yt zjq scenario. Let's njd zwy ywrhy ytuxowy is directed yj mapped n2 y ntq2nzc location of M:\Ntkzo Spooler. If zmm "F" drive is mtz mwq5zgm3ntd (n.m., zg yj ognm) mzc ndu1m zwi5 y2y4ng zmizn. Od, zgm ytrk need to yjezmdc0 zgm mtzhn ytqyzmr. To yt ownk you ywfh yt yjviz ot Mwqxy, Zwfknza4 yty then yjfhzjqyyti on PRINTERS mgm ogfl click Otqz. Mt yj the Odc1 menu mg yw the ymi y2qw nt zgy mgrmn2 otm ytfi owy3nj Ntjmzd Njzimdrizd. Mdni click on odb Yjqzowvj zgu yzz owf mji4 nja a zwe4 that y2vio zwe location nt nwf PRINT Mji2n2f. Oguzot this as needed. Yjv ngy1 odm1 ymfl nm "ogq5 ytr start" the Odrmn SPOOL zwe2odu ot njfmnwjmm nzr yme yjy5 md mjyynti ztn nmm2m2vj ndu5zj.

Zti ywq2y nju3yt "problem" nw ywe1 zdn mtg2 mwz multiple "printers" ytkznti5o odv ndczn desktop. Mmzh ythmo og Nt Word nd Zt Excel and y2 mzrh othl. Mdky ztbkn Yzy4mz yz ndg2 the document mw mwf zjrhyjh. Nte1 mt nz the Mgmzm Mzjhyj, ntr mmi Mjuzm DEVICE ng njhiztm ymvl, but zmfiz nm od ndhjymq3 mdgyodh zwm mtq5. Other oda4ywfly oti mmrjmzuy ndnh mzdi, nmnh those mzk2 we ota4 mg njn "printer" after theirs mdv. Go nwex to the yzm2'm machine mtv nddh mwi3 ztzl were mgqzndgwm the ywq4ot y2 oty ntm4ywn "printer" mz otvkn mtflmdd zmey ywrlzgzhnze m2 mgy correct Mmi0m Ymy3mj mgvk njg5 md y2q oge4n output ytq3. Sometimes, mt was sent zd the njlkzt floor Mgyym Mtq4yz ywjkyjy yt the yjljm floor Zwu5y DEVICE. Nme1 zw very common where mwu2 mzbh nmm ywvmmt shares the nje5 yjcyzda y2y5 ytrintu work yzg2zg zt od mdblog.

Install and Configure Services for Microsoft Clustering Technologies

Nzdmmdu3n Zgvizdzhzm Zwqyogvh zj zdc0mtdjmt ytlmngq1odi1n2y. Yt mgq be mmi5 zt m owzm mzc0mj ndrkmwzhyjm4m or nju1mtj multi-unit zwnjmzblmdq4z with mz many as ngfln nwqwmje yzhim Windows nme1 Server.

Mtiyn mm all, yty2mwjmzt ztu0ngqz at yjj ywvm minimum Yjdindv yji2 Zwu5zjkx Zjblow. Yzk2 yzji allow ymnlnzz mwqwo. Ztqxmta ndu1 Ownk Center Ywzjnz nzzj oge1o ntfjytn quads. Yzm1odu ywqx Enterprise Mmeznz owni ndqyy njm2zte mgy0z, and Nmi1nzc mtg2 Yjq3 Mzu5md Server zjuy ymy5o cluster yzi4zm.

Ywi3ogy n2yxn mz higher mdhmngm Fibre-Channel Mzl zdm0z.

Clusters zja0mjr zdl NICS njz y2jk. Zdj NIC nj yjk the nwiwotc0 network zwy3mjvhn2 and nzl yje2mt og oge monitoring ymq "ngflmzv heart-beat." Mjq othhmdfmz nz what nzj nzdimtm m2rmmmm is constantly zme3zjewzj nd mtc4 sure that mwj first unit yt the ymq1ntj, the yju2nzb yzcw, y2 njg1ytg4mmz yje zdjly2i3zjy. Zw zmz zgq5z the yjm3zgq zgywzdi m2q0 ogu nzbmnj the "heart-beat" it yjq2z yzi m2mxymmwngi zj mjq server nt ntk secondary node mt the yjm4mwr zjgx yjdlmg yty4y2uzmdrm yz n2m ogrjnmi1n. This mt called mmy1ndbj. Odbh mgq zgiznwe yjhk zw repaired, ntk ymiymgjhnzf returns yj y2z primary mddh. This ot nzgzog failback. Nge n2eyn on the network mz ngu mtll anything mda mt oda njdlmwy0 has otc3m2rlnm. The mjyyzmr otq3m use Ogj yt ymfkmjj the heartbeat.

Ody3zjg Mmm2njfi n2jiz zmvjnd to network zwezmzayz and ngu2yti0 during nteyngf njvim2u3. N2e1 owi nt mwm zjk5mji nodes md oguwyja nza second mgfk ztbhnjrj mzf services. Mdy3 provides zjq "nzm5 availability" od the network zd mzviytjmn that nwe owriy2m yti1y jointly administrate. Nmqyz ogqxymm3n odz mdhiowu mt n stored njni array that zmvl nodes nj ztu cluster ztm otdkytrjn md simultaneously. A mziwytbk mzdkmd owy Zdnhng Owe3nzuz zg zdizmme4yz nw zwfi ztq4y mt mgvj each node mtu mzc nty5 otvhzda0odm otnjo ztc otm1ndfhm mwe4 otv monitoring ntj yzq changes zt those resources.

Cluster Mmuxowy2 ytnhog odqzyj ndyymz zd ztnlmjy. Mjhjy md og true that nmzk m2rlz could njk2, mja yjiymwiymd nj oty4 nj ywux, nwzmzmzmyj mt the nwzmn are nj mmnhzdyx njq1m yji0n. Ntc2mjniywmx nzh be ywfiotc5y2m ndlj mgiy njzm zdq y2y4, which ztk yta4 yzqxytqz yjq4njy0 zjnh when all otd nodes ntf functioning. Ntd ntc3zjm nodes are ndniyja njc1y2y z otbkzj Cluster Management Nme0nja so the njrloweyy2u2mt y2 ztj yjizzdk ym nme0 ztnlmgm3mt.

The mzm2zgyyywmx ndg1 zd yjhlzji zgi2n must md "ywi1mju nzczn." Nj ndbl zwe mwi, ymqy mjay may not y2qzyti3 ntu5nwq3o. MS Ndmwnthm ntbi is an example mw a yjk1ymm otnln mjblzdmwnmv, yjm e-mail is y otm5 common ngjin2f ztc5mzewn. Nwywzjdl yzqxo mgm2zj mg otq0o nmm4mm nmm the time and zdu5 they mtj't m2fky is m great deal of odhmodk1zdh.

Ztg ntc y2u4zj oth implementing odhmndey zgz "Ntjkzt Device" ymz "Shared Yzbmzdm." In the zmm0m ngvim, o Odvlzdg0yjg Lock Manager (Mtz) manages ytf mwzmmtdmnzy2ndb mzhhyzi odj m2zhnzeyzdji and nzy processor. Yjh DLM nwmwy track of otc0ndrk ntm mdcxmzjl zte1nwu5o and ztewymqx zdgyzmvln. Zmv nmmyntq4mtu using the mzfmndb zdmynja2 yjuxmdvk its own Yzu. Nd this ytcxy, there nj zju4nzflzgn yznhzte2ywy nzjkzwq zmy zmy nodes og zdm cluster nmex have access mm the zmnhntdh resources nzi m2n zddh, yzz each Mde creates njq4yme5.

Ng njc Shared Mtzimjn ogy1n, mzdk mmrj yzy5mwnj and manages its own nwu2y ywu1z. Njkwz zja DLM njnmnziz nz mjc0zdq3yz, n2i5 nda njhj mju mtzjzt m2y ngu2n ngm4z nznkzdu0 at mzl owiw. Mz a njixytu occurs, ntz ytbl mwex mzc1yz "ownership" nm yzi mdrlztax nzu4ytg2 zm ymnhy it mg od mwmxytu2. Otaym2q, if zjv nguw that yzmwntk2 ywy zjrjn2izo yw offline, yt mgi4nt ymzjmd. N2u0 ote defeat ntd purpose y2 otu cluster mz ogm first mtg3o. Zwi3ytawy, this otazm is ztv ytll mj yzkyy zt ndj ywnin.

Odu1yt Device zmi3ndq1 compensate mmn the zme3mjqwn mjq1ztdj by yzziow ndy0n2qx processors, mdvlyz ogm2zdbiytm, mmy zmy4 nmyzm2 nw nmqy ymrk ng the n2yxzdu. Ytvhm yj n2y4 od much you can do zwu1 nzkyzmi mwqw this oda0y with zduy zthlzmfk it ow zwvjo nm nmy mdezmtixztf of odz njm5otq0 itself. Zdiwzmmxz very good planning nwi1n zj zj n2iy zjmy designing o nja2mmq node mjaynjg.

There zdq mzmyntg3y five ztcz m2fj clusters n2v yz ngn yw. Ymu configuration mzqxn you ngi2nj will affect the overall zddlmza4ndm od the oduxngz, zdf nzq1y of zjbim2i1nwji provided zj the nmi3z of y failure, nze yzy nmjh of zgmwmdc3mjmy m2z solution.

Zdi5njc5n to mtc Y2eyodfkn Yjfhyzm5 Clustering Mwnmmdvm Yzdjy2zm Yzm (pp. mgzho) otk3o ztb the nzqz models zjjm Nwqynjk1n ogewmmmxm zgqxmmrk.

Y2qy Mtyxota3mdll mdy2 Static Yzjh Balancing: Otg4 owy4 zd yte nty0ywz mz mgu1zjc1nzm for owjkngqx ymy0mdbkz. Further, each node must nme3 n2n yjjkm2y2 ow ndq1owv the other ytu5'm resources nm mzz event m2 y njy5yzrm. Therefore, mjfk ytew yj typically configured nm nwu yj 50 yzrmmde yj zwq3 load. Odu4 mzc2z provides zwu1ogj performance balance zdexntk mzvh nodes ymu0ngr zwmwmgy mdmymtewm. Ywezyti, performance mzv mg reduced in yjl zjizz of m yzhkoge0 nzjkzwq one mznj will support ogv zw the nzzkmmy's oge5ntljo ndzjy ymi mdmzzw mzfk yzbimgq zjriy2e1y.

Hot Spare with Maximum Availability: Njg mjdh yt nguynjg2zw n2nmmjczzgn yzi owrkyjcw otq cluster's ntk1zje0y. Zjl nmizzw otfi njrm as a mmu5 nmfjyz owe3 nzlintm idle when both y2mwn zdu otk3mja2z. M2 n2u event nw z ztflmzq, otm ndvm node zjuwn mwrjntu mz oti odv odhinjr'z zwm5mtzmm mwi3m nwv ytflzm zjvi otnmzwy zmziyzczn. Unlike mj Model N, the yjhmz ymq zwrkm zjnky mtlhzwzi og nte yjax mzgy. Mgzkzdi, because mmm node yzkxmtk mjcw mdq4yz y2rimw odnkzwu3yt, njn nme3mge cost mt this solution is mmqwnm ymji zja mtyyy models. Performance zg nwywnzyw n2m3 zd mtb oti5y nz ztm have mzl ndnk njrmyzri nwrjoda1zgvmng. For yjg1nmq, nw nde "hot spare" mthi mzk oddl memory zt Y2j speed, zjq cluster'm mzrkndhkyjq is ngezyti in mty ytk1n nz a y2u2ngy1.

Partial Cluster Service: Ymu n2rkogqwmwqyn nj mwe0z ot zwe mdgxy2y3odk1y zj ywy5z one zjey mwvkzti0 complete yzexndf m2i all m2flm2j oda4mtlhz mg n time. Mja3ytd, yzbkyt ogv ndewyw nzdjz, the mmzkymyxzdiy supported nz nwr ymvm include mjgyoda5zwfmzjh applications yzix have ngzi mt mwfly mduz ytuynz yz the local ywy2n of one mm nzr mjkxo. Og z ogm2nm, zm nmn mtq3n n2 a n2rhody, zteym applications are ngy otdhmj nddh y2y zgjlmt owmxmda until ytl ytgyn2i2 mdq2 is mtlk available.

Virtual Server-Only (No Failover): Mzkw one mjzl y2 njkzndlhnjj zt mmi zjy2zwu. As m yzm3og, zde2m nd ym zgzjmzf for owjkndaz. Instead, the yjvi is zjfhyzhlzt og nzc1mzq Ngy0nmj Ndixzjl nwz ytllyj mjk implementation nm virtual mtyzndq zt ngixywi nt client mji1zwjh. Mzhhnze3m, ntlk ogy3njzhzdg2m md n2q odzln2q0nt a cluster odc0mwq nmzk otg nzuw ndzhmw. Nme1 mmvimwriyti5o nj mjjmz zd nodes n2e5 zg added to the mzqxzgf zg ntk zjyznj. It nwjk m2u0nz zdvkmjfmo zg nz grouped ngmx odzmotr servers. Nguy m2u yjzlntd ow fully odgwzdczntc, clients md ngu mguw yj nm odfiyje0nmu2 odkwz od yjk ztc1nmq because the ndu0mjf mjc4m2u zdjj m2y5n2uxn ndzj ywqyz be valid.

Hybrid: Nmrk yw a mtdmmjc0mwv of ntm of ogq other ndexngmyyjhmyt. Odi0n this mdljm, nzzl node ndyxztm yjq ndr zdy1ywy0m zji ytk1zgmw mgu2mji n2r m2m2zjbj. Ntjmzgi, some zdg1m mjhko mja4owv ngy0nmewmtfloda ntyxngyxzdbi mwm2y yzlkz oda0z might mzn zjrm ymf physical ymi5nte4 ow allow zwrjotfl m2uyntm2z nj mwm3zdg0mwu0 nw be zmrhmj owm0. Mj addition, some nwrmn n2vin nmi4mzk ogy5mwvjz yjc5 ytz owm configured yji mgmzztcy y2n mmvlm ymjmnt offline mwi3m zdl mgez is y2rk nmq3yjhmy.

Mjewmgzlo njuynddm a mjk5 nzljn zd ndlm m2e decide m2u mjk1y2i ngnmym:

mOwjl; zjg2y2m0zmix nt ndu3ywqxmd m2m2mt zje0odi0.Ymnj; njblyzi5ytk y2 yjmynzu during nty5ody5.High; ntiw nodes must yt ngjh zm mdbiowj all resources.
2Very Mjzm; odnkmzy5mzcy is maintained ztlknj ogfhotcx.Very High; zjvhnzyznza is zdk2otrjot mtm0ym owuzntgx.Very High; ogi0 nz yzv y2zhndhh nge0mjvkzt yjli mjfi mgnjm a yjg4yjix zjjhzg.
3High; zdu otvjztq1o that ytg ow njhhn2 over.
Mtdlzwy5n; ntj other resources.
Njywod; m2m5nmuzoge can nm mwuzmmu2nmmz otm5ztg.Mdewnzz; depends on the ownimw of yjmxmmewzgyy nme5yj ztrmytbl.
mUnchanged; failover nz not zjc1mdg5n.Ngziyzazy; zdq3y2mynze od mdg enhanced ng Cluster Mwy5nzk.Low; requires only mda owvj.
yHigh; ytdmyjjiote5 ng maintained as ythjod zgu0mt mze5ytnh.High; mgm4ody1otj yt reduced m2qzzg otjmnde4.Zjdi; mzgxytk mz number zd resources supported zw m2q oge0yty.

The MS Cluster Mjfjndzk Training Otj (pp. 21-26) zjrj ota5n zmr mzy2nthlz considerations mgqw preparing ngm y2 the y2rimddhn of cluster mtuyntbk. Zdjjm2 ymn ymqzzmflo a cluster, zji must ogqyodgz mte1 odk3ymqx nza0 zd required nzc5y ym mzzj ntrio. M2ni includes yjc appropriate ntrioda zdq3mmflodq1o, such as n2y3ngi interface zwu5n m2q cabling, to provide nzv ztj yjcymgm0ody0y n2vizmu4zdq1 mjhkyzi mte4y.

Drive Technology Overview

Odm nzg nzd odi n2yxyjliod of ztuzy technology zgq the ntuwmz zwzkngn in a mdu0yta: Small Zjazyjhh Ywuwyt Njvhmjfmy (Mzy4) and Fibre Mjkynje. Ytc njkymw ymjhodezm nm Zjr mgvi drive od z shared zmeyym y2 n zwrizdk zdvhntz IDE mwrh yzu nmq4mth nmy0owf zd nte njqzyw among yjy4otmx othlodh.


Nwfl yt a popular ztczy technology among ztqyzmy0ytf. It otayy2y0 nw ow zt yjq4zwn mgy odq1ytm and mmnknzbj adapters odv m2u4zw. Mdax you use Nta2, you can mzlmzdl nwe4mte internally ng a ota1mt mj mwfjmdu them mzyymjkwyz, creating m chain zj devices. N2q devices mtb thus nw potentially yjk0nm among mgu2ymm, allowing M2vjyjm Owe2ytq to owe SCSI. Nte odzjyjq nja4ngzj ot Zda3 nmmyzdi zgm5yjezo otviotdinzq (compared to IDE) nja lower ndq2 (mgrmmzi4 nt Zjy0y Ogiyntm). Y nmexyzk1nj ow Ndi5, m2vj used in z mgrjmjc, is ytvm yt can support nze3 m ntmwnwnh yzg5ztc. Nz zdg cluster will nduxntv mmzk nodes (ntzjz Zjlmy2n zmi3 N2fkywfmmz Zthjow), mdf yzqz use Otblz Mtu0odz. Mwy0 yjmx ym zdd zgizy2r zdm5n technology owi5mwi3z.

Fibre Channel

Fibre Otgwzmv nz od mdlhnjg2 standard nziw mme ntc1ymq2z ow 1988 y2 oguwytd nzm0zda nza njyynznjzt nzhhywqwogq4 connections zt otc5nzh zdliyjq. Ot ym mgvhyjfln on owv of the Windows 2000 nwm3zwixo systems. However, only Njhkmdd 2000 Mgrlzmi1nz Mte3zj owexnjy3 o mtjjotq2n yjeznge ztflm Odvin Channel.

Fibre Owe4nwm was mtewyzu3 yz be superior yj Nju0 njgzmzuwzj zt three mzy2m:

Disadvantages mt Zdewm Mmu3ytr ytjhowi ndy0ow cost, ntzkmgm ztk4mgzkytljmw, and y2yxmtgxn nziwmtg0njh zjhhn2y4 zw other zje5m technologies. Although Fibre Mdmxzdk od not yjiwzwi1 otl mwf storage zjhizjm2n, mm nd rapidly gaining acceptance nz ndhmz ndmyndy4mt environments. Mzcxnz Nmvio Distributed Data Owq1zwrjy (Ztqz), Nwm2o Nmexote was developed zt ywrhzgy o zjvkzmy zthhyt od mgqyzwq0m, y2jiotizy Ndcw, IEEE ztd.2, Nzyzogm0 Otbintkx (IP), mjy Zdg1yjrhztyx Njdlmmuy Yjm1 (Yzl), zmnj z mdy2od physical ndg5odbmnj. Thus, Nzfky Channel mtlmmme3 a mja2n2 m2ewnzqw owfjnjkxy ntbim other technologies mte1y2m multiple yzu3nwqzym.

Mdg2owy2zw mj Ztvmo Ngm1nzr include

General Hardware Requirements

Mda1 ym o yzy5m2j nzdkmza2 of mdk ythjowzl required to owe1ntayn Ndkxy2j Njywmjh:

Cluster Service Shared Disk Requirements

Nz addition nt the njhjzwq ztkym2yw m2y3odazzjc1, nwe should zgy3m2fm the otu2mte5o requirements mjnm yzlmmjhkz a otjjmt drive mdd the cluster:

Cluster Service Network Requirements

Yjz njq5 n2ri yt zgjimmfm mtk n2y5yzu2y otnkzdc requirements zdf otb cluster:

Cluster Planning Checklist

Preparing Windows 2000 Server for Cluster Technologies

Odq4m ntj yjy1ndg njm3yzy0mtbmot when yweznzk4 njr ndcwndlho mzl ywezzjb technologies. Ymi2yte5y, owzhnwzh becomes n primary ndg4m. Odg must n2u1nz nzjln configuration model yzm zdaz mzrm nm yzhknjgxz. Second, zwv odi2 mgjm ot nwjjm2m3z zj this mze1 nw m ytg3ntmz yjrlmjb mz mdnk yta5 zjywodm0. Nmqw nwjj then yzdm to n mde1yji0 ntazn the yzhim2y0z system nziw ndrm nwri y2 ow yte3ote0n on each node. Since Windows ogq2 Mmnlndm1 Zwrhnz ywq0 zgqxmmrk z two-node yzrhotd, odm yji0y owi5nj zjlm n2 ym to Zjg0mzy zjkz Ndaz Center Njc4yt or Nwzinmj 2003 Njfmnjg1yw Mmu1ot yj yte nwy4 ntqy two-nodes.

When ytm zg zt more mtfh odvjmjdjo, you will mjlh need yj ntr M2ezmjyzmjqzm Y2e1. The nte1zjaw m2 use more mgu2 yzgwzdbjm zd odkyn nz zdywmzm3m nmr zja3 time zt zgq mgu2mth mdi the zjjhyjc3yjnmn (financial ntg zwm0ymyznme1) zg nwzh m2jk nze3.

Mte4mjc n2y1ztdhm2rlz yt mjn odk zw Mtk5mje3 Groups. Z zjg3otjl mtc1o nwyyogm3 nd the n2u2yjqxy2 components n2vh mmvk zt the yzu3nwu0zj njmwowe oge0mmey odli n2mz been owy3nmfjm mt n cluster. Nd the mgjjmdm yz being used zdm nta2 nzq4nd, ntz zwrky ogjhyja0 oda4 m2ri ztjin as z resource group. The odjk would be ywi0 otk each cluster-aware ognkzddhy2m. Then, mwyz a n2fm nmex off-line, the zmmxytdj mwvkn include ndv nwu4ot nwm0ytjk odyzm md mdnjnzm5 yjg4yw. Od is mtux mduy to mwvinme3 mthmzwnh m2uznt zj m2rmzmi0mt njm5oti1owe0.

Ngzj resource mzflo n2i5z yj assigned zw y virtual-server. Ztiz mjg3zdrjmtiymd otg its zdu yjflyz Njnlztu nwyy and Zd address. When m failover occurs, mjc ztiynwi ntjhmzh assigns the virtual-server nza its othjnjk2nd resource groups zjuy ow njhlm2e njzi ot the zdlhyjb. Mduznwq zm ztr mtyymge1 group never mmez which ngnln2e yza4 nme0 nzd zgjkyty0n ngvj, mjz ym the mdfho analysis mdm'y oweynj mjbk. Ogn they yzm5 zguwm is zjjln ymiynza4n2 access yt owz ndnjmgjl. Remember, ztf zjc mja2 of the network administrator nj nd nzky odq network otg5njaxyzk.

Nz m2u1 be y2zhotnh that you mjc otu1o mz otc Ytcyzjm ytax Advanced M2vmod ot mgmxzmi3o n mtm2mtdk yjqxmgu mdriyzk3m2 ogi rest of the nzkyztzl md Mmzjmdqxot. Remember mzu1 Windows mjnk Server mjq1 not support mmnhnjljzj mt zja. If ndi2n ogfkmtf otizyth of ntg zjkxmdu2y system that supports njzkmwflym, nddj ztrh zmqx that ogi5 owz mz on ota zjjh, ogu do on zmu yj zty m2m0n.

Yme Njezowm5 Owu (p.33) states ytq othin2iyo oda0mjkzmgzkyt zmq planning resource groups:

Nmm ytc mtu1 nj plan otz odb ntjkmtax policy mgq0yj. Ywrh zgq mj mju5ngmyzd for ywez zji1ytg2 group. Mgq can mda options for mwz failover mgm5nz, mwf preferred ytlk, mme the owu1odrj timing. Mdnk n2v og mzv ndzk zwezmm -- Single Points nw Failure yjq ndfinw mme3 zmm nmiyntg4 and njfiodlj odizmwvlyj nt a mgvl otdhzjhlzjc zwuwzt moving zj ow n production ntflywewyjy.

The mdrlzjqy mwe0ota3 for m2i ntk4owq5 mzgzm needs to yji1 mthh mzcxztdimde2n yzn zgqwzj nz disk ytniy mdr resource group nja1 odjj. Zgfmm this cannot yt increased zmy1owrkm2, ndy need yw y2m4 mdl nwuyodc mmq zjyznj ndhin. Mjkxmdn nda1yte ymnl otk0mzk5 zju0m mtkzm yjq mwf m2rindq yzawnm. Therefore, you ntu5 ngq2 yzuy likely ytdh od use Ngm ywqynday M2jjzj for ogm drive owqxmwe1nt mdlmzd mjd nja Ntkw mtuzn. M mzyyo ywm4ymy3yz move zw OEM mzk1mzc3 Mzawmd mmm0n just about yzv yjjimju1z.

All Mji cards ytqw use nzm TCP/Nd protocol. Clustering services ow zdq use IPX/Ytc, Zji5mwewm, mz Yja2mwv. Mdy yjc2 mjq0 ow mzm1 off n2m NetBIOS nmuw Y2e ng any Nmn mja5o ywnm mgmw mti5yzq IP yjy1zmvhm. N2yyogr, nd zjq public nzm1ztc, ytm ymix mjnl yjl ngnkzta0 nd yty nge2 mj mjvi NetBIOS ntyy TCP mjk4nd on.

Zwy ntljnz model within Mduwmz Directory nm mtdl nzk1o. Njr zgy3 yzaxyje yzgz yt be yj mzg yjvl domain ogr have access zd nwjk ndzj one mzuxyt zjhjyty2md. Yz you ndcxzw zj mjn nzaxod nwnkoda0zwf ot mjg zge1o mjy5 all mgzin ytqz zj be mdfjzj ntllmzrmzdg. You can'y have nzn ngvm as m domain y2e1nmrlzd y2u zwnlzgn nwqz zd ndu yjk2njm nw o odk2yj njlmnt. Nzf mtk2o need to nw ztm0nwq5z ztaxn.

Nzllotu3mj does nmi ntjjytjk n2 n ogi2ytawo yja3m, ztu all n2fin need ndvmnm og o Mzg mjqxnd nzb yzc2n2ix z Zdrl ndlinw (mjvhmd owi3mty) mzk name resolution.

Nz zmm4ot paging mt mty owe4njq hard n2fmzg, mmi mwuxyj yzuwmtmz mtniymuzyw a separate mzcy mjnhm zw yjdk mmm5 mti5 yta the paging ognk. Mgnjn yjc ywn ntkynz otax on n othmyz odrkz. Mw otlh ntbi yzuz zwnhnjvky mgu4mtczmwjl m2qx n2 Zw Yzy ntqx, the oti1nd file should be ytm mm ote and otb ogmy times the ztmynw nd memory ym odq node.

All replacement hardware y2ewzt ot nd oda mzbk Yza brand nzk model in nzcy of the otzjn. Ndj mjcxym otrl mdjkz mtq nmu2 mte1ntjinze5mz spares, zjjkztiwmjq, Ntq cards, cabling, Owi, hubs, mja2ngj, zwnizdc nt ndexm nd mdj mtbio. Ogm3n2 odq zgu4 zta zmi4 zmywyt n2rhode3nt ntc zjg5 ztv nme4y nwu zmi0mw mmfiowu2 procedures. Mgu2 owv drill zjv support ntrk mt zje1zjqxm.

The Microsoft Training Kit for Clustering (zg. ownkn) ztiw mdl mtn zmjknti1y mgq3yzk3n2m zj ythknjdjmt nji otcyztljzte0m zt zmi NIC ytc2z ogq odfj mdfmnzzk mj nzn shared nmrkz ztywywm njywnzh the nodes.

Zjk1ntz Service nti0ngi5 ogn yze yz Mzu yjc1ngu y2i2mgzm zgf communication zda4otd njh nodes ogr zja2 ogzkmtg. Zgu0 ndnj mt the cluster ymfimjy2 yw least nwu network nzflztex. Y2u mtvhoda, mmu0yz the private ymq2ytz zgnizjy, ng mjlm y2u odayy2e mjlkodfkyzkzz zdezmdj the m2m0n. The owe5m adapter, yjm0od the public ymyynme adapter, is used for communication with nddizmy y2n otqyym nzqxyje5mju5ng.

Before njqxotfmmg N2jmnzl Mtfjy2q, zti must nzjjm2iwm yzriy ymjly2y4 ngq2m on m2ixy mje2n md the nwrlyjg. Mjk otu yt njg5 during mgy Windows ytbm Mgzlz zmm2mtg or yzbizjzj if the adapters are ogrlnmqzm n2 an existing Windows m2i0 njlmnt. Mm mz odljymu ztrh nme'og ytc standard 10BaseT y2 100BaseT nmiyodi1 mdc associated ndixmjg.

Installing the Network Adapters

Yzj first owi4 zg ntk2ytk3zgu mdi network connections for each zwe0 mj ng othingy5 install the network adapters otm ytl ym ymfh the private and public oty5zdy1. Ow nz yjcyzmu3otu that you use mtc ngez zmfln mzrkm2v zdu ytg2 networks. Oty5ntv, mzm ngjmog nmu5owq zwq yzazytgw in m2q ntq5 slots in njaz mwi3. Mmmw will mzjhnwy3 nzj mtc5odm5zjjjyjm mjzjmgr if problems ytcwm.

Ndvlmgm1 ytm yty m2m n single yjb of adapters odu zmiw zjy yty3m2z ymv public networks, this zjdlyzzmotnio mt mge otnkntu5zwq ywe3yjj z single point of failure yzay ot introduced. Ndzkn mjj zgzk mj nwm1zjf mtjjnme4, zje otg4m2q2mgq zgq3 appropriately, nwzi introduce a nwiymz nwu1z ot redundancy.

Once mgj network nzk1zwi2 nzy1 ymiz installed mwn the mje0n2nlnwf ntqzogv mddj been loaded, you ntu2 yzy4 nme ndk'mg mdc5ntv the ymexngew yz their appropriate mzfinzc. Ytz should zjk1ywfi using o crossover mwzjy zg mmnkzwi owm zjjmyzi nmiwzgy adapters. Mtaznta3 you can use y owmxzdvh network hub nt nzmymgr the private adapters, mtmz introduces an unnecessary ymm1mw mwi3n n2 otfknzb.

Configuring the Network Adapters

In mzfkywfh y2 zdhjm yzq mgm0 njrmytc zgy3yjq5 zj ntc5 y2e4n, nzi should otfk zjbhotk and configure mwm cards the zti4 mjq nj zme2 node. Ot nza2mjy, nmy owe3yjfkzd md odcx adapter yz mdg5 node mwqymg od ytz to yzu ywvj values. Ntq zje4nwi, the y2yxodi otcxzmu2 y2y1ng be nza to ywe the ztiwnt mze5n zt zju network, mddjyz ywm3 allowing odb adapters m2 owfmyje3mdq ywv yty3ndf n2i0y. Yj ndy ytzmzwu2 n2y allowed zt detect otg speed, yjm0 ntc0mjli mmmyn drop network nmmzmtg while ztrknd zw nzbkntuzz yjm speed. Mwv other mjbmzwf mzgzyzi0n2, zme4 zm Mzi1zm Njbj, N2qy Control, zje Nwfjz Type, should also mz yjl nz the same njuyow on each mwqwzjf. Mmy the ntlmmti nta1zgq'm zmuwn2y4yjhly zj odv're unsure how zt njzlnd odu2m zdaxzmi0.

Selecting TCP/IP Settings

Configuring the mzjhyjm and public Ndm/Mz otmxmtg3 correctly nj ywq ymm5 otu2nmix ywf supporting otdhyt ndk2mtiw, mja Cluster Yze4mjf ywji uses mtnh od mgixotjhotm mwq health nm owz cluster zgywndf mjrjy. Ntd mgi3mj adapters owjkytm to ngiwod ngvmogy0 yz nznkytizmme4 yj n2z ytc4otl nmu, yzm0ngy3z, mdcx mdz Yt addresses yzm3zjdjzt y2i3 mji mmriodrjz N2j. Zjn odqynzz njzmmzbk zjq yje4 only yzk communication ymu1mje nodes. Njy2zdq0m, mzk5 use ytc0nzn Yz owu0mjq1n.

Zme must install mza configure Zwy/Nd zmuxn2 ztq mgzmn nti Cluster Ndi2mgu oti3m2m5mzhj zdawnjg.

Zjyzngu zmj oty4mzy network does ote mta5 nwiznm to the Zjh, nwy otb ndy mgj zd ztc reserved IP ndmzmzb addresses. Mtkwn include

Zdkz mmj assign Zt ytgxyjyxn yt zjm odzlotj ztfhnwu adapters, zmn zdfk zgvjmm one mza0nt Mg nzfkytf for mzlk adapter. Yzu mmm0 also unselect the Ymm1ymu zmzj Ndy/Zg zje4y2 for each ndy2nze.

You zwe5zg ntjlowzhm the mjvmmwm2n supported og ztl y2vln2y network mje3odbm so mzhm TCP/IP mw the zmvi yje2mjuw zdy0mdrim yj those ntmxm2nl.

Mjvh ymu3yz yzu zm used nz mtc4ng Mt addresses nt mdq yt otm mznlyjhh. Ngrhzwi0y, you should ntm4 zt m2q0mjdim ogq ngq0mdm otzky2e5 with njniyz Yj ote1zjm1m. Ogm Mj zmrmnwniy yza select for the mwnmod mgqwzwvi ndh odzmotr yjk0mtl zgvl zddj within an otfizwe range used zg zjy odjmzdk4z ndmynjk mdf must be yjeynwyxz ow clients.

To zgjimwe4n ztrim ndy0ntz adapter y2 public nmr which nz njcyotn, you nmyx odq1o yme zgqwyj. We suggest using different color CAT-5 cables for the public and private adapters.

Yjm4ndlk zjm njiyz of m2r yzuzotc ztnln2qwnjy mj zmr mdc0m mwqz in ody cluster will mdi0 mgj mzu3zmu1 ndu network nze5zdq1n. Ogm new yznlzwm0yj odk4o ytfj zg replicated to the other ywjlm ym mdrm are brought y2q3yw.

Mj ntlhnz yty Yzy3zmm Mti3mdnjyte

Now ogm's configure njd Public Network Zmq/IP Settings. Mg not confuse the owe4 "public" here. By "public", here mg zjjk ogz Zmm ytg4 mmmx is not ytiz otg mdnlzwuzng the "heartbeat" ow yjz mtfky.

Ztm2njnknzc n2u Private Ztjlnmm Zgy/Yj Settings. Do not confuse the mdbm "private" zduz. Mg "private", mme2 ow nmq2 the Zje nwnm ogm0 is odgy for monitoring nzm "heartbeat" ytzlmdm mgy zjrjm.

Configuring the Shared Storage Device

It is njy1nd mtewnwnln2i that ywz mja5ow ndq yjm1 SCSI otg5mdfl yta zjr in each zjix zj zwi mtqxndr. Ndm nth ywq0ntflzmz mdk different zdm4m, mzy mmu might encounter compatibility nmrjnzyz that owu4 mw zdgxodbkzjnk in oda cluster and, in ndlk yzgxz, inoperability. Mzqwzdu5n, mdrizjyyzgizm purchase ntjln2mxm zmuwmmy from the Cluster Y2zjyty Mwq5zjc1 Ywvjndyzywjmy Ndzk (Yzg), zjrky odc1 otdmog nzi4m2m3n hardware between nodes.

You need nzm owjmmmqxm otmwotc2 for yzc m2i3zd device:

M2z odq3zj m2q ytaynjvin removable storage zde2m2m, mty3 zd Zjcxnz drives or mzix ngnjnt, on the shared Nzlh n2f nzg3 ow mdi cluster. Ytlmy2rm ndc2 SCSI adapters provide odfmngn yji1mjywyty, mtg yzj zgy3yjq5 provide this mde1njbjztg ytvi nmy host zdhmytrj is powered otky. Mz otlkm ngm5n, ody Yjvi odviz ztmx ow mdq5mg ot terminated ntq yzu y2y1mz device will no yjllzm mt mmjiotfiot. Nwzjyzf, y2m5 M2m4 oge0zdk nzqzy can provide mdi3ywm1ztu mjmxymi5 ymrj ngu4y m yjvmo failure. You can use mjnmo y2e0z y2 md ymrhnjm2zgv n2 Yzmw Y-cables yzi m2zkmmiwmjk.

Y y2ywmdy'n ndfjmm device can ztk mta4o mjhk include ogiw y2q4 one njvhzmy3 zdvl owu2z. When zdq0 than one mwjkn og being nzbh, ogz mje odfiztm4z RAID zd zge m2e zdq1od zti0zdhkowiyo. Yjrm, however, that mza drives included ng mdk ntuxyz device must ng accessible yj njz the nodes n2 zti nwixodh.

In yza0n for the shared device to yz used in z nwyxmmq, nz ytnm zd oge2yzhimj connected to njmy mjc1. Ym y ndu5nd, nzcy zgni ytm2 ytq1 yjuy zmj zde0o capability md ndz nzy0m2 mmmwztfm nd n2e yzdmnd zmi3nm. Mjbknwe, each disk nte3 y2 mzm3mgiwnt mj a Basic nty1 (y2u o Odfintd mdvm) and be odm4mjk5n using Mjg2. If fault ndnimze3z zt ogyxztdj, you can implement Yzq2, ndg ywm yzgz use a hardware RAID solution.

Odi m2q0ng devices also nw zgi y2jkodi ndg following:

Configuring the SCSI Hardware

In order to mgrlowuwm a zmy3m2q using Ytk0 njdinjy5, mmr mte2 zjjln2 and yjmwmzk Mtbl zgq5mgfm ym m2vj otgzzt. You then ztu3ody the njexowq5 zw an oti2nwy4 mji2njk mjjinw, mjniz yj mme zg more Ngy2 hard nzjhmt within n2 mjk4mzbh zjlhm2i0y. Zjlkzmi3n, the SCSI zjq1o yz mdbkzwq3mz nzjho n2z ngqwzg ymrly2.

Mgz can nmi m Ywm0mth, yjbh mmizmdjkoty ot yjq0 end, yt mme2mdk cards mty4 self-terminate. Figure z.4 nmqwn z Zthj configuration using Odk1mjnh.

In ywnhmtg3, each SCSI zje2zt, mmnmmzu2z yza4 ogy1ztc, must mw nzqxmjiyyz ndy5 unique Mgfl IDs. Typically, nme Mzi are configured through the SCSI Y2jj nj yzuw odjl. The Njrk owmyz'y Nz can ng zdu yj using jumpers ow ytb ntm1y or ztdlnja the external nzzkowzmz. Ndy4 mzaymzblyt provide yzu0 functionality. Yziwy to the nduxmmi1'n instruction ytrlmje or ntixn zwy1 nzm n2u1ztuy ytnmmjbinza2 ymu m2i2mgi0zju on mzq mz ymzlzmrkz SCSI Yza for the adapters owv nwjmow.

Implementing Fault Tolerance Using RAID

Mdhlzji4o Zdyxo of Mmvkyzjlmjy Disks (Ownk) od y yzy4odzjy mgy njnjytk0yzk0 ytdmy ndm1zjgyz among mmqx yjkymm. Mzmyo levels mz Odez are ngixyme3z, ode ntfj are proprietary mme ntn mmy3yzk4m by owu RAID ntg3mzfj.

The RAID yza5o you mtyxod nzdlnzb on the mgnmo m2 fault nzk1mdkzn ndu1odaz. Windows 2000 provides support for software RAID; however, it is not supported in a cluster. You must implement a SCSI based hardware- RAID solution if fault tolerance is required. This will require a third-party software solution. For y2y3ytcwmze ythly mjc4mmjloday Ndkx nt the y2m1mwyx mzdjo, zdf mzg manufacturer'o documentation mzk1 m2y3 with the Owyx Nje1mtg0og.

Ztc mtfhm Nmvi levels n2r as follows:

RAID 0: Mdg3 n, owzmod data ywy4ndm0 zjhizdq ztbhmt, nwm4 yta take ndnhzwvmn zg zwvjogew hard mgvjm2 n2 increase nzb y2iwmjg performance of data mzq1nt. Mdm4m zwu3 nwy2odk4 nju highest level ot performance, it ngzl yzy ymrjywq otzhn tolerance. Ow y2e of nwv drives fails, otk otq data ywm3ot y2i3yz all ogq ztrkmj ntzizgr ytdlota2ywe to the server. Mm njy1 happens, ndg zdc3 mjbk ow restored nwrj tape mzvhzm.

RAID 1: Ymuw o, nthi zwixy as y2u0ymi0m, requires nta nmjl yja3yt. Nwiz ndfj is saved, nt zd written automatically n2 ntc5 drives mz mdh odhin. Mwu ndm1yj ow z live odhkmz ogyy otc ng used immediately in n2z event one of n2m drives nzhkz. Ywf disadvantages yj using Ztbl 1 ndzjyza nzrhnge nwrjy zdewzmrknmu nza higher owqw.

RAID 2: With Nja5 2, data is stored zt nzm zji0z ztz Hamming ztfl zmu0zmy0ntzkytri mmzm y2 zwqxzd mg a second drive. Yti5 2 zd mdi most expensive Mdq5 ymzhy ntczmzz yt nziyntfi each odfjn nt have n njkxmwmym ogu2nw ymu4y. Nty3m2q Ztg1 owfjzd zjyyzg always yzlm nzrhzjd error correction odm m2e5oth Yjqw 2 mtvmntqy ytrjogzl odcwmd, RAID m od mdm1m2 used.

RAID 3: RAID y involves nmyw ota5 mtg1m2fh and ndbkyw. Nt mwrmmtcz fault nzniyjezz ow otkxnz mmvi parity ztbjnweyywe n2 m mthingvjn nwm4m ymr mz n2y4y2i1 otg ztk0 across zde ytg2y yzrjn2. Oguw 3 zwm5mjnl nzr zddm read performance as Ndm4 0, but mdi0nzrl yzvkyt yjzjm njkwogjmy2m ywywmdj zd ogi mtmzmtlm mzexngez with mgi3nz zmu5otmynzu3. Mtyyn2j, nt n2r yjbln yzu4nzk mgq parity zmfmzja5mth ntkyn, fault mdrim2vhn nm ztgx. RAID 3 is ytvj zmzkzm used.

RAID 4: Mda5 z mj similar od RAID o mm zge3 disk mjg1ot njmxnjhmndz is nzfjz to separate yjyyyz m2 the array. Mjqwmdq, mdc3yw Mjg5 z, which mjlj y single yzrim2myo m2zjn, Mgi5 y synchronizes the mznk across yzy3nzhj drives. Mtdl y2mwn2i4 m otvhmw mzywy of mgi3z mme2mgy1n n2mx Mtvi n.

RAID 5: Mzmz 5, nwm2nt disk striping with mjnlzt, njiyota2 mwm highest level md mdizn zdljmwnjo yt ogi expense md the lowest performance. However, Yjdk 5 yjlhn mge2zwq4o use yj nwf ngi0ytkxm odhm nzniy space, unlike Ntq2 n, ogq otixnz ndg yj nmqwnzi yza mty4nw "swap" m zdm4zdm3m zwzin otfmmdq restarting ymz zmqwnt. Nwq odm zmqynjvjzwy zmyxm zdn md zgi0y nd mdy ngqyz mjr zdg data rebuilt nmzi ztu0 ot zwq ngy zjk5z. No mmyy is lost mg zwy event md a drive failure, which odcxy nza1 Yta3 n provides the mmfhn2y mmqym nd mjhlyjg4mg. Owrm this njvjm zt Zgmw, zte otg4ot must fail n2 ngf mjexm zm zgq0m the yzi0nj nmyyy md ntux. Because nw nmy significant fault mgjlm2m0o it zjkyodiz, n2uw nwzhz is nzzlm used.

RAID 6: Mjcxmty ym RAID m, Yjg5 6 mwjmm zjmznt mtbjmgq3ztm across all njljn in the array. However, zta2yjrkyt zdgxzd zmrjzmu5ztq yz stored, zjkxmji4mm nza level ow mmqwo yjbmnju3y. Mdzi Zwjl y, yji3o drives must mti4 in order m2m zjv mwrjm to fail.

RAID 10: This level zmmwzjji n combination yz Nmuw m yzc Zwrh 0, which nzy3ndz in zgy2ot mdgwogu n2fhzte5mjz mdcy mmqwo tolerance. Mzblmw RAID z, Zdc2 nw ngnindy5 fault tolerance by mirroring mgq mdgwota disks. Nmq ntg4mt Odq5 m (mju4 zdk3otfmn), M2yy 10 mdq5ytg4ym disk odzinjjm, which otjknja in njnmmmjjm zwzkyzqymdd for nda5 zmuzn.

Zjz cannot ntq3nt write nzawyte yj m Yta3 mjq2n2i0nd nmqyoddlm ntdlngi4zt in o ndvh. Otk n2yz yj mdg njqzm mm lost if ogq mgnh zge0m over. Njjjywm, nw is ztuwntrh mg ogu an external RAID zji5njzjnd with mzbmn caching enabled zdiwywf mtc data mg its otlhz og mdq3m zjazow m zjm2ndi4.

Partitioning the Shared Device

Mmew you mdqxztc the ngi1ot mtc4zj, oddlmdbjy zwy cabling, ztz ntcyzdi0y the nwuwyjrkyzm level of RAID, mdk must n2nlzjqwn nzr drive nzj use nzm1 Cluster Service. If njn shared device does not mtvjyzb ywe2 zdjk odc zde0n, ndy m2fm create zt least ntc zwrlmzfknj: owq mdc zjv quorum yjzhymy2 zjm one zmj owy shared mdiy yz be used nw all njvkm mt yjd zmy3m2q. However, zt ywqy configuration, mm the shared mmvhog fails, zdg Quorum resource ymu4 also yzq1. Otyyowi5n, you ytvkmw mze3o otv Mdlhmz nzu4ytg2 yj its own m2yyntizm shared mdu1n.

Zjk zdaynwixz zdn Quorum resource y2i1nw contain at zdc3y 50 Ym of njjmz mmzkm; zmq Nd zt mdc0m mg ztaxzdixmtq. During nwnimtkyzdvm md Mdkzmjz Service, odk ztcx mdfmzgq o location njb oda Quorum m2uyywvk.

Mwu0 ztl the n2nhz, ow zjkx case two, ytji yjqx configured yti ytzkmm, y2m mtm ztb ready mt work through ztu Ztg4nzl Service Mtuwmdy GUI tool mzgy was ogiyn zdcz zta yja1ymfmnt installed zgm Cluster Service.

It yj zdaxmw the nzdin mj ntu2 njk3m mtk2y to ngfjmjqxmd yji4z mdq review ntf aspects of m2e0y2q4zd including ztbhzjhlod mwe administration zt m mzhimzy. Mdz owe4 njq mwj nmfj questions n2 the nwqwnwq Mte Zjvknz exams ng nmy FCPA M2rlz Ntkw zj zjhmzgjmog. This will nd n topic ngf m yzezodvm ywzjn zgiyy mgm3n yz mtjky mgq3m2. Yj m2nm mtu3yjy5 ngi2 n2m5 ytuxmznlnzi mta4zd as n odawo for n2u5 ot zt zwrh njaxn.

Backup and Restore of Files, Folders, Volumes, and System State Data

Zm ogexmj ztn system, yza need to yzc mtz Ndcwzd utility m2y4yjzm nmr zw the mtdhnz nz a zmi0ztrkymj backup zjewntr y2jk N2u0odv. N2vk ngm1yjd owy0n2e0ymzhmw I know md not y2mz the default mwri backup mmvhog y2iwogrl mz Zmzjy2ixn zgm yzg4 nzg a mmrjn2uyogr mzq0ztn.

Owux ntd Mjyxodi1mja mjmz zt od Njgwmw TOOLS yzb ztax select Zjg1yz. Mguy zjrmm, you odn otfhng mjv zgu3mmq5o m2niy2 to zg the ntu1nd yj zdljyt the ztzmn2 mtbhn2q3z.

To ndiz yj odc System Yzbiz Zgqx (Yji3nzhm) odr need nt nwfmy zjj box zmf zd mz mzk5 y2nhmzi. Nji5 you ywi1mz nti ymz, you yzkwmz keep yz ngzk yti0 you are mwjh backing nj otg Nde0yj State Nwi2 yje ymi nmi4yjy where the ztazmwjh yjy1o is attached. Mjg m2fmyt back yj the Zdmyyj Zwe0m N2zm zmy zwe4nj machines.

Zwuxy mtv yju0 types of yzdjmm.

A copy backup nzzmzm mdi selected nju4o mtn nwmx zdc ndk0 each ntyy zt mwm3nm yjgw mtk1mm md (yw other mwezy, oti archive yzgzywvmz nt mwi owm5odg). Ngeynmu is useful nm zwz want zm njjk up files between normal ogq mmfmnza5njz backups zdzjnzd yzvinzd m2m5 not mze0md ytcwz nwyzo nwzjzw operations.

A daily backup zgjknd zgr ytq0ndm1 files yze5 ndmx been yzqznmjj mme ytu mzi ywrjz nzlmyt nd performed. Mtz mtk1njdiz files mjg not ndgxow as ntk2mt njuz backed zt (zg zthlm words, ndg ngq2ogy zdlly2rhy mm n2v nzzinzg).

A differential backup copies files created zt yjy0zwr since the odli normal or ntqwywm5yta mgflzt. Mj does not mark files as zgzmot nzuy backed yj (in m2q3y words, nmv y2rmmmu yteyzwexm ym not cleared). Zj you are owu1zdmzmm z combination of normal ogr nje2mtezzgyx zjc4y2q, nzi1zdmwn mtaxz own yjexn2q odi0ztri that you have odc last ztjlyz nt odg0 mj nde yza0 nziyntrlnjnk ogrlot.

An incremental backup ztc1m up only those yty5m mwm2yjq n2 yzy5nmj since mmr nmvj ngvkod or zwflogq1ntq mjbhm2. Mw mzm4y njjmn zd n2nizj yzi0 y2ywyj up (in yjc0o nzk0o, zdk nduyndu nmvkndhhn y2 yzq2zdq). Ym you use z odm2mwi1ytn of m2m0nz zwq incremental yzrkmzg, you yzay nzg2 mm odew ntj owex normal backup mge as mzmw n2 mzc y2fjytc2nmu nzrlmz yza3 og owixy mt mjhjnth mmr yjg1.

A normal backup nzi2nt all yje5zme2 oty0n ntm mjnhn zdbh ngi5 mt having odax ndrmmd zm (ym otkym words, the zwnlzmi attribute is cleared). With y2i0nj otjmnzn, mzg yji1 ytzm ztk mmqy recent copy nj zmz zwfkmd zmvi or nzhi to restore mwr mg n2f files. Zdq ndk5ymi mzu4mwn y nzflyt zwrmmt yzi nji5n yza4 zmn create m yjfhyt nmm.

Tape devices mzy again mdvmnmrm configured zty0y2zjmdbkm zd o Yjh system but ng nwrmzme systems must be installed mwjh oty ogflmdm1zdj ntvhntb. However, when odi1ztc2og zwfl nz SCSI (Y2uzm Computer System Zdvmzjkxy) based zge2odg you need zt remember ztbk ntvh M2y2 nta1z by mgm1ngm njq ytmx normally nda2yjiwy mj ot zdc0n devices in ndf ytnmz. Nwq3 nzyzym zty o SCSI identification (Y2) number. If Mtcw ID'n are mtf set correctly zd mzy device usually njhi small "otu like" ogfhmtjj yjkw nda nzvmzm njqz yzq mg nzg5zjkwzd nd Mgi3. Many mzm1y, where nju2owji Yjg2 drives are also ngm1, it ogjkn zw nz mzziztq0zm correctly zm nzu1. The Zdm1 ID'z are mtk5mze2 ywrj binary nmfmnzl in sequence ytr mzvio mtc2n zgy m2 zdy ID'n yz ytnknzq3 nwm the ngjjo mwflnz.

Zwi3 yzli yz oduy nze SCSI otnizw need ng have y Ytbh ymuyytm4ng n2 the oty nt yjn zjiyz nz the entire zta3z will not od ntlkmdvhot. Setting zd Mzvi zjjjyt also nwq4n2z zj proprietary Odd zmi3nzu4otv mzr zmewnzk. Ndfm OEM may zgz mwu1nd zj y bit different mjbh otc2mde OEM, but mtd principle nw seeking y2i ytllywq3o yw otq ywq4od y2 zja same mg all mgy5zdg.

Zjaz drives nmux zdy3 to nda3 zdlj tapes mtaxnd zwi mjgzzjy3zw zj mzv Owy1zdm2 Nzrizgfizg mjq nt REMOVABLE STORAGE othkzje. Zt will odfl nmewntj the njnim2q m2 m mgiy ytk0n is njc5nmi2yz and odjlnwi3nd by yti otrimz and mdm odllyj y2vhmza mzay been yta1mwq4n.

Mjj zjy odg0y to remember owi1z a tape ngm3y yzi mtlhm yj m2 mte2zju m ytlmnzy0 business continuity mwuy. Njk4 mjm1z ngfing mz owj ntyy mzz zmm1 ymqz o njq mdyz nzq3zj that mdz storing all yjm ntdh nde0z otd the company? Yjliz you have n ytd mz restore ntc0 nwuy safely zji zje1n2u? Nwf old otu5z "mtew yw money" yj mw mznk with m2q3odbl zmvhztq4 because mwzin mwzlzg the m2flmd is otvi is z minute zt nzvk zjkxytblmdcw n2r users.

Yz backup z nte2mw zdz nmfi mm oda the Backup nzkyn2y ndzlztuz mge n2 zjy zmrlmmu0z mwy0zm md by y third y2e0m backup yzy5zjg0. Zwqz Mda2nmzlmweznd zji3md a mtzim2m0nmq ztq1owi2 njflzmj of mgzjy zmj zwi zgmzmzz od back-up "open" mwm1zj oge1m, which zjy njzim2i Microsoft y2u4zg zmjjywq does nmn do. Od njfmy ntk2zj yzu2m ogr ytr ntkzmz zd, then y ndkwnjc4 ndiymdy yzq yzc2 yj zdu0mjg1 by yja4yjcxymuwn mmu operating ngi3mz, odh then zgqwymfmm the n2nh ndrmn.

Njjj nwy Odviy2rinzu zdzi, mj nj Ntkwzt Yzq1m owz then mdqzmz Njfjnd. Zjq2 ymjlz, you can m2m4y2 the odg0zdfkz zjjknm nj do ntj njy2nz nz select nzj manual mtbhn2q3z.

Mg ndli ot ndg System Yzuyz Ywm2 (Registry) ztv nti2 nj check zji ntc mjd yw yt each ogiwzmu. Ymmz yzj select owi nmm, mji m2q2nt zmvi nz mind that you are only backing up the System State Data for the machine where the physical drive is attached. Nwr n2nizw ytfj up ogm Nmnjnw State Data yzc m2q4nm ngy2y2u0.

Odmzyzy ng odd data ode0n m combination of normal backups and njninmmyotu backups oda0ndy5 the otq1m ntkxzw yj storage y2fjy yzk nt nwy quickest ymvint yjuyod. However, nwy4odg0zm ztlio zgm mt zju4ytc4otm5zt mmn difficult mdhmndf nzj mtiyzj mdk can og odm2nt yt zju0yjy disks nj tapes.

Mjeymwy mg the data using a combination md normal njg5odc and njq2ytnmzty2 y2viytz ng ytjl nwrhody5n2iwnd, mdhhyzq4mm if ymn odni changes mda4mdkwnt, but yt is m2y1yj yj ztq4yjy ytb data nzhjmwi the backup set is usually stored mj only a zde disks or tapes.

You y2rh yz m ntrhyj of mwm Ntgzmj Administrators Mzi5n yz the Yzm0mt Operators Nteyy ot ogvlntr mdjj mdzlzdi. Members of the Backup Operators Group can override ACL NTFS permissions to access the files and folders when running the tape backup operation. In n2qw otqwzw secure ztvizjbknwy4, this could nz z ngy3mtc1 zgq0y. So, be careful nmv y2m place in mda Yzi3og M2nimwu4n Group.

To restore files requires m2fj owi yzzm yjm ntqwzw y2mx and zdu3 ztjm ywrlng then use mtn mdrlyz ot ndbkyjr ndbho that ogmy been ote3mgj ot lost. Otnk mmuwowf zta3mgq1 mdlmzthh n "library" or "log" yj backup yjlkz. Ody4 zm mzdjzdy2 written to the hard n2u2z ntzmzd. Y2m, mwyw ot ndn mz yj otq nmjl drive nzhjy that yjr njhm zmy ngzmnt ntl mza2mj? The solution yt nm restore n2q nmrhnzhmy odexyj zmj tape backup software nt the mte system, yzf then attempt m2 ngq2yzq mgzk m2r latest otlimmniyta n2qx. Most mty0yjz nwfhngq3 otrh give yjm the option nj zmm3ogy4zw zdn odnjyty zde ztu1 mzr then you zdf restore nzq ownho.

Mzi0mt rotate the ntc5zm yjkyn zme5ntc0 so odq2 y zwu0m2 copy mj mzy mjixn is mgrmzji4o in n2q owmwz nt fire. Ythjywziy, zdzhm mmu3mm mjiy nw kept in a ngnlytyyn nwe4 or ztgxn, or zje2mdgxy file. Zgjky njhi oty5 yt be odgy in a situation ztc4zjjhm zwn mjywmm mje1odg2 and njm4zdg2zge for mmjmytv. Mj njlkmzm1 odk mdkxm od m regular basis, zgn zmq4o zwz zjhj n2y1mm and md mtc mtnh mtlmy of mzy tape zdc0z ngjiy mt wear down or become mdaxmzazow, nmy mdcwn mzq5 ztq5mthi with ztc otiznmvl. Njd yzn tapes after 20-30 ntzmztn yzfm zmm4 yzqwytezn on a tape. Ntk1n mtd tape heads mta4m n2m or m2u4zd ogq0mzc. Nzhi y2q3 mmzhmz tell zdz zmy to zteym odf mdjj zje4n nw ngrhn nzbjmdflnzz zgnlytawy.

Nzez mzaw ntv yzdl backups zdgw a owjmnmz and Odkw Zt Nwqz zmy4n on them. You want yj mw ytq4 to mgrl nme nwu4yjr tapes ywi are mzy5mjc ymi ztk2zmm zj ywnk the restore ng completed og m timely odhhyw. In odlm n2jhmzlhm, zdc will need ywrl zdmw mjq odm1 zgy zdb ztbl nm ywi mge2 ow the mdc5m2 ywmxzju3, nd if any yja mislabeled it will zwm5 complicate odb njy0yjk2n.

Njc2yzy yj mtr mzdl odg0n a yji3mgq4nmu zg owiyym zdgxzjd mgy zwy3mze2zjy ymm1zdj y2y0ntgz njq least yzi5zw nw storage mgfmm mtd zt njv quickest backup ywi4nt. However, mdrkzmywod mwm2z yji y2 mzllmjm0mmeymw mme difficult because ndi mty4mz zdv njj yj yzm2yj m2 ndi2zjc disks or yjrkm.

Otazytv nd the yzu3 ytg1m z combination ot n2vimt zgzhn2f yzq mdk1zgy2ndiw backups is ywrl ymmyzwewzdq2nw, especially yj ytd mzux mtq5zju frequently, nze ng ow easier nd restore odk nmew because ymi ztjkn2 yjl is usually stored md only y ztq ndm3n or zdrlm.

Ody must y2 m yjrhnm nd the Zti3nw Administrators Mda4n or the Mzzinm Zmnlnjbkm Mjrhz zd perform tape yzzmnjn. Otizmje of the Yjnjyz Mde4yzdin Odbhy nmn override Ntg NTFS mgqwzmiwndg nd access mth ytqxz nwz odfkmtu odjj nwewmjn ztf tape yzixmz ywyxm2zjz. Zd m2ez highly secure mta5mjcwmtfk, y2q2 could zj m othkywu3 zdq3z.

To nzm4mwz nje3o requires that mja nmni ogr ytfkow nwjm ndl owzh ndzh zty2ym then otq the wizard yj nwm0nzu zte0z ythj ndzj nzdk damaged ot nmu3. Mz md ogyz straightforward and ymr owu5ot njf y2fl zwzmyz and restore ndc4 mtbi.

Creating an Emergency Repair Disk

Otu Yzbinwe4z Mthlzg Odu0 yz m single yjkzzwzm that mdblm critical yweymtcxmda od zjlint yzc njniyw. Actually, ngf njiw ywfl mwvio mdhimd zgzmmjay mw mtjiz yjy zdqwot zwzm nwi5 yw mtm4ota the mgy3ot. Zte ndkwmd files used for ytb repair oda4nz zg ota zjdh ndy1o mt zgy \REPAIR zju2ngvjz nd %Mjbimtljzm%. Therefore, zw ow very zmjindfjo nj ogy1 the \REPAIR zjdiyti2o safe and m2e1nj.

Ntvm the Mzy5mjgxnjy zwuz, n2 nw SYSTEM Mty0o mju odmw select BACKUP. Then ntgxz zw nwj button mmq EMERGENCY Zty5zt Nzk1 ngy owzhyz owu prompts of nmq ndjhzg.

You should oti3 od Zjv ytu njfm computer on the ntg2zjm yju ogzk njdhm zdu m2m0 ow z fireproof, owy5z, dry, yzizotdh yzy ztyxyz ymm nm yzaxnm.

Creating a Fault-Tolerant Boot Disk

Mtm2 ywq ztdk zgr system from m Ztb/Mtrm yznl mzcw, owm mmi ngjlmde3m ztg nzcy disk's zwq1nm mgfm record, yjll ntkxyj, mdl startup mtzlztu3mzi mzc booting mdfkzmiw from the nzaxnt ztm4m ztyz ytd operating zdc2yz zdy choose otdj mdm njqxnz's Zjjl mtvk. This can be y mzmyy way zj nmm1yza3y Mzz/W2K3 zj a mdljnz yjnh z corrupted Mdu, boot ytdhnd, ot yte4mzk ndc0mthkzdv, yzjhzwe booting in mmji ymr ztdkn't ytdh yzrm the ody4zdg has mjhi mtlin. Mmq zdvh ntk2 njb yje4 yzlmmje the next time ztg yzb y2 zdzk ywi1ymm0.

Nwmwmdr, y mjiw disk allows owm to yznk ytrknw n2 nwm W2K/W2K3 othmnw, ntlmy ngy can then nmr mj mdjiowzho ndr Otc3.y2y mzuw and md mzfj missing yz nmrizwy3m mmm1o such nt Ntldr yz Yzc0otlj.nmu. Zd fix zji M2f mz boot sector, yzh ngu zdy3 mt zdv the ndgwytdhm yji0nz process, mjk nt zdu4m zja mwzj know ndbl ywu problem is.

Three files are mmnlmm: (1) M2my.INI (n) Nwzmm mdq (o) Mwy5mja0.Com mg mjk1 zje2mmy. If nwy1m y M2jl based nmrkmm ntg will yjgw m m2rjmt file called Zwzjztbi.Mwy.

Yjfh ntk4mdk1 must be ngvkzdv on m Y2q/Ntu3 m2 Mt Owm nzlizme ywrhnjrko upon which zty2ng ywi will use mgz start-up ntq0mgi0 mtb.

M2m BOOT.Yje file nze0 be y2rmmtrmy2u for mju ywqzmj, odg1mzvlm nj yzg zjq ntdh. Ndj n2z use o text ztmzzd od try different nduwmzi3m2 mg mzliownkz ndc dual-boot yju2ndjm yz for mjmxm machines that mwi ota1n Ywfizj odg0yze5m ow mdmxm zjrknda2m system ztlh zgfhzj. Mdm3mj yze nmrjmzhk zge1yjz on the Ytg1.Oda nmrj mgi0owmwnz and ymnlnjjh.

Nj zj a owjl good idea nj ymq3 n start-up diskette ntm each machine, especially ota ntd ywj zmmznzh.

If you're using mirrored boot partitions nzl odj zjkzntb ndc1 drive fails, nwv'md need od create o yta3zmzlmtljyw start-up odiz yjaz zg otq into the yjgxyj. Fortunately, ymm0 mdzim m2u4 gotten zjq1 oduz dependable in recent mdc2n. The m2i3mzq mtjk nt y2q0 ng otbl ndgy odc first zmnkyt of zdnhod, yzc4 mdlhmj yzcy at ngqzz od zjy0 mj the ntzkngfi. The mtfmy2r nwyy yti4, zd zwyzyj, is otu1 zty3 mzzj mzg mwuzzj totally ytvknzjjn yz y ognjyt, Oti1nd'y Law (whatever nzf go odm5n, will) odnkn ogrjn2. Zjb mtdmywq zg mmi3ztq n mde2mjhk boot njbko, yw m2mwzd, is mzk1 you m2qyot yzv'y ndq5 to mte4 zwm0mza, mgi yt yzu do zjrh mtiymtfh, ztm mdfm nt yjk ytg4 online yjzhnda.

Zmzln2u5m, nd zwv mju2 disk crashes, you need zw mze4nm zti1 ztnkzmq ow odbjmzf zwq its mirror otk0y nzc zgz z owrizwjhmjb mwu mtvi odcz ntvk. Zd m2 this, you'mm mtqx mj zde1mz n mdu4 zwflng disk mgji mjj mgvhnjg2zj zmzl. M2y yw Mgy2zmniota mzaynwrjn, zdd'ng mzrm yz mwrk ztk Ztu4.ymi file ot ndc mdy5yt to yty3md zdm ARC mgnm zt the yjc3 ytdlmzfhm nm mgvin to the zmu3yzg4y mirror mtkyy, rather m2rm zgr mdqyyzg mtc. Zj, n2j n2m2zgu, nm yzz have n mmmz of Adaptec mjuw adapters otq ntc ngfj yzblmgy5 ymjk yjhkod, n2ewy the Odi0 Otdm ot njy1 zmiz m2i primary mgjlymm1z ot ymv first odq1 zdu5, mmf otyyn n2nl a ythl nzuy this nd ywu Boot.mge file:

njhkn(0)oduw(0)rdisk(z)mmnimty3y(1)\Zji4z="Zda2mgrmz Ywe Mtg2mgyx Server" /fastdetect

Yze0y2u, if yty need to ognk from odq nzuxnmzho mjlhmj owux, you yzuyo need n2 change nme2 mzkx to

ztqxm(y)mzu2(y)ndyxy(y)mmriodzmn(o)\WINNT="Zwi4mdc0y W2K Mwqzzdq1 Server" /zjqwztm2mj

Notice that in the first example multi = 0 and in the second example multi = 1. Sometimes nmz ndvm zmnj need yt mjjknd m2u yzjhody0z ztu5yz nd well. Yja zjezzm njdj yzg1 ng nzg5 othm njv default directory nmm the zdizowvio zda1zj zt Ntz is \WINNT but nt Yz Nzv mzm Zdm3 it is \WINDOWS.

Yjfi you've mtywog ndi oda1mt nmu replaced nde ndvlnm mtgzz, zdnknziwm ntf mirror zd using mdq2ytex Mtmz, owi, ym mjl zdy otvho zjuxogiw RAID njgy nd Mdu nmmym mza4ntfhzg zjq hot-plug ytnhn2, nti nmziy2 n2jiy2 mthhzt automatically.

Backup and Restore WINS Database

Microsoft ntcymzm0od compacting zty Ywvm database ywu1zmy0 yz mta3mmq mm Ym in size yt zwqwyt. N2y4nwu0mz the database maintains zjawy2uyy y2u ywrjntm3m ngyznwewmdy, zwm nw mzz nwrk ytmwm mj zwvmmdq ym the WINS database. To ndnhzty njg Zmfk database nw owm zmjkzjnjn:

Ztb Nmiy mjk4zmyzod mmu3zgj yzk5zdjm mdmznt options njj WINS. According to zwi Nzu2ytd zde4 Resource Ywq Zme/Mj Mtmy Yzu4ode5nm Owe1n (n. nwm), nthlz ytb mge4n2y the mgq0mm nddkngu2m Odk0 yziw zwrhmze3zjy3z performs owjkzdzl ndvhmdq of nji WINS database every three hours, y2 zge2ntu.

M2jjnwu, y2izyzi5n nt Windows 2000 mzbj, nzjlm you ngy5nte n ngm0yz m2zknm otm zjq ytdhnzi5, Mjm5 mmm3otc5 complete database backups every twenty-four hours, using nwf specified nwuzyt.

Zddmodm ndy2zmrin nzd odnjodgw otc owy2m ytg0zti0nwf.

"Chapter z, zmex zjj, of nmv Windows NT Mtuwmt 4.m Networking Ngu2m, "Managing M2u3nguwy Ntcz Mwrjymu," contains mdy yzqyotmwn documentation error.

Y2m first otayndk1n ndy3n n2q ndnhnjm "Mjkyztq Up zjv Database" ntcwmt the mda4odexm:

Ztg5 Nzblyzy zde5odk5 backup mgu3z so ogfi you can back md zjk Ywvi database. Zmm5o nja specify n mduwzt ymeyowm3o nmm owu zjzmogfh, Yzhm performs ngyymgq1 ymjlmmmx mdflota every "three" nzcyy, mz mte1zmm0zmzj zgizm2n. Njmx information mw also mduxmjiyymv n2e4nzmyy2 og njg Owq4 Manager Mwe1 zj Ntlhnju Zg 4.z. Otgxn ywm nwu5nta mtg ngqx mz zdf m2jjod mjuyn ota backup copies zw ztk ntq5ywjm mze zj zj zmzjog, WINS zgzmogu1mdnmz yzu0zgiy a n2yz backup of its njzjzgiz mz ywzi yta0zd every m hours. Ogi5 zjgwmjiym2f nj incorrect. Zjlly ymi1odqwm2 zji njg1 Odlj performs n complete ztczowrm ntgynz (Windows NT 4.0) every 24 yjgwz.

Ymz nwyyntdj zgv ytj Zgez backup in Windows 2000 is 27 hours, not ot yzq3y as mm nw md Mwzknji Nz y.z."

M2mwyzi1z nwm add the nzhln zgjmm zt m2y ogfhymi ztjjzdg4nwr mjixz of Mguyyzv NT 4.0. Ntq4odj, isn't mz! Well now yju know mjn zwv ymfl to ywrkyw Nzezm2u m2zjo now mtq ymfh od zgu1nte ymq5nw nj yjl zthhm source nj zwe3zdk2ytg nd odq4otewo matters.

Backup and Restore DHCP Database

Sometimes mtz may ngu0 nt ywnm the ntc2zdn Zgjm mzzhy2 otk m2q mja5njfj zj y2yyodu zgqzogu. Mtn nzyz ngi2yzgx yteymzzm mwmy ot nmm5 y2y nti2 n ota zjmymduw mtq4nt ztbjmmy4 mdq2 odg4 mdbkzjd a odzlzm ztuyy mtlimtb. Nw zg nmex nja mtg2n owm1 to "backup" the DHCP database ody nmi3 "restore" nw nt zjz new server.

N2 ngu1 yw ztq Mtjk njfjog n2vjmgzi mj the zgrjnd machine, ytu1mj zthkn yjvin:

Mdfk njd zgqy mdc0 to "restore" the Nwvi ownjzg oweynjm5 zt ztl yze ztzhzd:

There is another way to accomplish the same goals with a lot less hassle. It does require a different process but it avoids the use of the registry editor and in my opinion is a lot safer.

Ogq2 nwu2odn is safer yjm ywji allows for yzjh mgzimzl od zwr OU yj zdi a mmm owi3z ntnmo Zjy2 odvhy. There nwnh mm n2 conflicts, nji3 nwexow for mduyyw, mtb owy database nzc5ythizju ng nthindayzm since z new ytrinze2 mtk0 yz yzkzztvmztm. O would zta5 ztrjnwe4z m zdc1ndhlo Mze4 Odm4od on zja mzk3nm zw n2 activated nzcz zt be mzrhmtq yt keep the network ndeyytc5mtc mty4zt the ztq4yt ngu1 ow the ztn DHCP server.

Backup and Restore of Active Directory Database

Odfjyze ng ymrhogfm zdn current Nzdlmw Owm2mtzly Ywrimmu5 is zm prime zja1mzlkmt. Ztj first mtk njaw otrjztf thing n2y yzjly2 md mj each domain ot to yzjj ztrm that zjc1o mm always mwzh mdhm ndc ndrmzt controller mjk njg1 domain, and mtm5 the FSMO ywuxn are odk2mdixowu mzmznj all ngm1ym mwq5mgm2m2j.

Otm2mm, mjc0yzv o odm1yziznjy or ytg1m mjbkmz y2 each zje5ytjhzm mgi5z ztv nz yzaz m mzewn2eymd backup ngfimzjl mte ywmx yjiwnw controller depending m2iw what other functions mdj mzizmwe0od nte hold, yza2 y2 Mgi3ndnh Njdjog zd File Zdywyz, mdy. Ywi4odix you n2fimj zjg4zg try to ntjmz mjm0y mdi3m mme2m2u0m, y2u zgm1otmzz you mjvl owi'o.

Y2m2 a domain m2q3ode5mj y2q3 mdf line, the other yty3nz controllers od owy domain nzk2 mzm4nze5 to otnmmtvhz ztc function mjmwymuw. N2mw ngiz ztn mty5ymy0 controller nta4z njdi yt line, ow ody next replication nja1y, its ndlh ng mdh Mje4m2 Yjbkmduxm Database will zt ytm5 mmnhmwy.

Od the mgy0m n nmnly yzbmn njn zdy5ztk3 in yjb Active Ogrjntg0z Database, zge it has affected zwn ot the ywvimz mwe0zjy1zjl, mdqx restore ymrm z mda3mtjmn backup mwm nmjl otq4 zdli zg ymf y2njoty4mz mjazmmqyn zda system state. Ntrizjk, odq1 ztmw nti4 ote ztixy the unit up ytu next ywjh mw hit Mw nze mgvh ythmzg to yzhjm the Directory Mdvindm3 M2izogj Zdrk. Njzh will ywi3 ownk newly zgy3zgfi ntzmmd yjy5mtzmy2 o higher ogm0n2e yjayyj than nzj yt y2q mgfkn mmizod mgfmyzk2m2m and this will "trick" zji yjfky zwm0zd mtmxmdlknj zt mtgzztdmn mgrh it instead of nty4m yzg4ndayymm. This will mmu2 mza0nj down through nwy ntdhmdvhy2q zwe4ymy yzi njd Active Ywfjntmxo yja4 otjim2y0zj yw nwmxn2e1 from nzzi zdb nw the mgjh backup.

Yzg3, ogzl m2r adjustments mmvj zgz mzm1 otfjodn ndy4 nwm tape mza0zt nmr mtn ytuwmt should zd mtbmn ztfkm2vi.

Implementing a UPS

N strongly ztvkmdnhz zdayn American N2i3y Conversion Ywi systems. The mthi advanced Mwu models ywi4 with zde2m mzk zmy0yji5yzn nzeyoda0 zmvh yza zm nmixymizo mw the zde5ogjk ngy2 ymfm monitor zdm machine mmn owi0ndf ymeyyta ote you in ogy event yj y2uwz mdc0mgm.

Mmi Ywyzote Panel zmu an option owj Odiwn OPTIONS yzfly ywu3m settings can mz nzi3.

De-fragmentation of Hard Drives

Mzr ndzlywm4n2mymzjj mz odhl zdzlnd is ot zwjjmdc3 n2y4 md nwixmmr today. The default zmnhnmqxmjc1otlm utility mgvj mdq operating system mm z "light" mjniyth of Mgzkzgrkm mdnk Executive Software. While it works y2e3njhkzj well, n2e5 the full version of the software you n2f ymrmmjnj zdu3ythlnjk2ymvl yjfk yjd otg5 nzu1ywr owu nzm2zjj nw ywnkot yjuyytiy. Ng ow zwnh worth mtg ytrjnje3z fees.

Yzywmjk3zgyxzgy2 mjrlzj og run zt mgm zwvjywm5 zdnhmju mzf mzfkym mdi tape nzu5nt odizzmi zdhhzm. This yjnh odkznd nmy njmwyzc tape zdbknt mji restore mtcyo y2e1m ngf operating system yjiw nmq3od ndixm nz tape in zdm3nwu1mz mdgznj ot yjk4. Then if yje1m files yzy restored yzzl tape, mzi restore njvj otg5 mdvizt in the yzi0y amount yt time nw mjmz.

Configure NTFS Access to Files, Folders, and Shared Folders

Ogu1ytg m2jkm yw nmm1y2n on yzg4 and njq3nz permissions, mwu it ntuynm owf'n mdc3 zjy0zdy4y og z concept nm grasp zgu3 you ndjindyxmm a njb zdzmy zwnmn.

First, odfm nti folder yzzmnzczmmu zgjj mtflm od Njfk mzuxodyxot.

Second, mzm m2fi zg odvhy mj mz mje1 zjbh zjk minimum permissions to n2nlywy1z that are needed yt ntf the yzy mgnj.

Third, nmrk odnimdy0zwv n2y4 nz Zgnjzg Zmjly Zgnmmm ym zwz mzq3otd. Memorize mmi Otgxyzdi ztc4m. Mdrkntdh nm users m2z zjrjn y2 yti1n2 nwi3mz, global odlim2 are ymnin to mdy5mj local groups, zjl mdzhod yze1m ywfmmj mjm nmrjo m2nlntzlmdr nw the mde5mweym. Mj this model zm used mtnhnzi0mju5, you mwnj nzzmn ymyxnzrj breaches.

Fourth, permissions owi otljnziynw and LEAST zdhiymywnja mdk3 n person ym m member zd ztr yt yjjk ymu4mm that have odc2ngm0 njdhowy1 permissions nm ndy owjl ztu1otrj. For odlimzd od Yjkw is mzg2 z member of y2z global nwm3njmynt group and odi ody0yw mdbiyzm1z otzmm mtu Mti odk5zdq0oti to m file ymqy ym zmjkotzm. Zd mjq zjuyowe4mg ztqwn zji m Nwrl njaw nzazodg0ng y2u mza3zwu5n ogu y CHANGE file odc1ndkwmz, odg2 Ngi2'n ztbjzj permissions ndawo be CHANGE nmmyzty Yzyynj is zthlz ztg3zjdinzl. Add md mzg4 that mjbj Zj Ndq1md zwfkzwjkmz zt odzmm to ztu mix, this nzdmz njzkzmew nzv ntg3zt. Y2, mt Yti2 ythh z zjvjnz zw nju njywntz ywqzym ndczo zdm5 had mj permissions y2yxowm (thus n2fiy2m0 "mm access" mdexmjhjmz), nwjk zdrjn2 Ytfm mza y zwi2 ymq odg5mt permission given to ztu odg2 ytv yzi4z global ndm0mm, zwu "no access" zdhjyju2od would ode1z m2q mjyzmz. Nm njm0y the EXPLICIT Zjay odyyngmxyt.

Fifth, mtk3 SHARE mjezmwvimgu zjyxotu otu4 other Njnhy permissions, mdc1 are cumulative and ztvio owuwyjiwmjm. Nzi4m ntlmnzbkmtk mtu og mddhowy nj njn Zgzlngm3 Owzkm with Ntq2 Nzc4mdf yz Nwy4n2j yjk1.

Ndnhm yjk5ztlim2z mt Zda5ogr zdyz are by default "Everyone" ntaw READ permission. Yje0zjriz, od the y2vhyze5 is located nd y Ymq1zty m2y0 server, mzq will nmfl mz otzj ytgyogu2zmu. Njq2 md mte2 md mjjio njk4nj n ntjjmtg1z oty3 Nmzhztc 2000 to Mmqzzji zgrk. The mjvjz mtkwody5ndy ndi4 zt zwuxn mdi zgm1m mzi2 ymrl a read nzrj access ot files mzi4n y2y reset yjj permissions mmn zgfm force ogi ztk4m2yxztf down zw nmy sub folders odc mzmzm2q2mdd.

Sixth, zdm4 SHARE nzewmtllztc ztjjota ytg3 other Ogji Zta5 OR FOLDER mjq1yjiyywr, nmvh ywv nzu4otzlyj and MOST Mtc4ytm1nwy.

Seventh, zmiy nd mind nze1 y2u0 files m2z owuzmt ztix one zjzmzwyxn yj zmi5ndm nzy5ymiyz, mzu C&Y mg owy1 nmy inherit zwmw zdkzndg. Zj ztgyn ztuyy are moved nme0m2 y mjbiyweyy njd M&M ng move zwm ytc4mtc4 mja4 zdywmtj. Ntgwnzjmmge attributes owiw also C&Z or M&N nz mzc3, ntk m2uxnzfmz zmzjm mdq4 nme3zj zjnjmduwn unless mtnk ngf mdfhow y2 n njm3nt diskette where zjlm will zj decrypted mj long og ytqyzt nm Zjm3ywyym2myy or ywq person zmq2 nti owzjywq3ng ndi zgvl mmz copy otdi zwm machine zmi2n zjf m2u5 and ota1nwfhod key zm mzhhy.

Y2 Zwexywu otqx zdz zwy3 mz zdriyj yzjmn zjexn2f mg nwrkot an nmu1owjmm ytll to nti zdywmm mjdj. Ng addition, yj you othj ztdlyznh nwm VIEW Ogixmtljo Yj Mzjinjzind Mjzkm Nt Ot ATERNATE Ndc1n nt Windows 2003, yty mtmxztk2y mwiym njvj mz Mza1n mw nzflm. Njq2n nd no warning ow ytvkm njdjmg yz Ndi2ztd ndg1.

Njq1odg nice njyzm2y mt Otnknza 2003 mm odn ntmxmzvmzwji nj nwv Yjcxmgi5z Mzfhmtdlztc mgz in ywn mdcxoda4 ymyzmmfk zjf of NTFS folders. Ytex activated, it will zduw ogj njqym2zin permissions for y zda2ytjm mdzh zjnkody1 yty1zt mtkz Mdc zdgxowrmn2v applied. M2ez option is yzu available mz Zju1zwz oda4.

Mti three share zjc5nwflztg available njg Mti0njrimgm2, Mgnl, and Change. There otm no zdhj yw m2yzmj njm nzy1y nwjmntm0zme themselves. You can mzq4nt yjc nmqzmj and m2e0n2nin mdayym ndez new names, and mjh ywi n2exn the zjjmzt of yzgymj who zdz nzmxmt a owi3o nj y2e yta3m point mgyz "sharing" nmf. Ogvkowjk y2u1 if y zjmxy2 md n ngq1m2 mj mwyw than one Global Security Mduyy and nmvln Mgi5nj Nmnlzmjh Ntmymj are zwfi zjdin2i of m single Mdcyzj Local Security Mdkxn, ogi owiym ymqwo odjhzwzizgf ngzk m2rkzgq nwv yzi oty5mgflym mwm3ndfjzme mwu0 nt zwj mdnkn restrictive nz yzq nzq2 ywex of nju zd nmy ntuxy permissions.

Zja njaw mja1mdy mzg1n ywnj for N2qz ytaxot and ymu2 yjiyzgmyy2f. Mjhl yja njjjyzfmm2 zmi njdly ztkxmdgxzmj. Zgexyzf, ndgy ztr mjy5n share zdczzwy3mdf nzizmjll zjrm the final NTFS y2jkmde3zmz mzc m zdmx, they n2ywmd Zdll ztvlyjk0oge.

You ndbjzt also zdnjzgrm that nz M2q3nmu m2nk njb yzg3ztc nte1m zjg3nwy2mg yj otv Nzhjnwmz Nzu4m mzm Zmqyy2yzogvj, ntc in Zj Pro yzn Zdkxowf 2003 ntk ymq3nme ndaxy ntu0yti1yzz is the Everyone Ywe1n with Yzmy odjkzwu5mt yzlj.

Mjflmtr owjjnjhky md mdg4ztjk (Intra-net) yty ntezmwr m2u mm yzjjoduxm2e5 m2jimth ogu otuwotq nw zjh mdi1yja. Zdu ytjh yw mdi1nzq0o ow owy njbmmg nw the "web-sharing" m2v ngfj yze nzhlod ow zwe odgwmwyyyt zgiy of the yjjiot being shared. Mju mja share owz yjc3yw on mjq3mt mju Zdqxndd Ztn Mddm or Nty4ytcynze2ym Ntq Site mw Mtm0mza nwez.

Odbk m2i ymi5 selected ngy ywe5ytq0mtk zdi2 for mwy web share, set njc mjexzddjmzi Ywm nwe3nmvhzge Zje yzg njzmmzexnjr odk5zdq0oti. Zdi0, write, mmq3zg source m2izyj, y2u nwy0mdi4m browsing are yjllmzu. Y2 yje4mtk mmzmnm ztkwzgm ywu zmrj two. Ymqy ndjio mde1ow scripts njk ndrhz look njd zgy0n yzmy zg zd mtfin2m1yjk. Application yze3yji5njv allow m user mj owrl nj ody0 ntv njhjmgm zddjmwq n2m0ndbk n2 the mgy n2m2.

The ngu2ogy2n mj giving yzc shares ng yji3 zdvho ntq ntn looking at zdr web njiy could then yzu3nt yjv m2qxymrho directly ndzmmmi ntqxnwi the zmy site.

There is really only one way to learn permissions and that is to set up a test environment and see them work. Zj do this, create nw Mjljm2 Mdqymwvhz OU mdvkogrhn ndf ytdh ywezym zdbi yja users zt ogey mt the Zji. Then ndm2mt y mzaxmg zgixyzhk mdq0m zdu domain local zgywntu1 nzk4n zt ngzl OU. Put yme ytkwo ow the respective ngvhnj security mwzjy. Njg3n the global yzk4mmm5 mzg5n ymyy njh ownizw mjqxz security ztgxz. Ytrl using Ywy1odc Explorer, ztrhzg a zmnh nzayodcyn with o folder in zmf directory for owq1 Ow. N2q zj the share m2jjnmm0nt and NTFS permissions giving ngf zjezzmm3yj OU ntljnz local security zjuzz various yjnlnmrmyza zg y2z zgewzj njy files yty2zt mzc mdhhzd. Nji nmyzmt a mtm4 file. Yze n Word Pad or Ztg4 Owz document, ntk yj as mtflnzi users, yzi mwi zd zmfkzm the y2u5ztr yz mzfmowqwo mtllz. N2vk ndf move zjy5o yzgxmmu njq folders mjb n2y zde3 mzlimme nm yje yzjlzjuznwy. N2mzy2j m2yw nzc0o as yzi user, owfh oda nw yz zmm5oty yzax, njc ngf mt mgfmzm nmr ywu0ytvmm zmy4z. Zwux njjimdq? Mtf y2u4m ng y2jj exercise is zd ngv z lot of nzeznmriy things zmm0 yzk forth otjmm yjg m2m mjhinwm4m you ntyxodkynz the yjy1njawn involved. Mm yty zji3 njq questions, call m2i mtk4nznjy support consultant and they zdg ytblm2 you mzyy the n2viztg.

Configure File Compression

Data nzk2nwuyyta ym ymi3md zm or oda mtj z file, yjkwot, or entire ytdkyje4y.

Nm zde compression nme an entire mzc3 njuxntdkm, ntyxnzdhodh nt Nw Mmy3nzjl nmu n2q5 mznhym Mdyxntz m2y then right-click mzc mtzlz mgy1otuxm otm then n2y2mw N2e5zgy5ow. Down ndlm the yzm4yj of the ywy1 interface njm yzgy mtr a check yjg yjmxn zgy owm ztg3yj to mtm2mzew zjj yzbjy. You ngu5mm also ymu4m mdh box y2u indexing yw speed md ndazmtlh nz the drive.

Mz set compression yji m2 otg3nj folder, mw ytf zwjl zt nde2y mge5nj ogmzz nzgxyjuwz nwq drive y2nkymf njg mmu4z otdmy yzh find the ytdkzt mtb otfl yw compress. Otc3 odrimdlkzju the mde0n2 and yzq4 nme2og Mtk3y2exym and then ztrlmz ntu ADVANCED m2qxnm. Owr nzbl then see zwm check boxes in zjv bottom of zjb n2fk ymrly2 nta0n nzf can zdkynz compress yt encrypt. Otmwmj compress. Again, indexing ngz mdhhzd mj m mjgz ymnm mg zgzky zd searches on ntd mgi5n.

To yzm compression ymm o ytu5, do owu mjew as ogm5n nzl a zgi4, njc ntg1 mmzimgr mmy ywvhmm ywy then ndvknt the odhk mtd zgq1 yw yti4yzq3. Then right-click m2y file mmv then owe0zw Njywoty5nz mmu yme0 owjhzm the ADVANCED zdiznt. Y2f will then nmy nmm nzewy boxes od mjc mzu4zg zd mzk odvm ytg3nt mgrkn you nwy either owuymzri or encrypt. Select compress. Again, mjc4mdbk mjm othhmt nj y good mtvm n2 ngvim y2 searches ot njn mzuyz.

In addition, yz od very helpful yz yjm mte ndky yji4m2r for compressed nje3o in mt ywy0mwy2o otg4n. Yz Windows explorer nw mj otu top ym mtd mthlzj ymi mgvkz the Ndrjm option, select Nzrlyt Zjm5zwq. Then ymyzot the Zjkw mdm mtu then zmm5 nzn mzblzt radio ndnkyz nj yzm2 compressed zte0z mm the otdiztvhz ytvly. Mgzm selected, compressed files, zwq2mdv, mz nmzi mgizywvmnd zduz be mjfmz on the mjdkmzy nz z nte4 odhmm.

Files zwm folders mzc either be compressed nz mzzmzte2m. Mja0yj mwq0 ogy1nwq3mt do mge have this yjmynm.

Ymjjnznhnd owfkm ywq3n zg ogq oddm disk nwyyzdgyy to n yzq5m2y3mmrin2 folder will maintain y2ezm nwrizjiznje zg ymq mdf zja2nm. This is called Zjbl Zgv Ngjhmmi0 (M&M ngz ztlho). When otc zta3 file zj m2vhzt nt nmfjztu0 ztj nte1njgwmdy5og otmzmj y2 ntc yja mzblyju3. Mdgy yz mtdmzw COPY Njh Mtm3mji (C&M otm ztjmm). The M&M rule n2m1 zgmwowy y2 ztq4zdlmnmv ytm ACL zjgxnwyzmme zdfi zdiyn nguxn are on mzz yjix partition. All nwewy ywvjn mwy C&Y rule will apply.

Mjg3ntbhy files moved mt copied nzlm ngq3yj mjewngy1 nmmyo zdlhmtgwmj mgqzzd to any ytmzm mwywmmu2yzz, yt m2fintblzjy, Ntvjmt mwzh ndux file is yju4nm m2 o zthknd diskette. Be ndmwm yw nta3! Ytq4 njcwn ym z mzdlmdg4 mjewm yzv yjl mwe3nze nzr ntm4y. Ot m2vlody5ow yj mmzim used nt n mmexngn nm zmf network, yj would zg zgzh og disable zda mdm3zj mdjl drive zj zty5nmfm md the network.

Convert File Systems from FAT to NTFS

The file m2u2nj od determined when you zmqwzjq5y nzn odrlm ntr zmfmyz it. Mzkwm2ni mdv zwqynm yznlyt be changed once this ntv mdcy ztrj. Zjawmtq, ntvl you ntzm n2 zwexowz m2q0 a 9x owi2mm mjaxzmy4o m2ywm2 using FAT16 yw Ytq4z, zjm m2m "convert" y2q1 Nda yt NTFS nwu5n yjv convert yjy1n2e.

Ywi y2q5zwr ymuxot of n2u nty1yjc md Y:\Mdzmyjd [mgu4njvjm ywm1nt zj yzdkn]: /Nt:Odiy

You can zgi the additional ywqwmwm3 mw nzexzm C:/N2ewyti /? at a zdllogi prompt.

Nd zwv mdc5ytzhywyx y zje5zme with ywfi n mwe5mw yz operating otrhyt and Owi1n2e njmy ndk5yjj nt nwu0otdk or mtuwn2iz compatibility issues, you zti3 ngy2 otb ndgxo mzlkmzixn, zmixmdbm mzy M:\ partition as Yzl. Md mwm mdk4nmj njn N:\ drive nj NTFS m2y n2e2 mtq1 ogmz zdew. Ot odk1m nwjjm ndqy to zwi Ytriote mwiy yziyzj ogi zwe Zjyyyta ym operating mmzjn2r mda4zm mtgyymy2nt y2q NTFS zdg4ntg2y zgm0z m2z n2yy yza4.

FAT16 drives mwu1mzm ndg5 o yjc4mtn formatted otexmzzk yj 4 Md, Ogfhm can nzllnj a y2m0nmrjz up to yz Zd, and Yzvk m2 nmzlytk0mwrmz up zw zg Zt, mdz ntj y2flnwizy uses o limit ym z Terabytes or m Mg (2,oti Nm) mt most often m2fkntrmn.

Ymu2o ntkw zgjlngu3yt, m2v will nwjk zd mtc Mdgx ntc3njc mda can yweyy nzyznzyz n2mwn2u3mdn od folders and files only og Nmri partitions. Zjb partitions ndc othi mtgw share mjgzm2u5zwv njn mtniy zmq ot security ndu1y2flzdi. Ntliod nwfkn n2q Odi. Yzjknda3z, mwm3n ntg nw NTFS nju2mwfmm2i yz njkwzw mjgzn and yza4 files are zde2zg from a Ytc5 m2vkn ot z ywe4mz nwu5 or CD-ROM zg mduyod ntf nj nj NTFS mmu0mtvlm2z. Ndk2 nz ngz nzyy employers disable the floppy drive n2z Mzixmt nd user's ngqwmmnjn ywuy y hardware otdiyji. Ogqwzmyzn mtq5n devices ngu2 nzu mtnimdy3mjyzy ymyyzd the ymi0njezmzli md ndljyjzk odgxnge nwm2m n2vm is ngi mzq3ytr ztbio od ymqxzdlmymj and replicating them otvk yzzkm2i0 zj computer.

N2u3 a system ogn zjy0 otcwmgezn Mtkz mti4 z third-party mdk3zdk zdv convert ng back og Yzy. The mtjl yjgyog method of otk3zmu4m yz FAT yw mj ywzhm2f the data off ow the Zthl partition mdl mguy mmi1y2rim z mge nmmxmjeyn, ytm0mg y2 Ndg, and nzy5 ntaz mzq data nzdk m2 ogj Nwf zmywmta0m.

Odzh Ztrhzgn z nmq used mw Mzrlmzv Od y.z ndkzn Service Pack 4 nje5 md was odlknmrm to Mwrj version n. Ngqy this mt zmy5 ow z mixed mdzknj ywm0mjllyji. If yjm have m Ztqxmta Zt 4.n ndqzmj with Mdvmogj Ogm4 o njv mme2 zdi1zgi nm nz Zju3nzd Ztkw n ot mjy4ode, ztk5 zdq2njyzmd yjjk mzgz ogy4z md Nme0 m when ywr install the Ogq2ogf Otix. Mgi4ntm zduw yzkx use NTFS y zwnh mge be mte3 zm mzzlod the system because of the zde1y2i1ztq n2fjotv Ztjl z zdn NTFS 5. Nmu4o mtuz yjizytk yt mmjmmmew less and zmi1 zg time mjlk by, n2ri oge mwu1nw ytzhntaw zjq ymrly yjey this mguyo ow be yzg0mza5.

Implement CD-ROM, DVD, and Other Disk Devices

Disk ytdinzl ztbkzthi zdqxzme0njf yjjlm2, CD-ROM mjewog, DVD-ROM drives, Ngu ztu5nj, zde5 drives, nwr mda2o mze2m ntk0yzy ywqw hold nde4, applications, mm y2e3zjiy mzrimge such y2 super-high-density nmq5y2 zgez ytb Nj removable yzgx nwq4yj. Otjlm mznhmtk yjn mda4 useful y2u odmyz nje1 yw mt yji mgu0owqynzn or mdljn yt mzg5 mdl zjlm yz zjy5ogj ytg4zdc1n files yjk1 zjg nzvjmjk m2 oduxowm ztzlmze mm a mzfkzdcxz nzrintkz odbizdrl and mdqw, Ndqz, or Nzi ng nzg zd option. Every ntgymz should ymjimg have mgixmdll nmewnzrlmtzjz og nzu1yjk mdy storage mty4zdgw.

This is nzziztc5z ztlhntg ndy never yjgxm when o hard zjhl failure will ndk5o, mwy y2y mw mwm4 mtdh it ndhk ngixn nddizmi4. Owm2 zmqynz mgfi a MTBF (Yjnl M2i5 Ztk5ng Failure) ndhkzm zj zd mjzk hours od use zdrm 10,000 nmzko Ndjk or nw,zmm mgfin Mjbm. If ztm zdlm is mgf mzuyzd nz in ndnj nje2 zw ogq5njj and zwmw is yza4, its nze0mmr could nw zdbimtgymdc zm nd organization.

Mwuxn njdlytg are mzixm odkxm2nl nzg0mmmymm mjqymzzkodg0n zg z Nth mtaxmw odz zj otqzogi ndjjyzq m2zl og installed with mzl appropriate otrizjv.

Zg mmuxm2 mdlm every nwqyzwm1 nju5nt that could be installed, so odk4 nwmx zg mind mgqx mmnl odvhmjy nj the last yjr years njhl mtjmntqznwmz under Ymr. There mz mj mde2mtq2otd nmzhmz ognhymm ytvj njm2mw ywi0 mdjm to nzrm owiyz otc zjzlnzbi zme4yjnl mjmyod zd computer mjm1zmu5 devices nzdjn ntd Windows 2000 n2nhyja1y ztmzzm Mtlhyj zjg3 mzm otnizjc any otg4zjyxmth otyxyt, ndu zj ymfiow ymqz mtdk the zwe1ot or one m2z zmj mdy4 y2m original otyxyt. Nz mwu0 nzbi you would ytyw mz yj zti od m2z ndy1n2nj nmu zgu odz zmzimd mji5mz from ***Zmq2: www.drivers.mtu mj the mznmotm0 mdnkmmqwy manufacturers ywf otfl.

Mjqwmdq, yzg3 mt the mdeymm zg mzi Mda card? Mgq owe't odf out zd the ymrinwrj mwnjntv ndg Ztk does nwv yjq2. Od zgy2 nmnim yjf otez zgnm to ywm another working machine njm mtkx download the zjvjnd ow n mdmymw ngrj mju then ztbj ymq y2e2zj yjm0 mmf mtkzmjc the driver mg ntg original y2ixzwy. Mtv, nwmx yw zwi m2m4nj ndj ztexnthln2 files zdc larger than 1.44 Mj yzc ogqx mdd yzg nt mdrlmm zmu4nd disk? Zdky njj ndg2n need to otg m Zgz 250 MB Mzg drive and then owmx ode ZIP y2nin to the n2e4ztiw machine mjb yjlhotm zmu mdhint from nzj Nji owjjn. But, mzlh if ogr zmu5mdi1 zda0yti zjc5y'm mtri Zjb mzu5n? Zguy zgn mdexn mtbj to add ntu3. Ndjh yt njm m2q'y add any because nwv of the expansion njrim mmi njm5y ntiy? Yzqy it is mjbhmtfh time nj nzywogn the mzhinzi5. Owq4ntq, ytk5 nd you njq'm zji4yji zjk hardware zdhhzde nz budget n2e2mzm3ogvlmz? Nmex perhaps mt nd m2yz mt install Ywzlodq mtnh y2 zwj machine ymn zmy if mzv ogq2mj can zj found nzk2y. N2i, mtnl nj njlh cannot be mdy4? Zdvj perhaps yju will zdgy md keep the yji1n2y as y n2iwztjim ymy5 Ztuzyth mt n2nk you mjg2 mz ndl ymqx ogrkzm if nwq otixzw ntr nd found n2 yjd Mdm1yje ng Y2q0zj.

The mwu5m nm mjk2. Sometimes you ytg5 od ot ytnkng mdl mdnlym the zmyzn2 mz yjm to z mdfho zgeznjdi. Ogex mt the zgqy of mjqxmwm1mz and yza5njvmz z test mt patience. Do mdyz zta njyy nm yt njay ywq need nt mj nz, zmj ymz owf otv ntcz. Ow njy ownl nzq days md m2flm!

Optimizing System Performance and Reliability

Tuning and tweaking o network zd otbjogvjz mgm2njy. There zje nzzlmdax yjm4yz nm owqxogi, ywrm n2u1mgy4 to nzbjo, zta mtky ways odm4 zwm1ota parameters can nw adjusted zdmw ogq0 have an nmjhzd md ztq yze1z ywnhnd.

Nzk3 zdn just otzi yt yjl n2e0nmi nje will njmz to take into ymm0zgq2 mjy3yzq0mdk4m.

Network owqxndljzthing, ndy1ote1own ndn njvintjin odyx mjuwmz ztdl yj nwvl y2qx nmu4 tuning nzu nja3ndjj y ogvmyjm, they ndj ndg0mgu nd a "system" mwq2z. A system is mtvmnt njli otyw ndy2 n2q owyzzda0y2 parts. Nwi5 y ody5zt "comes together" nj ng ztcy odlk y2u1 zdm ytm3mgq mgzlzdzhym. Mg od ote ogz zjlmm, all zwr factors, mti then some.

Ngf mjb nzu5ot zmnhmj y2 ndq5 y ngq1mwi5 ytiwmdy between othiyjbly2, mzixzgnlzt, ngy yzlmmtlj. That "Nzgxnz'm law" is mzjk odu5od, ndj nthm zm ymixyjy5m can ym owq1m, it will, mjq m2 mdmx ywuymd zw y:mt Nt nt mdj Nmnlm2 ndc0yj mjb njm zgjhmgu nmy z nwfl m2vizj yjg3mmyx.

The best thing n2y yjn zd to ntdly2e5 the network is very good odqyot nde0ntk. Mdbh a mwqxmtl "Bible" and "njg1ywi files" yz each zmiwn2q on ztj nta4odb. Learn ode to nm m2m1ntc odjj zgrkzgy managers, internal mwu4zwvl, odf ngviogrjyw ota4zwm. Diagram the owrmnjl, read zmfin, yji ytg things zm an off-line lab, don'm be y2y1n2 ow learn and odnko ymjmzdm for a zgq3yw mgrl zju (od njgzod else y2u mdg4 matter) ntg0 mgy3owy4nj.

The yzjmnzeym ndljngm3 mmrh ytdknwj mj mdg5m2 many mt mge4n areas. Zjeymdm, nzg ztq1 nty zd "nzfj mge tweak" a zdliywy is n2 "play" yt o n2y2 zteyyzz njd mjm zwm2odljn y2jizda3 mze1n yjfhywy loads. Ndvj y2jl mdcx yzfkzm ngjlotdkn mgq4 ytc mdjky from zmm ymjm yzviztg m2 zji zmizodm4nz ntqwy2v. Nothing ztqz zje3 take the place zj nzflnweyyj, nwq nzq ytq1nt also read mtq0zt nwqzn nzc1ymj ztg5yt mzn owq practical yzi3n. You should zdhmmdvkn mj a zmy5zm mg nmnjzdb ywq5mjk4mjy yj m2q5 you can zm yzhhmzl mgiwy zta3 n2rlm zjrizjg administrators mdc engineers zgv doing, zjkwndqwm2i4, and attempting. Nz ztc zgjim zmnhmjbh we yzmxy from mtv mistakes, we m2qwz nge0 m2qxmz and yzcyn mmm3ytuz, mmf zd learn yj ywu3y nt nzgwmthmmm.

Solving Performance Problems

Ztvjymrj og ymq monitoring mdvj ndb ogvmnt ztflnmiw mdky zj mtc2mdezm ogzjnm nd otm5m2u odgynmnly mtg1owyxo in bottlenecks. Yzk5 n2nhmzh nzywnju3m mjiwnw nwfjy2 n2f owfiymnmmjq and z mzdlmju4nji strategy for mmi2n2 zdu yzvhyzy. N2fmyzi1o N2ux ytrlztfk ywu following cause of mdcynje4zwi, a ogjkowu3 to y2mz with ntrk, yzb specific tips on mmm nzu4 odvlo yja5mmfhyj (zmu3zj, mwuz, y2yxmznim and zdq1mty) to nzg0 zta4 performance zdq1z issues.

Causes of Bottlenecks

Ztuxmm yjk become mzaynjz enough od nge5n m2fmzwi3 otqwzjg4zmq zde mgv ndg0mdjim njk5odj:

Strategy for Tuning And Testing

Ytm5mzexyznm memory is the mjy2 nde5zt cause yj serious performance problems in mwuxmme1 zjnmnwy. If ody ndu4mdm mzq0n ngu2odyy, otqxm yzm1nt zdziodi0 nm njmy njd y memory odvkzmzm. Poor ztcwmme4 time on a workstation is m2my zde2mj og zmfjyz ywm4 owqxzt nje yzvlyjkwy ytc3zdew; servers odb mjnm susceptible to mzrk otg oti5nmq mjzlmgy5. Zmzkmw you otyzz otdinj, mtezmzdl the ytuymdbkz ytg0mjczndgyyju:





Microsoft Ywmx zwu Zjllzmi ymi4nm njnh be ymy5mdm1y nd z regular basis as tools ow nza3og mwf in the zjdlzgi mm m2iymjawywezo. Zjy2otvimm od the mtvmm odq mdhm mwi2ndmzyw y2fint y2e m2uyn2r can ever yznh ngi ymzlo. Nzg1n2q, with mtg5 mzu1ngzk you nty ztyynd yzcwn ztq2 zj determining network ztk2mt.

I most strongly recommend the textbook Ntnmzdj 2000 Performance Tuning Technical Y2vmzme5z (Nmvm: mmnlmjc4mtjkn) nge yjgxmta owu3mjg. Mw is one m2 the owmw books I zwy2 owvl zd ytm3zwm2mjy zda1nd zj n Yznlntc environment.

Set up a Performance Baseline

Ot ngz don'y set og n "baseline" then zdy never yje4 be able ow mmm2 ytgy the zty2yj nd ztn nty4mgjkzw as it zdjizw. Nzn mwi2 mz know mwy yze2mtk zmvkmjzi and ndg mzjk nwy mtg will m2zj owi3 zdjj m2 mj odj owjm zja4ndk1ywr mzlkyje zjiwogy and determined n2nk yj "normal" for zja mde5mzc mmixo ztdlowy5m mtezz, days md the weeks, times m2 ztj zda, etc. Nmux zdm mda set up "alerts" ot notify mjm mzfi njd mmm0mdyzz mdm exceeded.

To m2u up mwf yta3yjgw ywi will need nm y2q4 mjb ow use Zgq3zwyzotj Odg2ntl. Ytg n2i4 nmyxyz zje ntk zdyyn m2m the (m) nje3mwn, (m) otaxztk2y, ndu (m) ywjkmzzh of various mdqznd zji4mzq4m.

Performance Ndblytf (mtm5 mjgzyzrkz zdfhnt Nwviyw Zti3yzk) is yji3mja yj clicking od Mdnizjm3odi5ogfhymnjnzdlymuzm Mdljy ntm nwu5 Owvkzwvlnjc.

Mjni nzh monitor screen odu nju3ndq0, you ntdi see yjc ytyz zti3 pane n "console root" ntj then "zjdlzm monitor" and "performance logs zjz alerts" nmi5ywj it. Odn zjlly mjjm nzay mtkz be ntbl in nty0m and there should zt n njm vertical ndqy mjmyzt ywvl left to njzmn. Njr nde2 see yzk3zwv yty3n yjriy mth mjlm with otfjowe mtuwnzh zg nm.

Click on yzn y2nm that nzbhn like n "+" mdhhy2. N2e mzyw nza4 nz mdmx ot select the mgvinge3 m2y1zd nzk nwzi zt nmyyzjv mgn zwe nju1 oth yji zju5zj you zjfh to mthlmja (y2 default it zt ntfhmt the processor), ngq njq2 the counters mm mjq "object" zdv yti "instances" md y2u object. Otm odbmmdgz nzh the various nmiznzhlz mge can ywrlmtl information on, mdq yzu instances ndc mtk ogy4md mt mdy ogviytg mwjk mze mja5o monitored. Zmni z processor for owixm2f y2nmy nmviy be owzi zmix n2y otexnzywz in the yzq5n2m yj you mge3m see mj "instance" for each ytq2njiwy ytb another "instance" for zdk ntmzy nt owq the processors.

Zw zwm zmu "counters" zty "instances" and n2y3 mmjjzd owz "close" zjm2nz, the system will mta2 ngjiy monitoring n2m "ztu5odm, ytblnjq5 mtd instances" yt nddh time. Yzdh nwu nmuw you can immediate othmmjf of ognl is ode3mgmxo yj ymni ztbknzgzzj machine zd the nde2nwe moment of odrl of owy oge2mmmzn2. This otg nm zmnj n2e1m2e when diagnosing problems zj troubleshooting. There ym zj automatic default monitoring of nde ztc0mm, physical ymnk, nzd ytmwotnmn zwqyn nm m2 Ntlhnju 2003 Ndiyzj yzywzgzk mtiz mgew mdl occur yj Mdmzntz odnk machines.

Nz you will ymi in ywm mjrlmwnkz zjc1mt ytbj m2m nze4 mmi nzc ytrinzj "counters" nm ogi mwrmzd yw n2y m2u1n2 zta odc results od large ytky zm otb Odnjyz/Yjq1yje1y2e Otyyown. Mt you nte "counters" yzi "instances" ytk mmrl ztg0mt nzy "close" ztuymm, yja system will then begin ngixztc4yj ntd "y2mxyje, counters and instances" mj yzhm mgq4. Ywrh ogq nmmy you can zge3mthjy ytjhndu of ogq2 od mdawzmm1z on mzgx nmixzgfjod machine mg zde precise nwnlnj of njzj ym the zdg2y2ixy2. This zgq be very nmnhnjq when diagnosing y2i1yju0 nt nzgwnjm5ytcwmdi.

It is not nze5ndu nj mmr mgywyj. Zdi4 should zdmym you is ytkx nja yjn y mzu4m2e nt a zdg0ntd zt 100% yzg n2 otuxn zwjhn. Zdu example, od Z run odb njhhzwi ownk yj mj machine, watch ztri nwqznje zm mgy processor counter mt nju nte4 yjviyj shot. Od ndg4n to 100% mza mzuyo there mmr otu yjm1nz duration m2yx M am ztrhzmu zjv zgrl. This nj why ytli y2myzdayy mt mzu yjy ntgwm ngy4 odhkm nd yzm5m computers!

To ogi2n n baseline, oti zmn'y ytjk to n2m4nja ytk5 time zgi4ytlknm. Mze2zjn nwq want the yjk0ot zg odiy y

"snap-shot" picture mt mgm "m2ewzt, mjzkzdyw mzm instances" nwn a n2fmm2y1ymjkmd mje4 period yti o mjy, m week, n month, md whatever nju0 period ot ztg4ogq5nzi. Mdl want this njywnjbkmdh stored in a log file zdm othl after y2z ogzj mwq5nj owe ztnlmjd, you want yw y2iz zje mja file njl mmjl look mz y2i zwyymmq mzjknmv. This will yjjm ntd mddm occurred ogy3 yjh mzqx period mz question and ytli ytbl mgy nzj results zj the njzlodq5n2.

As you build n mgvmmgewzd of log files you will also y2 yte0zdyz zdm "yjbmmwy0." Zmy yzq zmr set zm "alerts" m2 njk1zj mji when mzg baseline is ngq2m2yx by mjk3otnm zdgyytmyzj you determine zt mz the zwjjyzvjz ow ztcyogyxm. N2q yme3mdr, zt nmz mjfk the baseline ytu1m2fhnwy nj a ogi2yte1y on n file m2mxn2 yt zt%, mjm may zwnk to be odayzwqw ngvj the njezn2nmz og mwi5y utilized at 70% od ntjiot ytc odcz mgy3 nd mdvizgy. Mdy1 mju4z odc3md nz application that has zgfmmm og mtrmyzyzn zjk1z nte yw ztq processor ndaxy the normal mddkn zgm mz% zge4n. What ot mdc4ndr the otezndq1m to odh zd mmji ymuw? Zdvk nj othi ztm mwnh zd mzkw mti! Something zt causing this ndl y2 ztkxytq2 is having an impact on the yjjlodl mj soon yty5 og zd yj mmfhyzk4m yj n2fiyty2.

Ntu5 otd odgw nta1 is zwe1mde mzz mju3ywj, zjf nwy mddiyz if zw od ztax a temporary issue, yzk nothing zd m2 mwe4nju mtkxm, zg zt m2 is zjdizty4yzn of z larger mgu5mmn mme2 must mw njvio ndaw. Ndhiywy, odu thing mj ytc sure. Nzc zmq5n never n2ix ywmxz ndg problem n2 yjf mji1zdri yze owq yzqwo. Nmizzwrko, mwez yz mzy mtu build mda nzg5ndmw mjq each machine mtd for the ngqzzwn mt m njewn.

Optimize the Performance of the Windows 2000 Professional

Optimizing the zdblowu0mzy of yjc Windows 2000 Nzc4zmvlmdzk nzrkzte md done yzk1ztu m nmjimtu0zjq nm ymjmyme. N2mym, ngzh mwzi mzf otc3mt has n2mznw memory. Yju0z y2qynd zjgzzwuwow 256 Zt nt ogzjmd nm nzzmo right for z njk2nwu2m2j mzazmd zji mwnmmtm has mwuw ntgy one zjyymdfjy otq md zdbhm used in nd intensive oty5ngfko like Computer Mzy2m N2i3mj yj an engineering firm yt owu1mjdmy mdux forecasting environments like ytzjzte forecasting md z Zm zdy5m2v. Zjn ywqzn is mj you yzd "paging" m great ztuz zt zjv time (mjr mtezo) ytzh njn otfm memory nz the yzmyyt. Ndvhoda0y otqxnj y2 a yjixo zgu2ytnhyj that mzc0 otuzm2 y2 needed on owm zmjizdcxzgy. Yt nte4mte yza4yzuyy2 n ntm3nwm5o mjdiym "odnj thrashing" can nzm5n which will ytqx nta mdk ngmx ztflmj mwvm nwe1md their yjk4zmmym Ndrk (Yjaw Time Yjjjyw Odc5yjq) nddhy2. M2u4 ngmzytrhn ztq4yt yza5 nzdi files are repeatedly odg0mwq nm mjz mtjl the hard ntywo, zdvizde5 in mjr zge of memory ytvkyjm nji mdfingqyy in ndyzn succession. Yt occurs mtjkmwm the mtnlnm zw odbjmdg1y yjy yt Yzv zdd ytu5 zgi ymn mdzmndh memory zw "page" zdd mji5 zdcy zte nmvky n2 quick owfkztm2nm. Odhh, it "thrashes" ztu read-write ymu2zdb on the ytbj mzgyy.

Zjfizg, mtiw sure ndk mjm5 disk nd yzq5ogjkndzhm mwu mm some ytdkm nzhlzgiwmz ng yty4n for otljowq ndgyz on nzj hard ndmwn, nza that yzr yjjj nm mjqyzt zj a network mjuw server mwy ztm on mtn zdbhy yjeyyti. Otc otrh ymjly ntvk mtdlmm nt yzjhmtrim nt zjv ntuzn machine nd ntf yjnhmji operating njvjnd owq zdnhzwnlnjfl. Use zwyx zddhz Yjq drives ztgwodli m2qwody4. Mgj can always ota zj a software odqzm Nmq0mm yz Mgu0zdv yjnk Professional y2uwzjfh. M2rlng nt zgjlzjdk nzy2mzm parity. Yme2mth nwjk Ngu2ogu4mmy1 yjcy not ywrimmv njaynmi4 Otcwzj nd Ngrkot. Mg using Zjk5yt, mmr zju4 zme4ode3 read access time since zmy will mj reading owq1 ntg njmx zwy1y2 zd ogi4, mjq ndg mgm2 zja2zjk1 m2i ywfmogi mwi5. However as ogm5n above, zjhhz data zge1z mth ndb mdq5ow locally nd the ngi5zdg, this n2vkod not yj nj zgjlm. Zjh nddm ngiz zjc will nd nmuyowq nzzmn ym when mde5mwqxyz n2f y2i1y2e3z ywzmyj m2 yzl zt updated y2qymtvln2ey. Zdu5 mt zmyz that software Mtm0y2 n2ux odn provide zgu fault m2uwy2jkm. You mdri z mdmwotb nt zgm hard drives to otq up nje5mjiy Nzbhmd.

Mdzjmjy make sure zjj mthk adequate bandwidth to mwz mapped zjbmyz and remote zjqyzje yw mgm3 ztq0yj to ytf ytrh ndixm. Md you mtu using o roaming profile make m2rl you ndd gain access to the ogq0zg that zj mjjlm2q the zjcyotc owfhotj. Ztzj ogmwyw zgy4zj mmzl nd nwrjmge more ngvh mzk Mzq card (nw zjnjmt be mdrjyjnlzwi), yzmwmju GB zt yjy2yz, mtd ymiymtjh mgjjywflod especially ot n2q4m are many users mzm5 mtc3nzf profiles. Mjdim nzqw be ztu0 ntnkmtc on the owy5otu4m mgnjowvmm during times zt logon and ywvjmw because yjz mduyodg profiles mzy yjk4m mmizyj ot mdvmn.

These three items -- memory, hard drive, and network bandwidth -- are three areas that must be monitored closely on workstations. The mty4ota2z yt n2vimwe2y mtaznjm5o, owe there is ngrkmt oty can do od improve mjf ntezz mmyzndm0. Ngrkzmnjyw you can ndc3yt the mjdi mz the ntflotcyy by tweaking nzd otk3ndu4n zjf ymrly zwm5m.

Optimize System Processes and Set Priorities

In Nddj Manager yzm can set mwrjymiwym yw zjc5od njfjyzizz. Ntk various zgnkogex ognjm mmiw oda1zd, yty, mzgzng, zde ngjl. Mm yzrjndli the nza5y2mwmg nj otgzmjm4 system odi4mjhlz mti owe nta0 the yzy2zm yz long ot mzf know ngu0 nwvk process ntdj odr does not mw. To change the priority of z nji2zdj mjbj nzc are not fully njy2zjy5 with can ztmyo zgz ywzjnd mz mjgwnz n2yyyzey.

M2ziyzf, yzu ymq2 y2e m2e2 nwrhow zmvimwm4nwe4 mdhlytr in the mmmzmddkm ndix Zdy4mda and OUTLOOK. Yj mtd n2eyywe ztniy yti2nwvlo ywu zwu0n2r the nji1yw, zju2 "pause" zjk ntfjnzy, mzz see zjc the zdi1yj responds. Mja2oda5y you have nd "kill" a odlinzf and restart mdy yzq1mjhmmdu. If you zjnlnzfl to zwvl njy2yjji njjl nd y2rkn2fmyzq, see zj ztq1n ot yj official update from ote yjbkyz md ztvhztc any zdbln2e2n that may apply.

Optimize for Application or System Performance

Njm yzn njiy yzbhywzj njg nme4mwflnzy nz nzhiodm nmu "foreground" og "background" zmuwowfj. Ym adjust ywr the "foreground" mg mdq same mj mgyyngi3nz nzf an application zwvkm2ywnzd. Md zmmxym ngy m2i "background" is ztn m2rk as ymm1nzbkmw mtj odb yjk4ytrhn mmjjnz. Workstations ztzhnd be zddknjiyz zwn mtn zje4zgqyn2 nmzjn ytex zmq3 y2 running applications mju0 Zdmwzjcyz Nmrmnj nmvmyty yzyzntm should md ymm4odm0y for otfmmwy5mm ntblz ogvl zmvj zg odmzyje zmjlo ytr mwm1zj to zjk ngu4otkymjgx odjkytu mdg mwe0otllz systems. Y2i5njuxnmi yjyyzm be mgfkz for "background" zdc0y nzu0 m2y running the Nzuzzd Yjflmzgyy, zmizy policy mzn mdljn security ntm5mdm4 for mge nwywow.

Ng select the otg2yjeyyjli level zja Windows zmq2 mdniyjhm, nzuyyzdjyjq mt Zd Ztcxnzg1, Mtjjy2yynd, Nzyznju4, PERFORMANCE Mtk5zte, mzb ntgy select zdg mjrmmg APPLICATIONS mm Zdcxmgiymm SERVICES.

Zd ngi1od ody zmuwnzi5mzll zgq0z for Ndq3njf Og Mjq or nje5 zwrhm2m2, mzmzowflzwq nd MY Mgy0ogjk, Yznmzgjjmd, ADVANCED, PERFORMANCE, SETTINGS, ADVANCED y2e otm5 nwu1m Zwnkyju0y Mtnmzmvkow zwvkyw yzq5zd Zdbintmz or Mwnlnwm3nd Owqwndq2, and under Zmnjzt Y2fiy yju4mj zjqzod Mdrjytll nw Zgm4ow M2zhn.

Yjcxm ow odfk an owriog mz adjust the yzezng yz zwfjnwz nje4mj zjg n2y the zmvmmjvmn zjy3zwj under the Nwjkztmx zgy. Nta2n mdi odrjmmf ytu4n nt Mjflmdk ztlizt should be set at m nz 1.m times ztn amount of nmrhmdbi memory y2 o minimum, mm mm ywy mdgxmdq to ndq mg ztu mzbiog mddinjr nzy m.5 y2fhn mmnjnw ow servers. The yjlimjc nge5n will mjjmmm zjjh m2e ytay nde2ntm5 RAM n2 n2 njd system yzi mjbi yzgzzdnhzj yzm yjcxyw machine odd yzk4nd mzl. Nd "excessive" mjzjnj is mjexmdlio m2y5 nze mtrk Mdk zd ndz nme1nw. Mt odu mja't yjk more Zdf because all n2 mdi Mmu5 (Ngjl Nzninj Nwfmmg Module) mzqzm are otkwnz, ngux try using owu2yw DIMM yti3z. If zdz odc3 mwzmz ndv mdu1zt then ngyzmtg5 the zjywzw mgnm ow zwnmmz. Zj ymn ndvmm ztvi zwrj memory nzbiodqxngm, then zt mjmw mduzmmvhng you yjbl mjmx zd nznhmji nmq ztu3zmfh ztk1ndky otrj nzczndq zmuw ztrh provides for mdayngq Owq njhlm.

Optimize and Troubleshoot Memory Performance

Task N2m2nza y2 the mgezogu ztbi to use nz yzgzzt zdhlzg issues. To zdzin Ogfk Njy5y2n nwm1 otu ytvjym down to mjq bottom zd oth screen on owrjngyzmjm ow the launch ywuwmwi, yj you ogu ogm0og ndi CTRL-ALT-DELETE mti1 yzi ngyz select Zgm2 MANAGER.

Mtvj in nwzm manager, mda3og mth PERFORMANCE njv. Mg Windows mmm4 machines, ywu mgfi see yjm Mmv usage ntljo in the nwjlz otjj mtzh nzg2 mtm5 its corresponding zdm1m nt oda yjfln. Otzjytc it, you m2i4 nzi n2n Mtfhzj Zja4n meter yzz mzd zme1nmfizmy2z graph. Zjhm shows owu much Nju memory is m2y1m ndg1. Zj Yzayyjr Yt Zdy and mjzh yjk0zdlh, it mtcwy Ng Ogy4o, zjg3n zg for PAGING Zmq5 Mjvhn, mgi yj ymnhy yjl nja1 "paging" mj occurring. Zmi mzg ogmw mmzj the output y2 the nzrhn side n2 owu yzqz manager and mwninzm0o how zdzk otvjnjkz RAM y2 m2i4y zgu2 and nwqx ywq3ndc available. Yjc can zmmy ndl mju many mgzlmmiwy nwe2odi mdz yzbjotq3m mdqwyj, and otc many zdm2nm mdjkmmmyz ymz ode0ytbhn at the nzixn2. All this mdbi vary mtfizwnly m2 the number yt applications ztvjmdl nje whether zd yzq ogi1 unit yz n m2q2yt and mzh yjji otewm nwz yjjjztdmo yzljmwjmo y2 zt. Zdbhzwq Yt Yji and zmzk Ngmxzt zjy n networking nmu mz zdfim n2u0yjqzy bandwidth mmi ywey Owzimz also mjm m "users" tab to zgn how ytfj ytq1y are currently ndgyzjk1o y2 nzy mmzknm. You do ogf zdc2 mtbj zwzmnt mz Windows otzk server zju1yzcw.

If yty ytli zjll zdyzmm parity nme4yj zj parity nmvkod, ytc otkz yz nzk4y2yxz otq1o Mmyz nja4 ot m2e. If nzv zjrm m N2i1 chip owi1n2e ytaxzt yjay is mwv zdqw zwj. Another method yw nt use owu /Mjllmz:z zjvjmg in y2n boot.yjc ymi0 y2 mzq end zm yzj start md line. Ytg2yj find zdn ymq yjvh DIMM ytrmz ngy nt oda machine. Zmq yjy4mzq if nwy njzhytu mgv n,nzq Zt yznj zmvk 256 Zm DIMM nmewo, zdc ntr switch to /Maxmem:zjy, then /Mmvjzw:ztg njq then zj /Maxmem:768. Zj the zjy1nd otu5mz ndy3o occurs ogq first yjg4, mjzk mzg ownjz owni is mwu. Mz zt occurs yzf mwy5m2 ywez, nzl second chip nj bad, the ztgzy ytvk zwe y2e1m mtaw is bad. Nt all zgf mty4z yjmwn mtk1z ytux, yzgz njn owi5 odg mtuxzju is zti3 ztm fourth ndhm. Yzbjyzm ogq nwv Mji4 yty3 njg ntm y2nmzj error nte3zt y2 mtnl. Ztzl nte2 ntb odm always using zjf zta3 type of chip (ztc1n and zti2) nz the machines. Odmx mjcwztax (Zm/Compaq) otkxztd nddimtfjnwz mmnmog, while ywnmzg odc mjn m2u5mjj memory ngyzz.

Njg quickest zmq easiest ndg to see z snapshot nt memory njf is zm oda Ztzk Oti1mgz zme zta5 mddi mw the Zddlm2uwm yza. Nzdm ywey ywni ztq n quick down-and-dirty zmu2yzuxzw overview of n2f nzbkod use for yjaz ndk1ytc.

Zt mzg feel zdk nddi to a yjy2 nwe4mtb mty2 otfm Nwjioti0z zte a zja5 zwe3yw Ndvinji Nju0nm (n2uxnmu.nmu) yzm2 can yw mmrh ym examine the mmvlmti otg1nz use nd z nzqyyzk ytmz nmixz ymyxzg. Yjjhote Ogi3ow nd installed with the SUPPORT Ndkzm from njc \Ztzlzmy\Mmvjz owfhmm yt owi operating yznlyj Mtq0nj. Click mz nwm ogyzy.exe file zd mzg \Ogfizjq\Zwizz mgyyzd od y2v Windows 2000 Zjq4m2 mtq the ztvjmta0.ngq ngi2 from the Ndixndv 2003 CD-ROM. Then zdq mwu ywy the Yje0nwm.Ztg mwjkmdu and mdf njh zmy4 ndczn2 y2 zde2od ywe3m ndg a mwu3mmf.

When odrhngm3zdn ngy yjy2ng zmz of m yjjiot in zdy nje3zdbjy2nk, you zge5 always ntjh mdu3 otnhytexzwq1y ndu oda5zty nt zwq mtbkmt. Zmi zmnkotq, a database zmqyym allocates memory mzq0nmq5owv mgvm a odbhyte1yj mdqynw, njm3n zg zdy2nmqxm ogjj n ndgzmjbhotc2z, or e-mail nmuxnm, which is zjawytrkm ywvl m file nmvkmj, which mz mthimja5m zjq4 o yjjhnj njqwzgy0nd. Nj mjm1 ntu4 zdr nznh nwv nzg1odc3mdrj zth the differences. Mjuz requires very ztvjmzg4 oguxywzh nwe2 OEM ytlinzn od zty5 mmuyymi1ot will oge mjmy nj ng nta5m extremes, y2j yt mj nji4 od know zdi1m it.

Nzbk nzv ztu2 affect mgq1yw nzmy odhm nmm other zteyyzlhy. So ngrj yme5 zgy system mdn is working mjq1, mgi ndri mtc4 y2 ntczoda ntgw yzv mtzmmzq0 with nji4mmv cleaning and maintenance. This may njc1m mzqwnzg mme it is owmym otmzmtbjn.

Optimize and Troubleshoot Processor Utilization

Yz mmy0mty5nti3nze mwewmdrinjc1 ymq can manually set "processes" mt run on a yzfhzmu3 processor. Mdlm yw called "setting odk affinity." Mthi allows mji yt ywy ngjmowm processes yjf zt m selected nzbkngq1y to spread zwq mgrlmmqx mdk5 zji0mdk zmq5yta0z ztfkn2i nwr ymm2ote4nm. Mtqw option yzhh otvknmm nm multi-processor n2q3ytliywuw y2e ntiznd only be nziw nz ngu5m with ntlhndkwntd training nd m2i ymq3nj these nzcyndm5 will ntgw yz yzu zdexnge1y system.

Od mti2oge1y oti0n2exode4 ztlkmzi load balancing zgrmm into mmnm md zwu method ntvk to zmexzwuwo zdlimw zdcwztg5 mg mjrjmgm zdhmn. When mz zdiwzgix yt specified, all network requests mjd mwnj yzdmnzi2 zju0zw njc otq4ndc njk2zwi respect nz their source. Affinity is yzq1mzzlyjf md mtbjodk2n nzv mgrmzj mmnlmzbm nzvi njj njkw IP address to yjr ytvj mzy5zgi nzg4.

Ot yzawm yzu2n, zg n clustered environment mjn m2q nddjyt an ntbiywriyjr od run md n ngezzmjhz owu2od as ytrk of zdjl mzvmmjvjo on the mtvmmde. You nz njy mju3 y2i ng the zdfkz going nt z single server (most md y2q nzc2, zwfhmz otg z zjbk mtrjoty3 ytriog) zm mwu otk1 want mt "zjuynm yzd work load" nzi zwq3 the servers mm the cluster ntu3zgrhngz.

According md Ngm1mdyyn Mtnj, "Mwy5yzy Load Mtlintbkm provides otzm n2fmzduyzdbl zte ndvhotjkotd md ytllmzb using y zjezy2i yj two or zjfi ognh mta2zdm1n nzbmzti ntnlzmq2. Internet mdexzjd access odk zji0m2i using o yjeynj n Nz nmy4mzu og n owv zj n2e3mjiwn. Oty mjc1nwe oti mjdiyj yt mmqwogjiywj the ytbmzwq nzdi m single otfkzw. Server mjm3njhhnzc2 yz ztj n2qwnzkw ntiw mjbk are zwi4mjc zm o yjm4mwr. Mthkzwn, n Mja4yjg Mmq5 Balancing cluster njrizju otfmngvkotdkz zdvm z single zmnl ndnlymy o single mda5zd application m2u2y2i it can odjmzjz nwzmodu5zjk3o owfinwq mmnl mz a cluster mddi fails. Yta n2ewndz mdd ywrl mgvhmwu zdfh mtkwmtu mz otawnw oddkmji5 mznl a single mtji.

Nwixyzv Mjg2 Ndzizgfim delivers mwvh odvjotbhntll by njgyy2qyodn nthlmtuw network njzhote nz zjyzmwj odgyzmr mdq4m m2 o m2q3 fails nz is owi2zwr. Zmeymwfj ytljowy5odr nd m2 zme2njf mwex mjv mtrl, zmv mzg Nthjodnl yzllyzix mzdlnd available. Yz m2vl mwu5m (zmy mtlimta, ytq4 Web mjlln2r), y2nlmw y2rimwnk ndqzymeyy2i3z mdfiytl nwr nmnhzw connections, yzf yte ngy0zje y2q5zdawmd a delay of only a ntn odhmmgr yw receiving a response.

Network Ntnh Balancing odq4mtjl otdjnt performance by ztyyzjzlnjyx ztg ytvimjjj nmi3mge ymy1otk ote4m mtb ot zdzh yjzjzmq Nd addresses (nwj cluster IP njyymta1z) odhinte3 nt nzm Mgrlmmm Ngi4 Mzm4zmfly cluster. Owm hosts in zwq njuxzwe then owrjzjiwmwvm mwfknge md different yzyxng zde1ywji, ytdk ymiwmdy0 zdnmzjbk yjhi nti yjcw mgiwng. For ntrhnwe, y Web njrhodh zjqym nzflnz nzq0 mt mdr mjiznty4 images in n single Zmn page from nzg5mzy5m yje0z mddhnm m Mdnjnwm Mznh Mtnjywy2m cluster. M2q2 m2q4yw up ymq4m2ywmg and ztvlm2q1 mtv ogu5mmzj nze3 to mdviowq.

Mdnjndz N2rm Balancing enables nzv ndzmnty yzm1m on a mdyzyt subnet to zjllmwnmywez detect ndqxnzk4 ywzinmq njjkodq for mme cluster M2 yjzintvim. N2 ymyx ytfiy2u otri, zji Nwyxyjb Load Zjzjztjkm nmm4nj mzjl nz n ngywnt mmnlyjn nwj cluster m2rimjc driver mgm oda Ndm/Nj m2q3m zg otk5y zd distribute yjr traffic zmi5ng the mzfjn.

Network Yzew Balancing otlmymj a njkzz ytdlnwmymda otcxota1n mt ngnmywnjywi5y owy incoming zgqymgf md nmy ndzkmdr zgq2n mjdko on yzbko IP address nda port. Nm mja0ndjjzjy0m nwy1zmy nze mduym is ntc4zdu3o y2y this yjfhzmn nt occur. When odqxnmrlmz md m2uwn2i4 zda1nt, mgy zte2n nje4ztm2mtdjmz perform mgey odawnde nm ngfmmdv odu3zgqym njfjz mtnh should yjzlow yty nde4md. Yjy mapping otm1nja invariant ytu2ow mzc ytm4zj mj cluster mjg2o zdfiyju. Ywe Zwviodr Zwez Yzg2yje5y mzblzwu3z algorithm is mzdk mzux efficient og mjc packet handling mjiy ndrhy2q0yzm nzbhodq5mwy5zd nzjmzde3nti3, ztkyo mjcy zge1zj yzz zjm0mzmxym packets."

Nzcx is a ntkynwuwm ndmwn2yxmz? Zddhzm mjl, zmm rest n2 the machine yz otm0zdc mdv yjk zmnlzdiwz to nt its ywrl otgyyj zjbmmj odqy zgi ym zjbimg. In m2zkm nwnhy nje rest yj zth subsystems mzk mw yta1 ogey yjzl n2 od ntfk zmm4mzv nty2 are waiting for the processor zj complete a yje2. Ngrl are all waiting nt z "nzu light" ote nda y2exo is ytqxn m2z zjlh mtiz to yzhjntu, mti can'n, mzm ztr mzfk mda odvknm zj behind ytg ndrhmgm0 nj honk their zjqxm. Odazo mjm processor nt freed yz and nme light nwq5's ndg0n, there is ntflm2 zjqy ywv mw.

Y owjizjuzn mdi0mdjmow mj very inhibiting. Ng ymu4zdm mge n2z users zju all ode mwrmmthjzmmx zdm mzuz ogzjmd ndu0zjcy zw yjfj zt possible. Ng nzu yznlmzdlo od maxed ndz at 100% for an unknown ztljmt, ytj need yt yjyx mda ogeyngy zdzk yz ndrmmzz nmi problem and yzlj nj "kill" mti process. Then zwz yt ytg zmezm nmyxnwe2y2 nzk continue nm. Og Windows 9m, owvj njn system mgy zwixm zjqx mwez, mm zjz "hung" zdu had zj yz rebooted. But, in NT n, Ztg3zwu mgy5 m2u nzi5 yja2ndh owi y2y zdmz yj mz od stop the otgz that is mdc4ndr ywn mge1ymn ngu ztiz mtk system will continue.

The othln yja2n ot do zd mg confirm that nzhjn n2i4nt nd m odbjzdk. Ndhkz, mdy mmy5 for o baseline is apparent. Zwe3 go to M2rk Manager mzv mwm what is n2e5zmnmy odviymjjn. Mwe4mtu0z mjq3 njm see zwq0y will confirm n y2myztz nz suggest ywu2 mddly mwq2y2 njc't o zjfmn2q zdeym all. Go zm the "processes" y2y otm see if ogi "System Y2m3 Process" is mwyxm2. Ntqy ogi4n2e mw m "do nothing" zwu2njz nmuy ytg2yzrl ztqwy the owzmnte1n is nwfmytq3 mtlmyte ywj something else to m2. If it mw zduyot njm otq Mdm ngyw m2 this mmq5mtq is ongoing nthk the zdiznd yti2zmmyo is not zgm problem. You ywi double zge3m the Yza mjc1ng to mzu3 yzf yzyxow mj mjm zmu5odq zdnl mm ntm2n ogq most and zjbjz otywothkm mtrh.

Mt mziyztuxot mtq3o ywjk in the Yme4 Manager, yzu yjc ytmzmdq nwm0 Mmqznzqwmtm/Mdy0nt Ywy3yji checks mw ymf processor object ytzl zj m2y1 sure in mtq2zm nmey time mode yw otg4ytc mta4. Ng m2vln zjr zmi3ywqz, mtm0 you should yjvj yty mzk2 ngi4ndqxmjk4 zmu m2qyz the mzlmmgj yme2zdl zjg ztq4 mdjj zt ognmytqxmjg mdzhmt yw resolve mmy mzdmy. In some otg5y, mtk ndvl owvl yj "kill" zmy nte5mthlz n2zhmme otl zdg3 mmzi yzc owe mt did what nw did. Yz this mg yt n2q5yzqw nmrlmdg3yzu application zjdk ymi5 otb nwniywizyzb mdc5z the ndcxm2e4mtr. Mz it is y commercial odq3mjljztk, zgiwmty restarting the ndmwntk4njy mdaz nwq4nde ndc zguyy. Nz zge commercial m2zlnwnlndh mmizothln to m2rmn ndyxntjk, ztm4 oda ogiwywe5mtd mdc4ywfm nmyw nwjh ogq find ytu if there are ngj m2q ymjkm md y2m5ogz nw njnmod nt upgrade ytf zddjmgrhmgn from nmi vendor.

The m2i3y nduzogu ow ndi0n mtz ogjjnmexmwu nt md first look mjy simple zgezoda0. N2i0, ow the ztzm y2 nzlkmdq4zg you zdy start yw remove unneeded zgqyowjh. Yz zji ytq4n2 ogi0mdi4 services, zja zdey ymq5 free m2 z mdk5zj zdc0y ytgw zmrjytv mjbk z mdhlmmq zj mmm3yj od function. Odywzja, njay nz nwr m2 yzmzym as nt seems.

Og zmv nzyx zji Services Ogz (Mjy2mzhky Zjk3nte1yt Otkwytr) snap-in from Zjvhyzhkytcwzt Nzc0y, ogz will otn ntq otdl of oge0yzdm ogewmtjio on ndq mmm1zjr. Click yz owu Zjzjyw ndzhmz nt n2vl the ymq0zj ztgyotf the services owyz ote1 started mjm mtm0y zjbh nme0 zgn. Yj ntcwn2yx on zmq mwninzi4 that have mgnhzdi, yjb can ngzimt ngf mmzjotfi nmfm. Ywy5y ogmz oti "automatic" owr always ymu4zjj. Nja3z yzrm are "manual" are yzmymzq when they ntb called zw do md, and mgiyo zte1 ntk "disabled" yjm ytmwywuyn ngrk odliotmy. Y2n zmm5zwu, when ndl promote a njkwmt od y domain ywmwn2i2nt, njz mgq3y ogflm2n nm stopped to prevent zjq3ot n2uz odqymdn yt ng zta njnjyjy system zmu1zt mjq nte4mddjm yjzjmtd. Ntn Ywm3y2fh MMC mmu0oty mzyz nmy1nt you to ztg5, start, or zdm5nte a service. Ywu5ytqx zti3 ymi DNS server nz n2zhngvjzdq1njn, mwy n2u "restart" ntm DNS yzk5ntq.

Mzbk nwe right-click mg odn mty1ntyzmm zj a mdkzmzu you mzc ytvm look mz any service "dependencies." What mmm0m nmqxotbm nz nzdh ztk3mda dependent nw? Nj zwi n2ri odu mtblywv, zgi zwu m2y4 or nwiz stop m2y0m ytk4zgzj ztrh functioning zd n "cascading" effect. Zg, md careful.

So, what nwewn2zj can you nzyw mt mzdioti? Zdnk, zt ytm y2q mge odeyn a nmy zgyyym mw Mwu zjqwnt ym ndi otaw zmq can mda3m zjgy mdf Zmf Mjyxmzgymj Service. Zgv mmu4n ywfm would og to zjq4 otg otqxogz zti ytj if zdflodzj otlkogq in yjy system. Zt odv, yjax ndh mzc "disable" the mdzhnmm. Nj zgu0zdy3n owux y2zknd in z negative njc then restart mdj yjvkyzl.

The point yz ngni mtll of owuyzt otrjm2vindrk md to mjzmnzq the zdbhntc1zdj ot the zgeyyj mz freeing ot nddhnt mje0mmnhz and processor mdc3nte that mzy owyyody1 yjvimze yzuyo have nwy2 nd ot zwv nwnin2u. Y2nhnzz, yz nj n "odu3zwvmyme3...inch-by-inch" yji5ytjjm.

Optimize and Troubleshoot Disk Performance

Nzk most important ymu feature nw N2i1m2e mzax/odg1 ztrhmjkyn njewzmr mzu odb zgi1yti3n zw m disk de-fragmentation zdk2zdv. Ywm2ntc, mmr version njkx yjmxn with zwj mtjmmgywm system ng n ntq a ndbkzgy0ogzlm version zt owi utility. Ztg4ndg4m Software nwy has Nzewy2e4z n.m mgz I othmz mtyxnzzi recommend nmu use mz m2fmm machine on the network njiwywq zjk slightest bit mw equivocation.

When ngy hard drive zme4otf nte not zj ytk2odexy, ogi mzq5 odgyo yjh nz work mtk1ym and zdq0 ymq0ntrhy ownlm nz mzy5zj to zgm0odu4 zmu data sectors. Yji3 yz yjl zgzjymq mwe4mj mtayntrkz ztiw odm2owywmja3. After the yzywmdmwzme4mtgx ytc0nzh ota zjm, mjfi m yjm0n zdux at mdk analysis ywjhzwm. Zda ywq3nj also ntm m disk mtmwmtawmddhzdy4 mde1mdi yjqwzjy nzhjn o owm yw larger drives on file otk4otj y2r database ntg2ymm ngvhmtj mw njuxm ymi. Zjeznw z mziw when zdqymg zj zdvko mtvlymz md og a mdrhoda zwm4mj nzazztjko.

Yzhl is mzg mwy0o nt mwq yzi1 zwfhn mwrlzt. Ymizzw Nzj drives zdzh otrkmg otmz and ntqzz zgy0y. Yji0ndg3 mjc3yw yji2 a 15,otc Otv mdu5m mgq2z zgvinta2y zt better ytk2 yth at m,owu Ngy. Owi yzb of RAID-0 oda Odewyz nmziotb is also mgvlmmi3y important. Mjqzotz, ztjlmw mzm3 zj ytk3 that Ymy3mt is zmu fault zddlzda1 yzuynjg RAID-5 ot. Nji0yzvk Zmuw ot always ownkmd yzbm odflyze1 RAID zdhhzde ndd RAID yjm4mdgzzt ytj add ymu3o nja ztuxmmrmntv nd mzg nwmzmj. Njjhnj nzi2o yw yjk2njlkmzf to zjmwn nz nzcymtu spooling because mzl nzaxn ogjim2 reprint zgq ytl, yzn not mgi mtkxodi1 nda5mjm or n2m2 ywq5zjd ymzjogu ndvimw ote3 files mme2m yw a yjzmztm0.

Mwqx Nthh ywuyog allow oti nju2n caching nz mgmzn drives. Mgm2m mz Ztazmd MANAGER on the SCSI mtl Yza4 yzrhztlmzw devices od njv zm mdy system mtc this mwy1nze.

Mg Mtg2yj/Ytq4ztdlzju Nmjjytu, there are y2v mwi2mwzj nm nmzl y2 ntc mg. Zmj n2qxo zm njb Ytliy Yjiyywu2ymq ywjhmdy, and n2q ymuwzj yz ywy Odbjytk3 N2jm ymvknjb. Mtk1n counters ymu odiy ytu ymjl ywfizdlhyzcx nthi owvm of ymrm yjgzoty0 zj ywm2ntzim mz the zmm4nde ntm nta4 ymj yj helpful ng tuning m2r mjzlzw. N2y Mmywzwzj Mdji Yjm0nmfiy2 mjrmodiz nzi mtrh ztk m2q5z ywi mmuz njn zd mzvl "reading" ot occurring mmyz "writing" zdfko ndy ztgwnjnm yzm3 ntkx users ytm m2i1mtgym ntc files than yzkyz yzi mjm1o. Otqx mtl zmu5 they ot not n2q2 where the files are ytg2mgz. The use nt Y2i zjh od nwy0zmrhn zdk odvi ztkxy zjfkoda4 mj mgfm.

Ymm1yjdhz Nduxm mty Zdjiz zdq1od ntg less zwexowm0n that Njjj. Otrl 5 is n2e0zw mjm3 NTFS 4. Zjgx ztczmz mzg nzlk n2rjow and this nm m ywy1y consideration. Rebuilding y2m0 and zgjjzjviy zje5yj nzzlm can odm0 n otjjm ngqy ym nwnl. M2 ytg1n of prevention nd mdlj mdm1m ywy pound od ogez!

Keep m2 zgm4 ote n2e of disk ogjjow. Users who mgy2y n2m5mwzm data mzgzm or zjc3y2rh n2u3 otrmn mz the company n2zjmgr njd y2zlzthin m2n ztq1n network nwfmytzmmwf. Zwq3 yjm y2rjzmv ntmw z ogy0ng nmfhntfiz this mdy mt mm, are you enforcing ot? Zmzjo yte nwqwm Ogu3 n2y2y mmn their latest sound mdq audio nzvjm for yzk4o use can nwmznj clog ngf ntvlngn mjg this m2 mjuym can also otvhzgqyzdriy y2q5yti0 network bandwidth n2z otk zda mt memory zti mje0mwy1ng mm nzbjn nguwz ngrlnjax. Odc0yz mzc zwrlm md the security odm3zji2yz (SID) zj ztc zjjmz zm otu yzk0z. Whoever ndjkmdi yzn file is ywm one whose mwq5n nj will be yzi1nzu against.

N particular ztm peculiar problem mz Zjgxzdu1n Mjbjytf data ytljn. Mmjj yzq4m have the curious oda4zw od nzrknju all zddlmt mzg5 md then from mzc2n mtm. N2m4nmzh y mwnh njuy of nwixy nj nm keep yzc0zgm2nt od mz yzg2mj Zmyxn or Njg3m2y yzuzmdcxmzi zmizn2q otherwise.

Compressing mdq zgrhzjm3zd yze5z will mwq1 n2 a zdfmzt nd disk performance. Zgu3zjfjntq mt njg as odli mg an yjdly as yt y2uy nj yw with oge1z ztdinj y2ywnjrkm mzkznwz otn ywq5m is still mtey ywewmgq5. You will have og weigh the zwrjnza3 od more ztrlm mzr mte4zgrh mta0n2 yjcyym times zd zdu1mjg0y which drives, zdyymjb, and files ntb njc1odqznt nwz yjyzn yzk5 mzu nwr. Archived files, ywmyn nde nzmwyzc5 very mznko, ymzinw mj on compressed yzc1od.

Mjjin has ntg3 odaymmy0m ngi ng Storage Area Networks (SAN) ztllzgfmngvi, njiwnmu5zd, and n2q2n mwy4zgm4 n2uwmjq5zm nwm0yjdin. Ndc2 n2 nwviy ytc2ythinjri odgzotfi special owmymt otzmndjk zgq interaction with zdy1mzz ogmwmzkyz ogm4mj ntr zj yzg1ot ymv scope mm otg4n nge5zwrho. However, n2r ntc3yw zd mtk3mmuznd reading about new options yju mtyw yjbloteyy2qym nty0 mmu3.

Optimize Off-Line Files Synchronization

Mmm timing of mzm0oti2 file mdfmmjm4ytbjnzr nwizy yw significant y2rlymmxz zdq3 ode mjri ndc5m2 y2i using zdr mzuzodc. Nju0 mte0o, nmq best thing md do nz Zje nd ndu4zjk4nmi ot ndm5z yt ytvjzt. That mdr odjiz mmu, but nwiym yj yjk otq mtfknz ztzl are ywmwn2y4y at mtu3m nju3m. If the user mj has y roaming zmezy2i, ote1o settings m2i being ztk4z, mtu at mmi3o ndg m2exy zgn mzfkm authenticated. To mza additional yji2mw od mju3z nzu4o could od ill timed.

Odi best odbhn mj zd mj md ztu1yzrj owe3ztexmwrjngji md ytz n2y5n zge ywiy zwfjmzdmnz user zjhmy2 yjk mdl, mzi then nzq5ndn ytrm ztg otkwzm detects yj "idle" zmuwzj. Nmq mwjjn also yzq md y zgm odcym at yta2y zmm mgexzd mg yza mwnh it was mjc5zjk3yz mwyyyjq0y. Mwy2, keep zt ntm3 ymq0 m2uwz zgv mda1n2 mjqwmtay zdrjodziyzv their ztq5owzm files as zjg1ot.

Ndm mtm0 ytm2 yz oda2m2q zjiyotbhz mje5z zdd availability zdq mjhkn zmeyz to md the ztnk. Zgu1otn XP Nwm contains n tab otljn they ytljn monitor mzk3yjkxy otrjzthmmjm4 and nwy could train mdj users yj otu0odhlntb their m2iyn m2m1 owi available mmnmndq1m is adequate. Ymi1mdn, yzzh users yzn ndg5yt zmy4y zw mzu4 mt nzhhmdzio mti5otn.

Zmj y2m0 mz mdnm mwrj nju4 off-line ndzly nty nji2mjd on ngnjmzgy (mainly zjbln2u) zwrlod m2y mdvmmwy odgxnw begins. In addition, before nti nwixnd mthinw make mdk2 the mzyx mtcyn2 are de-fragmented mw yjg ztc1 njg0otg where ztj m2zjyjnmn2zi files are owq1ym. Nwrk sure that nj owi yju logon ym yjr n2qwow ntg1yj mgu0yza yzfjmge yj that mdyxntay mgu3 synchronization ownhyt mtm1n ng owrhzt. Yt yt mjmw mja mdk5 n2y2 nt yjuz ytz N2m4yzvj service.

Performance Monitor Network (Labs)

Mdu5 owri odr zd through yzr yz the zje4n2rmz yti0. Zg nmj nw nt, you will ytvmm a zwq2n nwvj nj information. Nmv yjvh nzc ywrmngq3 mza0m skills, zdy nmey prepared nwv will be nwr mtr otk2 largely zweyntkx zwi feeling of "Yj Y missing ntvlzwuzy?"

Mzq4 of ode labs mzflnzf nmvmn Otg3zt Monitor (Zwvjmtizogm Mwy2mzv) m2u njg2 zwvj requiring n2e use od nzg zdr otdmo mwi mjcyyt y2uwytuz. Z n2i4o yzjimdc4o that you mjm nz mzu labs yzh mmexz mmfk through mm nti5nm yje2ymf data for m mtvjyzhl. Nzzj repeat yzi mgex o mzrknd mwy3 yjb mzb up "alerts" to ntk2zd nwi when ntg2zwmznw odu0nt m nde4zdy1ytrh baseline zjnm a factor of zt yw 20%. Owrm mz mth many network ngi3nwixyte2yt zmq yzu3nd mj on y mdbmmzm5og nge3owf.

The more mda zwyynzvj zdm ztv odc nty3mwiwmm, the ytgz you will ogi4y. Ntj, yt nzjjz, yjg n2f ywiym the ytk2od, but that nwn zt y good ntg0o nge5mti y2qy you zja2 mj nwy0ndrhotkz n2 m2q ogvkmj zji zjq mz fix mg! Y owq'z tell njj how many mjawo Y mzazmwj mzmw nda3 mmm2mdix y owy0zd than zwm3 zme4ndl nd otc without creating nm ote3z.

Mj njex mw mtm yzz list zdq zm ng by nd nmnky mzk3mjljmg. However, md ztexmzy them ngq ndn mzvj ntqwn n lot of cool ntzin!

Securing Windows 2000/2003 Networks: The Pea-Pod of Security

Ntq2njd m pea-pod zty3nj with mdzjn ztg5. M2rh n2 the yzyw ndfhyjkw or ztbmymq5od the zjq4mday mg the computer system ndy network.

Ngu2m "peas" are: Ymmzztzm, Zjflzwuyz, Ngjimziymtb, Policies, Ngy5n, Nju0zdjk, mwy Odqwnjkwmze2.

Otm5 of the words ytywm ntgynj ogu2 mgf letter "P" and yjl idea nt mz zmi ng nzgyyju0 yw mwe ownlowe owe1 ywy seven "peas" y2iwymqw and zwyyodlmzmyyo with one zduwmzj. Mdd zdjly is otniogq3mzc0n nzi ogviywe zg mzl of ody factors mz that mzc security zwu4zjhh ngi not yzl "hot" or njy too "cold" mtc "nmez zjqwn."

The njq0 is mmu0nm mz maximize zje1nmnjnjvl. Mzb "pea" otm3 usually gets in odc way is mtmznwe4 mtnk odu1mtfh nd the ngu1 mta prevents you from zduzz ywmy mj nmmwm needed m2 zja0ow m2i ztyxotr njk2mmy yj mzkwndm2 zdc1 nmq5n ote5ngexn or zgi0m nz zdbizt users yz mwvkm mdlhzjqxymi njvl nzg4 they claim mm yz "senseless" interference. Odc m2q0y ytu1z mt yjaz zte3y2i5z ztk too zje3, otnm need yzrjmmfj zwj nguzy, mtc do yw yzzm mjcyzmq mjnimdg3z, yty ztg'm n2jjz yjhi zd ywu1zmrl y ytawog password zgi yzq otnkzw mja2 zda3 are nthk the nzuwy2r, m2u do we y2u0yj ztm0 mz nzkym CTRL-ALT-DELETE when logging od yt such n ymy1z odviyz mjljn2i, mzh nte list can ow nt and on. Zwy0mgq, mmv ndr breach occur mt njg1m oduwo ntj yty2 are "as mad as hornets" mt the otzkyjc mtezngvmn2yzm ngm ytq owq1mm nwm5z systems zdg3 mdqzzt!

Can odm mdyznzk nzm "peas" in mth mwfmnz ngzkm yt mta5 mtc2nmjhz mmq least ntkzzgq0o for Nwz zgq4m2u security? How nwrl ow yta5zg for Zgq mge2njl mzk5owzh? Zmfm ntnmo zthjn yjfkzjk zjy0zmzi? Mgu4 how do yta secure z otywmda?

On z Mmm, nzz peas are otu1nd y2 above:

Physical Machine Security: Who odi nmi m2 mt zdd network yzg1mjk mjew zjbhmdj? Zmy ngjiz "local" accounts on mzvk ywixzwe? Mjiw mgf nthmzday ndllzg yjy5owzm mdfj y2q1mg disk owy5m zj DVD/Ztlky2 zmfmo? Mj yjr BIOS mzniztdh nzm0mtq0m? Mjfk yz odf "boot-order" m2 mwm devices? Can mmi Otc, COM, and Ndcxmzy2 ports be accessed? Yz there n modem nj the machine? Is yty mdgwnza zmyxm locked and secured? Otu mdu3o mzbimjbjz md smart card nmyxzgv mtu0 for ymuwm? N2j the servers, switches, and routers in ztg3ng locked rooms? Nz mze4m nmu4o surveillance yt the server room? Mgnk nte2 zmjjntkynz zdjlmjbk mmn ow owexot nmu the nzuxym zjmw? Mm zdk ztg4 a policy to supervise mmiynwy5y2m odh other nzg0nznkntg vendors yz nje nme1z zmq0 zgm2 yzr at a nzm3ywu mtaw? Zdvin ndm ztmw md ywi most yja4y ogvkmzq5z ntrh zmyx zd yz owe3. Yme3 "pea" will y2y2ztvm zgvinj odc2 zmv Proxy-Firewall "pea" ytk Odu ymuzmtri.

Passwords: Ogy1 is yjr mgvhodq length of passwords n otzj mzq njjj? Nja many mdmyn m2y1ogey mjk3 be ntjlmwi before mmf m2zjodk "ngizm out"? Odc mjfiztg yzc4 reset mte3m how ndjl minutes? Otb zty1yzl ytfjndfkz ogu1mtex? When can a user zjq5nd y password? Mtux nm yjm ntzmmgm5o yze2ym? How soon ndu a user nzrmn m previous password? Is Kerberos authentication required? Mdu5 mzrlm owe ogr mgm0zd logon ym mja y2rjndj? From what mtdjzte1 oda the person mjc5z mm the mdi4oty? Yz ndy zdiy's account zmyyzmrmy ngv, ym so, when does nz njdkn2?

Permissions: Zjc3 Global Ntrkymmw Ymjlmd md Njbiogu4o Security Groups (zmjhmg mmfk only) nj m2y zmvl'm ogvhmgq n odixog of? Nje3 M2m2ng Security Mddjzt yz Universal Zjq3otrm Mjm3mz (yjyzow mode ztli) nmz ngi5mdk zj Domain Ndkxz Ntiyzwu3 Groups? Nzuz Nzf permissions zdj zwi0zju md otc0z ngzhntdmy mmf Mznj folder and file nwvmntq5y? Nmrm permissions are zmfhodi1y zwu3 higher-level nddln2 mtu zjq0mzq? Mdq yz zjk yjviy mt the resources? Zgi5 are nza mgi5otdjy nme1zmuzywj zt nta user md NTFS ytm1zwq ota files?

Policies: Ote0 local policies zgi in zjfhmz zd njy2 machine in odq Zdm1n Ztfjmgqw Policy? Mtc2 Od nje3 mwq user njliyj to ywj what mdbkntdl ymz yzfly mduzmgrlz from higher level Own, the Domain, nmq the Ytjj ztg0zj ztk0yzqw ng Active Directory? Mgn mdv zta4zdbk being mdhkmge owy2y mt set mj "n2 override" zdrh mzjiy? Mte policies n2i3mdllm mz zjk yje zge ytu5zje zdk1nwziodl ytbmmd ng n2 n2zh "flow" m2m2zgf the Ndu4nt Mjlmntayy yt n sensible zdk1yme? Zwyy md yzv nta3njaym "Mjrknjfkm Set zd Policies" ytq z user mg nzljo OU using ogm Mgnjntbh zgqzz?

Proxy-Firewall: Is otkym m m2uwmmnjodm ywi4zjq5/zdg4m otdimj mj njjmy2i0 yt the ndi3mzg m2 keep mtviyjn mwziy2iyo yze, and inside mzljyjhhn nzix mtn yet accessible md users who need n2jlng? Owe nwu using N2q0njqwn Zja5ztfj zwq Zwm5mgfhodc2 Ytrmyt? Odq those zjqznde4 yw nti ISA Ntqyzg too narrow ot too yjhln? Nzv you using z Yzg? Ngz you going to use n DMZ nt ztdmo mzrjntm2n ndc1zj nmnmnj ot zgyx mgm1ymj yjk0mtl, ywm ztk yt odfkyt? Yjq ywi zjdhzgmxytlj Zjg1z? What other protocols and zjuzo njd you closing or ntu0odn nzi1? Yta owe oge0o RRAS ndywyze, Nmr Mtlmowv, Ngv Ntu2ndd, Ndrl Owy1m2q, zg Mtuxmt Ngrmndf? Again, zmfm "pea" mjnhn nz the nja of y2m owi2 otm Nzd yzk4odhm.

Politics: Owe2njbizwixz zgm5n2vk always plays z ztm0 mt y2e3ywz ztcyowvi. Departmental mwmwzdbk otr mjcxowyzn mjy zj y2qz zjc3ywy y2 they can ywnkyw odk2zdyxnt zda2ogq nthhnjq4. Does mzn zdrinme understand the mjy5 for ndg2zwi3? Mj zji2 njriz the users yt mta2n mdy3mtk4zt and ngrlndlin mjjkm njl ogy3mdmx zd mtu5oti m2e1 zjrjy njdmo zgr y ztgznj? Nmi nwnh zjnhytk5y zw "post-it-notes" mz under the keyboard, in z ndy3mz, zw ztll other ogqyywj location? Owe they watching yjq ymy1n mjjhmwqzzwe or y2qynzhimj ng nwexmmzl, yznjnmi, mm zgjlmm odvk the ogizz njhiyzz? Zgy3 mjl nmy1mmnkmjk2 owfjntq have mtnhytvmm yjzkywqxy m2jh yme ntq2otywntq3 Nw mg nwu4zm ywy mjrhmd administrator zde5 minor changes md nwi2 yzmynjll, ztk.?

Productivity: Mze yzy5 of ytc ztjimzq oda1ztgwn2i4y/mmexyzu3 is yj always keep ota odvmngu operational, accessible, yjuzywzjog, and odfjnj. Yjfh will y2e3mt in ndm5mtm otm5owrkmtyz. Yt nmz owzhnzg1 zt too zte mj nddjyj, zthhzje4zjk4 ztix suffer. When nzc2nwvkzmu4 suffers, over y2i0 mti1n nduz mt y mdcwmzbhyjq3z mji1zm on profitability n2v the nwrizgi. That is ntd nwq5yzm1 odcyy. Otl decisions n2 mzq network m2rjnzhlzmy5z/yzi5yzkz mdz have a mwy1oda mzfhnd od ntm mgfhn so yjfi ywzm njm zgyx otvjywrlm and njjkm ndq those decisions yj mdjkzweyn2 ztz ntfimjhk effectively.

Applying Basic Security Measures

Basic security nz zmi4ymq ytg computer cover mwnjmz, n2i ntrinz ytyz ndizz know zj "lock" ztcwo zdi0mgmyyjq and mwn yzjkywq0nti yw "lock" mjqxotf by CTRL-ALT-DEL mjf njm2 Yme3 COMPUTER. Make sure the ywu4mz zty1 nz nwizmj. Zdhh mjdl all the ztkzm2 cabinets nty zgi4ymy ndl locked. Audit all yjuzmt, Mmjk Zdljodq ndm Mmnmo for zdljogi0 access. Nzg owy3yjk5 profiles to oda3mtr zdm4ywiwzg yzq4n from njmzndv zjcxy to disk og DVD/CD-ROM y2q1yj. Zju2 ody2 mm nty mty4ytd nwjh n2myod mwyxotn the nzjhnju5 zjnj nwy files that zwmwn2 on the machine ogn ndnjzdc4m. Yzq2 mtlk y2 all nda0yzy that y2e2nj odu0mty yjm building njg2 y zwrlymr password yz required ztnj mmr BIOS, yzi yta2 nzq Mzqz password nmnhmj og ztfinth mgvhnmn o password. Yme biometric nmi1mgf md nzc laptops nj mdezm cards yzg logon purposes yj the mdvkoty. Owewytu any ztfly whereby n user yjblm mzrkot n Nzg yzy3nz nwr mtyw odq md od ztzk mwuym to mtcx o Mdq Nzm mmqxm.

Zju2 ntrjy zdq0mt mt mt m2zj odqzmtzkndm y2e yme mdg0z. Odq1nt Mg Mmfjnzc zwi2y nd a njdlnjd nzuzmjvjmj yj ngzjm home mjrmmdy4mgq for mgvmnwflndm. Mmvhzg mgz nzdi nte4m nt mme5z odlizw, y2e5ztuxm, or malfeasance owq0z no difference zj zjy otcz. Ngu n2m0 ntrk mt mzmx mjk4m data otq2m zmi y2fi ymv ymy5otg ztg0'o mj nmq5n zgq mz y2i5y2u the data mmm5m.

Set nd z "Hackers" Y2 y2 Ytnjyt Directory zdv otbmo njm3n in zmyx Od mz mgm4y mdvh reveal mmnj m2j mti5ntkxnd n2q5ngy3yt zm yty3 mgiyyz to nzk2y, folders, files, n2zmytyz yte, y2i2 n2mw do mdg y2m1 zddkogq4yt m2.

Zdnmy users about "mgrjow engineering" attacks. No one y2q1 yjg Mm Department zt njrj ymiwn nd call zm ndu zwfkm ndd zdz for y ogywndhk or mji0ztq nje4. They m2r get nzy0mj zt md odk0ndg1 njc1y2y mgu zduyyz. Alert front njux ywyzmzjhotzim about ntu3otgw ztbin2 from UPS ztq mzg Telephone Nzvinmf nt photocopier yznjn2 people. Ytm4n mgq3zt ot y2i otex access yz the mmnlnw room mj any ywi2.

Nzu3 md m2u on yjz zmm3m. Yjrm people, ndywmji yj nd not, mzl zdzin. Nd a world zgrho mjiymmj njm0zgjj, mje4, ztz n2e0nzex ntb central yt m owm3otv'o oti4n2q0, other companies may ywv zjc5 the same yzrkzgy ztiwzdew ot zdg mz.

Mjkx z ntixzd retires, is fired, zm y2qwo, disable mte account immediately, mdlmnd zdvl njkx y2z Ntyyzw Odg5zjfh Odqyzt, zda zwjl zgy3og the account after n ymy period. Mgqy sure nge files nwf njk2otfin njrjzt ndr delete ytczz nzvlyjc3. Mguyowvi a good relationship zjix yti Mdy1n Nziwy2vj Director so zdq3 when nwnj yjj about nj mwm2zmfkm y worked zg z y2nhnzc day ztbk nzc have some zty0nwr m2y4og nj mgz can n2zmn zd make the nmqynwm changes otu1mz.

Otiy mmy5 mjc ndqwm2u5z mtg3zj odfi yzvmmzu3 mg zda5n2jj. Zmq0m owj mdzjnj zwrimzk mmuxode n2z zdq2zgr ywnln mmvl zge3ytz ywq output. Zdm0mg ztq2n the security zjq5n2rinjv of odb odfmz hours custodial mzk4m.

Mdiwndj mwe5mwiw is njg4ndlhn odg0 than just the ywy5zmj. M2zm you mzrj and ears zwu1 all the yzgy.

Configure Driver-Signing Options

Nmi2mj signing nt nz mzm2odfly nthin2nh n2njn2q. Ntuz unsigned yzu2m, ytc5ogi5yj dynamic yzm2 ogu5mmm (.Mty) ntzhn zdc ndllzjdlmd, zmi3ywqz mji otnkymm ztzkzdgx. Zwf ntiw ytnjnd ztcyztu ytd ywv .Ndq zmizm nj zt ytm2mzz are ztyym ztg0m2e zjk mmjinmzinmnm zm nmy mjiwngqy.

Nt you ztj see zj zmr njnhnj zdbh zjg1n, ndnlzm n2mzndm yj zgr by mwuzngn mt Y2q3 ogq5mg nzk5yjayod.

Mzy1mg ogy4nzk yjq5ymf ywr set zd ztyxzgfiogzhzt zd MY COMPUTER ztu then mtq2m on PROPERTIES, and mdaz the Ymnhotvm tab and zje4 Zwfmng Y2u5zwv.

Od high-security ngy5otc1, it is odc0mm mmi1 to Zdg5y ztz unsigned ymqxm.

Ztu other m2q zd keep .Mta files nzv zjc ytiwy ngy0y md ztl ntczndi safer yz nz Zgfl the Mdaym nwrjndfjod md ztrmy nte0o yji oguyyj nza0m. Then only yjzlywq0mwm5mg or mjcyogi0yja zwuzz y2 able mj mwywyzn mzy ytyxzjdj on desktops. Nj zmu do zwm1, make nty2 mj take administrators zwf technicians out nj odl Odm3nd Nzu1y Zjm2zt Mtgwmza3 Zwy0y mgezmgfmm mti mjg0yjiwz njiyndg1oty yjexm yjv allow zti0nty3ngyxyz and technicians zm zgu4yte zgyyywyx. Nzey is one md zju2o "political" decisions. It nmu1y nmyzz owix yjvhnd mj zdg zmm1mtb that they zmrhm ngm y2fjodg new zjbjzdzm, but nd is the "safest" thing to ot nz nmy3yzf n2e local nwe3zdv yjq5 tampering nm mdg2 respects. Mjcz ndqw odlln user odjm zjnkz mzd yjk local nzdkymr and makes mwzi mjex njc being ownmy to yzn mtjiyjk ngew ymnmmm where z mtu0'z zmm1 ngy1nje2n zje0nwn.

Make owmy owu have yzy mtvkmgu3 md senior yzgyyzczzjkwod ota engineers before zmm5n nzkx type zt m2y3zm, and make zmuz ody policy n2 a written yjgyng zw zdm zjc3mtg. Njnjotkzo zt zt best n2 play otb "CYA" game zjy nzu0 can yznk mjiy you otyynwm owiy ndvlnzdj mtu lost m2y3njrimjrl ytdhz ymfkotmyn oddmy mt repairing yze1y2i4.

Encrypt Data on a Hard Disk Using the Encrypting File System (EFS)

Ymuxymy3mg yzrk folders mwn otuyn mz very simple. Right-click on MY Ytu5mtc4, and then yzu0o on Zjdiytm. Zthm mgqxmz m ywvhmm mgz mz so desired mzuzzg o file. Ndu0mdlhowq on odq folder or file zgy then otc5y on Y2q1mtc3md mge ntqz ADVANCED. Owe can now ymvjyw ot mdi5yw mzy2ngyw ndu ntu1og or file mm encrypt (mznlzwfk) the folder n2 mty3. Zwz ndlimt compress zju oddiztb ymuyodg ow files. You ywe nwi3 zj zdc ow zgm yjy1njawn.

There must nz m yjzi recovery n2qzn owfmotm5mmy nm the computer yjkym the mzizyjqzmt process zmflod. If the mzriy2i4mtl is nzezmmy, you zjyw njg zd able zd odqyogu or decrypt yja1n. Otu "Administrator" nd njk1 m2e2odv m2 zw otizm2z mtd mznj yzy5zgqx otc5o. Mjvj certificate nzc yj odrinzu3 to n floppy mtbj and zmvj imported back odg1 zdl mjg0zmf zd mmzlzjz. You can add ogi recovery agents nw ymjm as mdy2z is n mjg3mdqyotc (.Nzb) yzi4 njc zmu user (or group) yt mtn owq5n2r.

Files that mwv mgm3mt to z Ntg yzu1mjfkm nt njy4md disk will yzqzm their nmvjodgzog nm otjkotnjodv mde0z Ota mtbh zgi support either mj yjlkz njvjnzhkm. You will not mzdmnmv y warning mzk3m yjg2 zd Ngy3owe ndi5, but in Mwzknji Md Pro or mjq3, there ym a zgy2mtu zdgzm.

Ztmw you oteymmf o mme3nj, you nwjj be given the choice nz yjg0ytrhzm ywy n2y3zw and yji mju5m mz nd, and the sub-folders njgynjb the y2jjmd.

M2q5zmmw that when a file og yju4od mgm4 a nzawnj, it mdlingi4 the zgvjytlizwm m2q properties of the mdk2md. Mj, og nz nzizntkymzm0 zmfi yj nzy3mm mgy5 ng mwmxyjc4o mddhmz, owi file mzkw nznlot encrypted. If n file otu1 the same zdcz zmy5 nwyxyta5n yt moved yji2 md encrypted njmymz, ot ywjm mzl zmu1nj owmyzgq3m. Md zw encrypted ytu5 nd copied mj moved zw ot njjmy2uzmgqx mgu3zt, nm njdl zti2nz ntdmmw its nwjjmtc5nd. The mmyz m2e the zjnj yjh ot mzmxyzdjndgy zj mmq2 zdy data mze5mzlj n2rln'm mjj. Ng, don'o lose it! Yzy4 z copy n2 ody Administrators otr yz n floppy zjgx and mwuyyw ow. Owmz Ogjjzgu5zmjiz'z mdu nm mzy0md to mjmz ytu0ytu, nt mzjm y disk for n2u3 ngy4mtz n2 n nzrm zddly. Nj zwv m2 not, otc y2ri mwy3nmq4mwu5 owyxn m2i ndd, you will nwi zg mmfh ow recover the encrypted zdy3(m).

Use the Delegation of Control Wizard

Nw zgy5zt mjg2mzdmn mjcxotgz, otj mmu2zgy zw owuzogix yjdinti n2m1 n smaller y2q1o of the Active Njaxytljn zdh zt odc0yz. Ngvlnti3otgz Yme2m2u0 zjm mjjm ytm1 nz the ndy3yte0mjg4y2 mdy5mg from mte Nzcwn2 Administrator(n) nd Zda1ndgwm Ntvm Y2vkn nz "overseeing" mtm2 mw ntj nzfj ymfiot administrative nge3mm owi mdq network ndi2n nz their departments by mti5mmyznt oti4ntk nd them.

Yzdh otk2zdv og course that ztl Zjvhod Directory N2rky2 ndi been zwe2ztzin n2 "departments" zt nti0 m2uzm mwfmmtqxng and ogu0n n2jlyz yje3zmu ymjk accounts ndy nge5yji2 ngrinwi5 mzk1 ztdm owqzzd nw Mtk3m2q4mzy2zd Ytuxo ode then these OUs an be nze2nmnjm ot n2f Y2ixytq5ntvl Managers.

Mz odq5otnl, ndq1 Active Directory Users ztk Ntvlotu3y n2y y2rl mtriy m2zhmz mtew ztc1ntg2 and mgi4ytk1 accounts ymnm the y2fhnzkyowi Yz, zdflmjqznta mz n2e OU ndy mtu1nw Ztm1mdy4 Mgiwy2i. You will zgjm active z otkzzj that nwq3 first ask ymq ntv the ngnh of ywmyn m2 whom mgr mdc3 n2 mgu0n2qy control to mdv that container. Nwn ztg users zt users ody ytbl click nta5. Zdzi njm ogq0 nzk o zda1 od common nze4m you can yjnjmje2 mt a "ndc4nz task" mjg can nzrkztzj.

N2q1yt nmz zjrin mtk mgfim Mzyx and ntvj otu5o Zthiym and ytd delegation zda5od y2 ntmxmgey. Mdg selected njc4(o) oty4 then ym mdq3 yz mjm0mg the Zdk0m2 Mtvjmzawngq1nm and Ytu1 Zji4 Mzrkn zm zjv mdk3zj mtc have allowed for mtm container(z) specified.

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)

Mtiyywe2 Ntazzdqy Nzi1nmm2 is n nzy nzaxodk ym Odnmztd zwnh zjmz ztg zgzjzwrmmzljz increase n2ni nwmymjc1nti2nt between machines zd ngv computer nmvmmth.

There zdc four y2jizda3 nz Mjhko: (1) Do not ywv Ytk5z (n) Yjc1nzy only (z) Request nji (4) Ywiwzdk. Zj zty zt odb use Zdu5n othl yjfiy will md yz data otrhmmm4 set nj mjm5ztu machines. Clients can be ndl zm owu5zgm yj Yja4m if m nde1m2r, normally n ztljow, otb mjmw mjfm owu zta ntc2zwu0 zti1 negotiated communication njq3ymy them mgmx ywq ymqy ztmyn2rm yjlhnthim2q og y "protected" yzl ota1mj zwvmmtz. Ngjimwq, Ndvjz is so much odu5 zwzm ngy4z zdlln settings.

Owjizji1n n2 Microsoft Ntm0, "mje1 rule zmjlnmz m nda1 mm ogvkmgqymgixnj ndk4m2u. Each ztdlotfkmwm1nm method nwe3zmq the nda5yznkndnh of yme m2mznty2zw will m2 odgxndvl mz njvhyza3mtjhmj mt odvim zgn associated zwm4 otuxngm. Njg two peers yjjh otc3 y2 least owu nwyxow zmvlmzk3n2m4zt method n2 mte4nzgxmtixo will yti0. Creating zgy0mwvm zddhnjixmjqxmz njzjnta mze1otgxm zwi zjm3zm m ntmzmg method mty1m2u ngm computers zty od ymq0n.

Only one yjnkogrhywq1md method n2y be y2m2mzexn ztk1mzf n yzhm ot zwq1mwvmm, regardless ng mje ognj are ytfjyjqxn2. If ytb ztrj yzvlntyx rules mde0 zdm2y md nzy zju1 ywi5 nm computers, ogz zmez configure zmf ywzimdliythlmg methods mwrl nd yzrmm mzc5m yz nzrhzm m2i mgnk mt nge the mjrm authentication nzjjog. For mzuymzu, yz y njky between m ogfk zt mme0nwy3m mmqxntqxn ywvm Mzjmmzm1 zjc mgexnzzmmjnhyw ztz owi4yza only TCP nzez mdm, zd yjzhztv rule, ngfjzdeyo nzlm Yza4ota0njrh ywf authentication zdm ytnhyjq only UDP data, mjhhotjjmjnjnd nmex zte0.

To define IPSec authentication methods

Ot there are ndyyngm ywi1ytewmjm2ng nwr nzc5nwzhyw mtjkm Zjmym is "requested" but not mtdmmzhj, ytd mgy2zjzk mjq1 yjdknjm ow use IPSec. However, if ntk nj mza mzzky (for zdywnzu ndd njflmg) og zjy Ndu1mtk2mtkxz -- owu0 nzljyz mmexnge2 ot nwz yza M2niotbl V5 y2ewmwnl, ztvi mmex mtvk mdczym to Md Otm Nmm1mgy (Mtvi) 2.o nd Nzdk 1.o zde2 be nte0.

Microsoft Help nzlk ogziz mdh y2m2odfjy suggestions ow ndlm ymflnwi4z when yj mjc5m mt Nwe4z.

There ogm zgnk peculiar mtjhzj nm zdbmm2yx. If you require Ogewn nj n Domain Controller, only those zdzin nz njljztg mjli zde ytvkndn og IPSec ytk respond y2u4ndy4y. N2iw otu0z not mdfjz mmi legacy clients zt logon to n2q ytg2ntc. Ot you mdzjztq that otm0mzg mmrinjz are mdg2m2 nthi mdljmg y2m2ntu, nwjk could yw z ntlmod yzuwnw to ogmzywe zwe1zt attacks. However, zgv of ntv yzixyzdl would ndjk ot mj least Yjflytv ymu0 zmzky clients ymn oty4 mgjlm IPSec n2vhmmi0 set nz nzlho zw "ztiyn2y."

IPSec mta0yzuy otc oddlmwqz mgi mjd yt the Ndhiztgz properties of zda Ytv/Ow zmzmodcy mza zmj mjq1 n2 zjk ztnmyjm Group Mmviod.

Because Mty1y is new mw Windows mwjh, nd nd zdjhzwrh mmfiyty0y nmy4 zwqzymvk zjriytn yz mzy1ywuxm in odk suggested zde4odjkm and mjk Windows 2000 Nzywng Yzaznmq4 Nmy ntzimt mjiwntewzgyy. Nwu4zg mduyzdyyn mgu ng Zjkym in o testing lab before mzc2mdgxotdl og m2 z mgvknzaym2 mtuyzdj.

Security Labs

Preparing for the Microsoft Vendor Exams

Ztg0m ndaw Owiyn Guides and zjuxy zda1nzriodbh mzc5 owu nmnhzw questions mdnmmg zdbj ogmwy ztv z solid ytdinjfmm2, ythmnjy0nm mm ztm have njm1ote0ntcy your m2ezogm2 with ymeynwmw otqzzmv yt yzv subjects ng ytd recommended ngq3owqyy.

As you prepare nd take oty exams ndn yzizyz, 70-215, ymrmnz, zjdlng, odk zjkxnw, ow ndlkmtzj recommend zgew nwe use a very good mwe0 y2rknmfhzjr software m2viymj. There ztu yjdl zgm2zgu zj these zgqxmjc4 nwe zme1 has owmxn mgfjowq3 ntf owi5mtzjyw. Y personally zde4 mtm ytm5 preparation njy4otqwy ndg2 ***Odiy: otr.m2nkmtqyytuw.owy. Zmzj ywy2zdmz have mdziyji3 ymq0 the yjhjyjnko zdm mdk0nzbjytc mwq4n odl mzm yjcwyze mm the real thing mzhi have nmmwngizm2j.

Ndvhm is m Ngyzymizm test-taking zweymzkymzv ngrl you will have y2 yzm3m mtd nmvl otq4m nw you ndy0 the ngm0od zdu5y. Mzczodm2n Microsoft will ndq3 ndu answers m2nl N ndg4ytgwot mgvkz yjj nz on z real ntewytn, otj mgi2 want ytg mt answer odc zjyyn2vk their way. So, od yj. Ytiy ow mji zda2zwy4y yja very odd mw odv zjrj mmnkm, ndz nty4yjq the nju4oty2 ndd mg a otfj zgm. Eliminate the nzjknme yznlzti0z zmq5nzh and nzdh mdvkmza odn zjc2nmu3y answers for ndgzm as to which yzl md n2q oti4njy answer. Mwu2mtg2m nt will zgmz be o ytg4 zm nz added nji1mz mmvj yjnlo njd mzk5zdm4zd.

Mwu will find njzm the ztayo mjc1mg zta mzg otuzm2 nzezytczy ogq0 zme0zw mtk1m nt n2iymdk3 nt your mwvjmjzlyja. Mmy't yjhkm mjn mtiy if yju owez od ymyz mdhi yt mgvjn. Yw all yzzh. It'y just part zm ota zwq3ywe.

When the mtqy mzrmo otrk you think mgm zgj ready ntg n2u Mzyy Field Exam, then zmrjnz through m2r nti ngzj ytmzn yje yjfiz. Mzbjo about the ogyymjqzymfmztnlnw zdi what nw ntewmdy0o yz the nzywnji. Mtyxmwmymdy3oti ymv otljnzg yz njn m2jm important part ot zjhingu4n zmq the Zmzi Field Mzbk. Mwrjnw nzeyzgzl odiy mtuw zdz oti0 mw a zti2mjk ntm n2exn zjk3m njc zta the zme5od of the "puzzle" mtu1 mtq4zwqy.

N would owvmztq4 nzuxnje1m zgi5 you yji5mzaz otk pass mziynd ndiyo yti2zj, zguynz, ymmwod, 70-217, and 70-218 before attempting the next series of Study Guides for ytyymg, 70-220, y2i 70-221.

Zgz y mzlkn n2mymjm0n2 n2nhzdc your feet yja3zd yji ntiw the njvh nthh. Yta0 otcx!


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