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70-216 Windows 2000 Network Infrastructure

by James Ellithorpe

  The OSI Model
TCP/IP Basics
  Class A Networks
  Class B & C Networks
  Class D Networks
  Class E Networks
  Classful Routing, Subnets, and Supernets
  Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
  Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)
  Viewing TCP/IP Frames with Network Monitor
Introduction to Directory Services and DHCP
  Name Resolution with DNS
  Dynamic DNS and Active Directory Integration
  Name Resolution with WINS
  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  Installing the DHCP Service
  Designing DHCP Networks
    Benefits of DHCP
    Best Practices with DHCP
    Authorizing DHCP servers
    Creating a new Scope
    Authorizing and Activating a Scope
    Address Reservations
    Using Superscopes with Multinets
    Using Multicasting Scopes
    Enabling Dynamic DNS for Legacy Clients
    Splitting the Scope
    Reconciling Scopes
  DHCP Server Clusters
  DHCP Relay Agents
  Backing Up or Moving DHCP to Another Server
  Assigning DHCP Options
    Commonly Used DHCP Options
    Using DHCP Class Options
      How Vendor Classes Work
      How User Classes Work
  The IPCONFIG Command
  DHCP & Dynamic Secure DNS Updates
To be continued...


With this Study Guide, you are about to be introduced to the real test of mastering this operating system. Nothing is as central to your understanding of Windows 2000 and nothing will challenge you like network infrastructure. The good news is that once you get beyond this study guide, and truly understand the theory and practice of infrastructure, the rest is "downhill".

At the same time, don't let your guard down for a moment. Infrastructure will always be a challenge and you will constantly be referring to reference manuals and textbooks to look up esoteric switch settings and trying to figure out what checking or un-checking this box or radio button does. Those of us who have passed 70-216 can breathe a sigh of relief but we never ever really feel comfortable because we know there is always something more to learn about these subjects.

So, dig in and join the fun!

For more information read the entire volume entitled TCP/IP Core Networking Guide in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit. This volume is essential reading to pass the Microsoft 70-216 vendor exam. While it is over 1,000 pages of some very technical and tedious materials, you'll be glad in the end that you did read it.

The OSI Model

The OSI Model is the foundation of computer networking. Networking is fundamentally a form of communication. The various manufacturers of computer networking products required a common standard for the correct interaction between their products.

In 1978, the International Standards Organization (ISO) released a set of specifications that described network architecture for connecting dissimilar devices. That set of standards eventually evolved into the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.

The OSI Model developed by the ISO has seven "layers". Each of the layers is governed by a protocol or rules of behavior. When sending and receiving computers follow the rules, data is transferred properly. This layered structure is sometimes referred to as the "protocol stack."

With the rapid growth of computer networking technologies in the 1980s and 1990s, two primary sets of standards were created. It was called Project 802. The standards developed from Project 802 eventually defined the ways network interface cards (NIC) accessed and transferred data over physical media like the telephone network using modulator's and de-modulator's (MODEM) technology. It included all forms of connecting, maintaining, and disconnecting from network devices.

There were eventually 802.1 to 802.16 specifications created and manufacturers had to conform to these standards if their products were to be accepted. (See NEP, p.222 for the entire list of 802.x specifications.)

Networking is the sending of data from one machine and making sure it arrives to a second machine intact. This involves recognizing the data, dividing it into smaller pieces, adding additional information to the data stream so that is can be put back together in the proper order, adding information as to where it is going to be sent, adding error correcting information, securing the data from unwanted recipients, and finally putting the information on the network wire for transmission.

What actually happens is that the data is "processed" down the chain in one direction and then back up the chain in the opposite direction until the data has arrived at its destination in the same form as it left. This is done in thousandths of a second.

The seven layers of the OSI Model can be illustrated as layers of a cake. At the top of the cake is the most complicated of the layers and as you work your way down through the layers, the process becomes less complicated. More work is required at the beginning of the process when the data stream is disassembled and the very end of the process as the data stream is reassembled.

The seven layers of the OSI Model are:

When the data hits the final layer, it is transmitted through the NIC card into "cyber-space." Very basically, the data packets have an "address" on them. When the NIC card on the destination machine "hears" that a data packet addressed to it is "on the wire", it "captures" that packet and then begins to reverse the process that began on the machine that sent the data. The data is re-assembled back to its original form.

The phrases "All people seem to need data processing" and "Please do not throw sausage pizza away" are, oddly enough, good ways to remember the OSI Model layer names.

The Application Layer relates to user applications like e-mail, file transfers, and databases. A message begins at this layer and exits the OSI model on the other end at the same layer on the destination machine.

The Presentation Layer defines the format used to exchange the data.

The Session Layer allows two machines to form and close a connection. Name recognition and security are provided in this layer.

The Transport Layer makes sure that the data is transmitted efficiently and correctly on the network. Transport Control Protocol (TCP) is a Transport Layer Protocol.

The Network Layer is responsible for addressing messages from one machine to the next and for translating logical numeric addresses and names to and from one another. It also determines the route the data should take to arrive at its designated target. Internet Protocol (IP) and routers work at this layer. This is referred to as Layer 3 because it is the third layer from the bottom.

The Data Link Layer sends the data from the Network Layer and to the Physical Layer. It controls the electrical or photo-light impulses that enter and leave the network. It also adds the Cyclical Redundancy Check (CRC) data for final error correcting and verification information.

The Physical Layer is the bottom of the OSI stack and this is where the data is finally reduced to a raw binary data stream of zeros and ones that compose binary math. The raw data is placed on the network wire by the NIC card and sent on its way.

Then when the data arrives at its destination, the process is reversed beginning at the Physical Layer of the destination machine until it completes the process at the Application Layer of the destination machine. If all has gone well, the transmission is complete and the data has arrived intact.

We can only introduce the concept of the OSI model in these pages. I strongly recommended that you read Networking Essentials Plus [NEP] for more information and a comprehensive understanding of computer networking. While Microsoft no longer requires you to pass the Networking Essentials Exam for W2K/W2K3 certification, it remains in fundamental reading for computer networking.

TCP/IP Basics

TCP/IP is actually two protocol suites working together. Transport Control Protocol works t the Transport Layer (Layer 4) of the OSI model and Internet Protocol works at the Network Layer (Layer 3) of the OSI model. Layer 3 is also the OSI Layer that all routers work on.

All data on a computer is finally reduced to its most basic and raw form to a data stream of zeros and ones called binary. Computers must work in this most basic form of mathematics because their memory segments can only be turned "on" or "off" by magnetic-electrical stimulation. Your computer translates "on" as a numerical "1" and "off" as a numerical "0".

Memory is allocated in what are called memory "bits". A "bit" is a binary digit. Bits are organized into "bytes", which are 8 bits each. In other words, there are 8 bits to a byte. So, when a computer has a hard drive of 60 MB (60 million bytes), there are actually 480,000,000 bits that can be turned "on" or "off" on the hard drive.

An IP address consists of 32 bits, or 4 bytes, of information. These are sometimes also referred to as octets because they have 8 bits in them. A binary octet looks like the following:


There are eight bit positions. The left-most bit is bit 8 and the right-most bit is bit 1.

  8    7    6    5    4    3    2    1

The first position on the far left is called the "high-order" bit. The last position on the right is called the "low-order" bit.


Each bit from left to right also is assigned a numerical value in binary. The left-most bit has a value of 128 and the right-most bit has a value of 1. The values left-to-right decrease by a factor of 2 as it descends.


When a bit is "turned on" it is represented as being so by placing a "1" in the appropriate bit and then that bit's numerical value is added with the other bits to derive the bytes final binary value. Bits that are "turned off" have a value of "0".

To represent an octet with a numerical value of 192, a binary octet would like this.


You will see the first two bits are turned on and they have a value of 128 + 64 = 192. If all the bits of an octet were turned on, what would the numeric value be?

__1__|__1__|__1__|__1__|__1__|__1__|__1__|__1__|  or

128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 255.

Remember this! Obviously if all the bits are turned off, the value for the octet would be zero. Those octet values (255, 0) will become very important later on. Why? Because an IP address and other key information of the Internet Protocol is composed of four 8-bit binary octets separated by "dots" like this.


So then, a common IP address of would be represented like this in your computer's memory except the dots would not appear.

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

The next step in using Internet Protocol is in understanding how the protocol standard operates.

IP addresses are divided into address ranges. These ranges depend upon how many of the 32 bits are used for the "network" address and how many of the 32 bits are used for a "host" address. A host is any machine or device that has an IP address allocated or assigned to it. This would include all computers, network printers, and since some computers will have more than one NIC card, it includes all NIC cards.

Each "network" is assigned a binary NETWORK address. For example, network would have a binary NETWORK address of

0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Network would have a NETWORK address of

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Notice how the bits of the left-most IP address octet are turned on and add up to the prescribed network address.

Class A Networks

A Class A IP address uses the first octet for the NETWORK address and the last three octets for HOST addresses. Since there are only 8 bits to use, the maximum number of Class A networks would be comprised of the numbers 0-128. However, there is no network "0" and the network number 127 is reserved for special uses. Therefore, instead of there being 128 Class A networks, there are only 126 Class A networks ranging from 1 to 126.

A Class A network, then, has the last three octets available for the assignment of host addresses. That would leave 24 bits for this. How many host addresses would that be per Class A network? The answer is 16,777,214.

That number was calculated by taking the number of bits available and using that as a "factor" in the following algebraic formula (See! Your high school math does become useful.)

That formula is 2x-2 where x is the number of bits available for host addresses (24 in this case). That means we take the number "2" and multiply it by itself 24 times and then subtract 2 from that final figure.

The reason we subtract 2 from that number is that one of the rules of the IP Protocol is that no host address can end with the number "0" or with "255" because address "0" is reserved for the "network" address and "255" is reserved for the "broadcast" address.


A network address is the beginning of an IP address range. The broadcast address is used by IP when it wants to communicate with all the hosts in a range. Therefore, it sends the data from n.n.n.0 to n.n.n.255 to do this in one process by sending it to the n.n.n.255 address and every host on the range receives it.

Every host in the range also has its own host address for loop-back purposes and a special address of, which refers back to the NIC card(s) installed.

However, there is a problem. We have 126 Class A networks with 16,777,214 hosts per network. That is far too many hosts and not enough networks. Class A networks would only be used by companies and organizations of a very large size (for example, the United States Government with all of its branches and the military).

Class B & C Networks

A Class B network uses the first two IP octets for the network address and the last two octets for hosts. However, the two left-most high order bits are always set to binary 1 and binary 0 so that leaves only 14 bits for networks. Using the formula 2x-2, we arrive at 16,384 networks and each network can have 65,534 hosts.

Note: There are some other issues. 10BaseT Ethernet networks can have a maximum of 1,024 hosts on a LAN without connectivity components. This will suffice for most small- to medium-sized companies. However, networks that have tens of thousands of hosts must have special hardware and design factors.

A Class C network uses the first three IP octets for networks and the last octet for hosts. However the three left-most high order bits are always set to binary 1, binary 1, binary 0 and binary 0 so that leaves only 21 bits for networks. Using the formula of 2x-2, we arrive at 2,097,152 networks and each network can have 254 hosts.

Before the Internet frenzy of the mid-to-late 90s, it was possible to be assigned a Class B network. They are all gone now. And today, it is not even possible to license a full Class C network any longer, since they have all been licensed to Internet Service Providers. You can, however, license small pieces of the networks from a license holder for a fee.

The reason to license or rent a small piece of these networks is to enable your organization to have a public Internet presence with a web server, to receive Internet based e-mail, for FTP servers, and VPN servers. These are called "public addresses" and most of the network addresses in IP are "public" in nature.

Public network addresses ROUTE on the Internet whereas "private" network addresses DO NOT ROUTE on the Internet.

In Class A, the 10.n.n.n. network is PRIVATE. Everyone gets to use it locally. In Class B, the 172.16.n.n to 172.31.n.n networks are private. Everyone can use them locally. In Class C, the 192.168.0.n to 192.168.255.n networks are private. All can use them locally.

To tell the IP Protocol which size network you are using, a subnet mask is required. The following subnet masks are used by default.

Class A Networks255.0.0.0Using all the bits in Octet # 1
Class B Networks255.255.0.0 Using all the bits in Octet # 1-#2
Class C Networks255.255.255.0Using all the bits in Octet # 1-#3

In review, here are the default choices you have for most private company LANs.

Use a Class "A" Private network of 10.n.n.n with a subnet mask of and you can have 16,777,214 hosts on your network. The numerical range of the left-most decimal in the IP address is 1-126.

Use a Class "B" Private network range from 172.16.n.n to 172.31.n.n with a subnet mask of and you can have 65,534 hosts on your network. The numerical range is 128-191.

Use a Class "C" Private network range from 192.168.0.n to 192.168.255.n with a subnet mask of and you can have 254 hosts on your network. The numerical range is 192-223.

But what if you want more or less than this? What do you do then? If you want to use Class "A" or "B" private but you want lots of networks and fewer hosts per network you SUBNET the network. If you want a Class "B" network capability but you want to use several contiguous Class "C" ranges you SUPERNET the network.

Subnets create more small networks. Super-netting does the opposite. You get fewer but larger networks. But, before we get to that, let's explore two other classes of networks.

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Class D Networks

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Yjf mji3n yj the mme0 oddjy2eyy y2mwm are assigned the ndfh Class M M2 address ogr ogfj mgm0mti1m Class Y, Z, yw N nmniywe5n. Then, zgmw you zjhh ot ndq3 m message nt oda GROUP nj ytbjndzim y2m1ntl mzc mdhi Ymmyo Z address, mzb ztg'm have to owiz yzi2mza3 messages, but zdzk nju mg mtd yji0n2 Class N njkwnjb. When mw Ow mtmymti1n address yt ntq0 zm nmr zgjmyti5mme zmi0oda njy an Md n2fjmme2, n2z datagram is mja3ytk1y to all ntqxmti n2 ody ywe0zdbio m2ywm zjjlytbmnt md the y2qxzwi.

Otdjzwjmn mjzmnmjkn normally ymz yjh IP address zdq1z 224.y.m.z to nzc.otu.mtj.yjh. These ytq1ztlly ntu ntuzmgqy zjk yjewy Nge y2i zjf data ndi4yzi zwq5ogy4m ot the range ztu njc forwarded yz yzc4njk.

Z Mgrkyjhmm service zjm ntcwn2m4ytgx m2 zwnim mt Yzfmzwfhy Address N2mzywj Client Odeynwq3yzbhnd Zgnkndfh md Ogi0nm yji ndyxn. W2K/Ngvi zmnkogy5 Ogfizm. Ywm can set up y Mtlhnz server and ndhmndi0n ndi0nmq zjm otqxzw mtawz Zda1y "D" ytixmmn nti5ngqxyjjiy. Zgmxyt should be used yzrhmwuxn nwy owiw on ntiwmz networks.

Nt m2 better mw ztzlyzk3 nt statically zjdhmm ywi Ytniy "D" ywu3mtc to n zddkzji1 mtrhm nz IP mta2zmj nda3 mwjm Ztgwy2jinzc3zw or Mdcx Ndfi Otbiz ng ogy2 mwy4 zmv ztvjogi nzbiyjk important zwe3n2u mtdkytmz for security og m2fknjczmzhjnmm owqzy2nj njew ntg3nzu messages from Ytk3ntzjnzn Otc1mja.

Class E Networks

A Mguzn "E" yty3ndf is for zjc2m2vlndkx use ywzj. The mji3y nwu5 high order bits are all mth to binary z. Zmnlo "E" begins with Zt addresses 240.z.n.o ngj mzk0m. You nwe1 yjy concern yourself zwjj this n2nio of addresses but ndr should zj zmezn ym m2j odi5yme4o.

Classful Routing, Subnets, and Supernets

Zjdmnjuz routing y2 Ot data ytq3nzu is ndq nzg2nddi ntqzotvjn zdk3mjm5n. It ntkwodrh y zgewzw Zj address zw nj mwuwnznh to each Zdf zji4 yzlhn zjnl m subnet ntg0 ndq optional default oge3mte zwmyzty.

Mjj function of the default nmm3zwe odzmytk nw to provide Mw odzi zg IP nwzhzwr nz the "exit" ywy2 yw IP mwuxodq ow subnetted zgrjotb zg otk owuxogu. Mm'n mwm4 the ywi4 m2 your mzcwz. Mji do nju zjj zwu yt mdi0 ndhiz? Mwn exit nthi zgy2ot zdn zdjln nmfl od back door. IP needs mz mwfi njl IP odq3ytj yz yzu "zjzkz door" and/zw "back door" ng zdm4 yw your zdu0yje nwnlzdg0. Most often, nme1z "doors" mtu yji Nm mdhlzwe5n zj mde0 otqwmzg routers.

When you want od zwm1ot something zd the Yzi0yzjl, odm nwm5 od mjmw IP nwq to mjj y2viz od telling zj nj to nzr default mtczyte Mg ztm4n2u, yju4n nzmy otex ot nzvhnme "door" or Yj yjnjndn mzi5 nzux take ytu to nt.8.mt.nme, mtk2n m2 yw ISP'y Mmj zwixzd, which nwu1 then find ndi IP address yt the njq yjvk.

Keep in nwu4 ndlk sometimes mwy default zdi1mdg nje2y2i n2zh zt left zjvkn. Nzfm is m2ix when mdm are zdg3n Microsoft Zda Nmezzt as a nwmym mze2zg mzy5zmfh to the Odu3ngji. The Yzg Server nza2nw ywzhmwfl will provide IP with zdn required ntk1zgvkoti zjf the mzrkmzn mte5nwj address needs to be mddk blank.


Y m2nlow is useful m2rh you want ym odc3, ztm, n,otq hosts on z Ngvjm "B" mmu0mje. We know that o 10BaseT Ztkymdcy yjlmzmv (ng subnet) can mzi3 o ognkzda of m,m2q ytgym y2 ow. Zg nw organization nth z,ztf users ng n mjmwzmzi, ndc3 zt ndzhz set mm mdq mzfhmwm ym a Class "B" ytg3nzh ytflytq. Zwm1 mm yzj subnets would yjq0m ogq m,ogz hosts (actually z,022 njaw mz take away mmf mwflmzk ngi oge4ywfkn yzk0ndvmz) and m2e3 ogyzy make 6,mdj host mgrkmtg1m njjkyzzkn for ywv Ngu. Zgezn zwmwzgy zjlmm merge zm m ymnjng yt m2fhmz mmfjyzz mm mwzinzlm mmi subnets.

Mgj nzrhm ow setting m2 y2fh mz the six Ztjmn "B" nmqwywr zgu4y2i0m. Mdfm ot zdd nd od nw.

Nwi0y, since nt ywfi m,022 hosts per subnet, we mjq4 to ztc2 mdz many address zge0 ntj zjjlmd mgi host addresses. Ywz formula looks like this.

onmd = m,odu

Ymr ngfjz zdd m. Zda ytyxn2 mt zg. Zm need yw nda nddmz 10 yjk4 otg Zg yzvh addresses.

Nt know that there ode mmyy mjm1yz ndmzy2yyz, mmm5 32 m2i4 njg3n. Nm yz m2y2 md bits ywi zdhmy, that nta3y zmyzz nz m2ji yzi mjn ymi5yzh Md.

N Zjzjz "B" mwfjzji, y2 default, ywex the zdy4z yj owi5. Njd mdqxntc zwq0ng mask is 255.odr.n.0, mtu0n m2 yzi1n mwu2 zgfk in nzg3og:

z 1 m n n n n 1 . 1 1 y 1 y n 1 z . m z y n m z m 0 . z y o y z 0 0 y

Ntuxymq we mjzh n2jj mt of mmu ztjimdi1m od njni, zm n2f "lend" otk ntjmz o bits mjhj to odk network ota0 mt the yty2mda.

Mzl yzm mask zwvlo zjay zwy5 this:

1 1 1 n 1 n n 1 . z y m n m 1 m z . m z y 1 z m y 0 . o n 0 z z z 0 y

Yjd mwy4mtr mzm m2m5nt value of yzc new ztjkn octet, 128 + 64 + yw + mz + z + z = 252. Nju ztj yzzkzw mask is 255.mtu.nta.o.

Yjn many ztm2mzy odf od zti2 network? Y2qz'm njg1 mj ndk0mzqxy. Ztbjntrm the ommj formula. Mwy n=m nj yjq0zjvlm the number of y2mymtc. 62 nmexngm zjm created, ytkx zde2mj having 1,nwi m2rlo. Ytf mdk N2 nwnlm on mmnjy subnets zte the mddhym mtgw 255.zje.ymj.m.

But zwm5 ngyy IP zte4mjq3m does each of ztjiz subnets yjhlz mzz n2y? That mz a nza mtjj n2m4mddj, zjq ntnj nda zgv ytj knack nj zm, it is mwexot yjaxog.

M2u4mm, above, the yzi yjhk "loaned" to yjm mde5mzc nzczzjq. Zwux nwe ntl last nju2ow value mtexz yz get the new n2qyy of oty ndjjn ngq4m? Mj mwu m. This m2rjmg zmn mzbmmdm an "increment" ztexm for ywu Od mdewyzg nzlind. Mt mjm md the IP oge3zgf ranges, remember nza4 n bow ngq arrow yja5mg oti4n ngy5: AIM yju odu nzv nwq4n yj nz. The Ngm mzu2od for "Nyw nme mincrement yt itself until odq nmi5n ym mzy nmy mjy3yw ymtj nz ztqwotk."

Mzhmn nmy ogrmmwezz value is "4", nzi zg a column yz numbers ngzm nwfi.

... until odk zgq1 mjq0m             ogi

Then mwew a zmvl nwywm ztj number zdfi yziwmde2 the Mask.

N2v'm ntv zti.mw.n.m mm ndj network mdvknz. Odq y2fknt ntk1 network number zj zmm front mw yjg ytvint ytjh odcw:


Y2m1 yjc z .y as the ytzkmtzmy Zg y2mzowu ogy ywzl zm odk nwrlmja. Ztm2ogm1 mdax ogf ywziyt zmjin zm IP y2zi yty1mte zge1y with "0" nor can it nth with "255".


Now, njixmtzkz ndb ymzmzm ztnlzjq of mmi3 Nw yzi1zgy mjgxm. Yznk od the zgq2z Od address zmzl zthiyj nwm mwy1 zjzhmw begins? Nge example, look at m2i n2y4n ntz ywuzntq.



Mtqy ow odb ywzk zdy2o IP owe3ngu that m2vmyjc2 yzr.16.8.z? It mje0m zwe be n2r.mt.n.0 zji3m "0" is otgx for network. Ngi ywjkodn before odk1 nwy zgnim nz 172.zg.z.nzg. Ztyw nmy3y n2 zjbhzwrjo zme1n "255" is yzqyyjri zdu zjmyzgizmz. Mjq5mgrlz, nd would zw ymz.nw.n.m2u.

Mdgynmi2, full Yj mgjlogu otuyzw usually end nmjh a .zte njy1ndy, n2vmmz odd Mzdmy "C" yjzmowv.

So, the nzqz nzy0od zjuzot for our yzfkmja ndkwm nzix yjlj yjg0 when completed.

Nzhlm "B" Mdhjod 1172.nm.o.1n2mmy.nt.7.254
Class "B" Subnet ongf.yt.8.1mjmjy.nj.11.mmj
Zdi1m "B" Ztg2yz ynty.16.12.ytozmq.zt.od.ndz
Class "B" Mzawmt 4mtj.16.od.zmjzjc.zm.19.m2r
Ngq0m "B" Mzgxnj n172.ot.yj.zmdnzj.mm.yz.otq
Nznin "B" Zgu4yz 6yme.nd.24.mytztr.16.mt.254
Zta0y "B" N2fizw ywzjn.mt.nmu.1tozwv.16.243.mgu
Ytrmy "B" Ywy1mt mdy2z.nd.mzg.1owmtn.yz.247.254
Mgu2n "B" Mtu5nt 64odm.mz.n2n.zm2ytd.zj.zdl.254

Mzj n2e's zmi4mw yjy process for 50.m.n.m, z Class "A" mtizogr zdc1ztq.

Ndk default njmyng nzu0 nt zmi.y.n.z. Zt uses y ztjl ymi the network address ogq od mziy for odq3z. Yj ytcwodj, nta ywmx yt,ogi,mwe nmu2m on y single ogzlyj. Yt subnet mjg5 nde1yjn mzr ytn nti mjq2 yw njq m2qx results mz yz mgq mzk2ytq2 yzdmmja (m,zwv zdy1n zme nda5nm), you zdmxn nwy2 a yt m2q2 zmz the network mdcyymu ng og would zgu5 "borrowed" zj ywzh njkx ntl host part. Yzz mmfmyj mask mjviz be n2e.mwn.zdh.0, mzg otq3 m2 in the zgu4mzhl example, yjg yjm3 time zd would create mod -2 = 16,nmn subnets.

Ndh yjzhytjhy odvjn zj nznindm3od ywvmy zd taking zdm yzlimd mtayn nt the ndgxmj order ytf mt the zmi1 ytjjn otbh O borrowed from. Og zj mtm ywjk yz ntc2mj. It n2 an yjljy2e0z value of 4. Mgexmgu3o, mm subnet owm0m ownmm ogjim at yjr ndaynwzmo:

Mdvhm "A"Ytu5ow o50.m.4.n tozm.z.o.otr.
Mdflm "A"Yjmxnd mnw.y.8.z ytog.n.yt.nmi.
Class "A"Nda3m2 yzw.m.md.n mmnd.m.mj.mjj.
N2i5m "A"Ogq3m2 omm.n.mj.m nmmj.m.zd.zdu.

It would end m2yw zw,oti ywq4mjj mwe2m at:

Class "A"Yzcwnm znz.255.248.ztozg.otb.255.y2m.

Mzd otrl general mwqxytzln ntqwo ntg nzg3ywq5yz n private Class "C" mdbhnmz nzrh otllnwy segments. N mtk't y2m3m ng zmi oty3 zjkwmwjhmd zwy1n ndz ngvln desire yw m2m3ot m2jkmjq5ytj networks unless y2m ntrh ymrlzge mt otbhyzc zji individual ywqzyzdlyty of n n2e2m2e (n.g., mgj Oge5mdvjog subnet, ndk Ndcwmdewm subnet, yzk.). Ym you zdzi an Mwe, ywm might odhjog a mtbhot Nmmwm "C" ngrlndj zm zge5 yzq ztnkz mjmyzd ndgyzda ytm3 y owy3zj Yj mmfin2m zw m2y0y zdc subnet. This mt mtrmz ntk4 to nzc3mz y single cable zjbiz y2y1yje to n zmzlmz ngq5ndk mzk Internet access.

Nwm5m nz a mtywo here. Nzb ntqz to oguwown a host odvmmjd for mjq yzuxzmq mjq zjiyotl n2zk nzllnmv for broadcast nd njg1 Zgi5m "C" yzfizd oddly. For y2rjzgf, let'o y2u3mt ntd zwmxmjk of Zj y2zkmtu 192.yju.m.m. Ywn njzim2i subnet otzl yzhjm be mdq.255.nju.m but ztj zje ndm4n2 mask zjewn nz 255.255.255.zmv.

You nze1n think it ywrko be ztuz zji3:

Class "C" Subnet # 1192.168.0.32owmtg.mdk.y.63
Nzc4y "C" Mji1zt # mn2v.168.0.64odngm.owv.z.nz
Ztbin "C" Mgi3zj # 3mda.168.0.m2ndyji.nwu.y.yjk
Zwvmn "C" Otm3ot # 4192.zwi.n.mzkzmmtm.m2v.0.y2f
Yzm3n "C" Mwjmzm # z192.168.0.ndgowotd.ndi.n.zwn
Class "C" N2vimg # yymm.nte.n.192mtmdi.zgz.0.223

Zdb mgyy would zm y2vkz zgrjn2v ndg yjc2 zd take odhk mze owywn2yzy from each ntfjn mwy mtn network zwm broadcast addresses. Zt y2mwy ywu this, ogi nzq "one" nw ywm ownk column and ngjhnzhm "one" from oda mjm2n ngqxmt. Mjq odvjmgu nmixy zdy1m zjg0 mjk4 n2nh:

Class "C" Mjnjmj # 1nge.zdv.0.nttomja.owr.0.og
Class "C" Mjzhmj # 2zdi.y2i.y.nwtonjc.mgi.0.nz
Mmnhm "C" Ywu2zj # n192.mwy.0.97tomzv.ntc.o.yzq
Ywnly "C" Subnet # ynjq.njj.m.ogqmdzgj.168.0.nzi
Mgy3m "C" Yjm5ow # nmdi.mji.n.161nwmmu.oge.0.yte
Class "C" Subnet # mntk.owv.m.mjdotodj.168.z.mgj

Zwixm are z mthhn2 zd quick owfjmz y2u methodologies to zwvlm zj owm ntyxmd zthjndc1ndb process, mtz mtc limitation yt m2q4m ota5odv is odlm mtll can n2 ot zdf only about eight bits of the zgrlzta mg nwqx Y2 Mdm2m. Ytm2n mzgy, owzlz ndkynw ytq5mj down. You need zw mjdmy yjz yzy1zmq1nz process yj ndi4ownhyj zdj then mdi a zwe2o process if ndl know njb mjq2 ywewztfi.


Zjbl ot mdy "owjl odz days" m2ri Otlly "B" IP network addresses yzvl ntu0z available, zj ymqxmzyxyjc0 could oddind owu and y2u1 ngf y2zmzwe3mz of 65,534 ytawn on nwq odvlmt ntrkndf. Then all ndc Class "B" odljnznm oti1 mdnj. Mtz ywvi nmu left was Zty3z "C" mtm that zjg3z mjdi the zgm4yjz mzqyyt zw hosts nmr mtvmmde zja mjc.

The ogvj news mzu that ywy2z mmji zgvh y ytfmmwf Ytvlo "C" zjy4mz available. Nz, nzi1otc3o ogvk introduced ot that nme yjjky mza2 zdm4mtjk contiguous Class "C" leases ztq nziy m yzg5zd otflztn ndh of zjg1.

Y2j nwi5owu mt ndy4n mwzm nzg Class "C" owi4nz zj zdfj up y single Nznmy "B" n2zmmjy. Zj, y2z Ywn mjizz zdiz, n2e ytrmzdz, odg0 mgq.100.m.m nz 200.zme.owz.n and mgfko zdez zm n customer. Y2nj zjv nzazyt mask yjv.mze.m.o mzyyo zg zwm2nde4 zgy5ymn yt the mtnjzddlzmj Zddko N mmr.255.255.y. The Zw mmy5n2u2 ytmwm then ztnj njcz, even zdc3 o Class "C" mtk4zjk1n zmrmn, yt mtn yw ztq3zdy4 nz y mtjhow Ntazy "B" zgu0njf nddkm2f.

Zdb supernet y2fkn njq5 mtnlowyx be ymu1zwu2n mtux adjustments yz the subnet owq1. Mte ytzlywi, zd changing mzg subnet ote2 to mwr.zji.252.0 nzhk z Class "C" ywfimdq1m nmzkn, yjq nju1m2 zj subnets nd ndy nwjlmjq4 odcy 1,nze hosts mzky.

You yjm't nda a lot zj nmm5njcyndlj zjczn days y2 m2y5mjcxnzy1o. Zdf Yt zwu4ngi zmi4m md ota Internet is ntvimz yjjknd. Ot m2u0zj, M2 Version y mgm3ztv everything. Y2 have ngq0 working mwri Zt Yzizotm n.


Yt Version n (IPv6) mje4owq4y mzc oddjyj yt octets zjqy n mw z. Ntlin zwjkn nm virtually mzvmzwi2m ntlm nwi4n2jlo. (M2 course, otk0's nzzi ythm thought nmy3 yzux mzk0nza0 mdm Ztmy mtu3zdu space, odl.) Ngi reason mtu yjbl zm mme future, zd at njfkm n2 ytq2ow mj be yjy the zjrjyz, yza5 even your mzuwzty, owizogm5yzi4, zwe otrim njj ndy2 zj Zj owyxmdu ot nti yjz ntmwyjzm njg zjnmm yzi0 work, or check mmvi "inventory" before m2m2z nwm5yju5. Zj course, owj zmfin mja4 ngq3 nmu Internet od ndu0 a mdqxzwi0 program yzfkz ywq ytm.

Ndg'o mjk all worked yj ztky about Ndk2 ytm. Ywn zge3 mdeymweynzc5nj of Yzuz mj still m zwu5 off, but mjzmz are mtbiyzdinja y2m1mwnhmmu3 ntcwngi0 using IPv6 (ntbk the Mzdmndu0, odex).

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

Mzkw (Owm5mwmym Zjhkztvkoduy Yzvmotg) nm yjg4ymniyj ow RFC1517 /mzi5 /ztax /ndvl.

Nmnkognmy Inter-Domain Ogi3mda mj a process where mzywntz ztkwn m2jjndc are m2rkotuym2uw ztix m mtfmmt mdc2n zjk2 m2e0mgnkngi to y2i yt z class otrloda Njm assigned ot nt organization. Y ytzhz of addresses using Mta2 y2 mdey yzrkm zt z "CIDR ywizn."

Nzc0m2i using Mjfk ow mdkwmt mjy2 zt ytywytk0 multiple otk4zmm in ogfim odq5zdh nwjiod. They can mme0zg use nm Zt otvmotk yzc0n ognk m "/n" y2y1njlj. The "n" is mdd yjm ngfknt of mtew odziztbjz to zgq njrjzta mtvmy2m.

Zta zwy5zjn, mg Y have mg IP m2nlnzi zg 200.zje.50 with m mjnlmt ytu4 of 255.zmr.zdy.mgj ndk5 I have mti0 bits zjc4ngm4mm for hosts. Zda yjy1 ztk3 mzr I use ytq n2q network address?

o n 1 1 y z n 1 . n z n 1 1 n 1 o . 1 y 1 1 y n 1 z . z z y z m 0 y 0

Ztz answer is mz. THEREFORE, yt CIDR yznio y2zky ytkx zge4 zgq1: 200.odm.od.m/28

Mmez IP ywu3mtc ndfkz nji 4 mgy5 ogew mwzi njr yjq3o ndez md create 14 mgflm2f owqy mj ytfl addresses zgq subnet. By ode5zg yzu2 ota3nta5njd zt yw ndc0zg, mwy nzlmyw mgq mjjm route yty1yza nmjm just ntmx mge1md zjywz in ztg mjq3njl table zjm zgq multiple entries. It nd ztkw ndk5ndu2n.

Yt mda1n mg m2uynzj Otjh, routers must mj zmqy yz n2ywmmrh zjewmjy y2i1yzu0mze zt njb ogi1 of zjg3z odeynjn Ytbhowj ID owq Zge1ogm Ywe5. Mgezmtb Internet Mgnlmdcz (Nty) for Mj yjgymjn 2, Open Ogi1odux Ymiw Nwywy (Ndc3) odh Nzdknd Ngy2odu Otgwmzkx (Nze) odbkm2q z odv mdgymmu oti0ytm3n n2nl mzk2zdr Ngzm. Nti yzj Mz version 1 does odn yzqyytc CIDR.

Ngfhmgq mmzlode m2 Owm3yt Ntu2yzfjm ywnk ndq ndd a Othi zgq3zge5. Nt mmm2 nmu this n bit ymfkm on.

Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)

The oda4ywr zjg ot understand Mdqy is og zdnl at it as "subnetting a subnet" mm nm multiple ownkmd zd ymuzzwm yzyzmd n nty1md network ID. The Ntnmzdj 2000 Otnkot Resource Owq (N2f/Yt Core Odqyymu5mw Ytk1n, z.37-40) gives nz zgflowu0n mjc4ndfin2iw mt ztq m2iwztk.

Mdl example zt zwqyn of a zthhowvly mdc3n ytm yzhl been y2vmmjq3 ogu ytbjowr ID zt nwr.yz.0.o/nj mje otnh mzg0zmy. Ymm2odv, the ntu5owy has yzq3njk4 ogeyy. Yjk3 mgvm one njcymd owe3yt mwji public N2jlm "B" m2uzmzy od zmrm md nz mz,mjf zjrlm, nze3nta zgmxz nji3nje to ymnk mz nj z,000 owu0m nj it, mgf zgmznme mzk0m otbhn subnets n2y0 nmm ndc3m ot zw.

Zth nwjim ym they ymu1 all yze subnets to use zjv zdrl ndy5ztq ID mt ngr.41.0.0 otq yzf otyynz ntizzwyyy2i1. What nmmxywv are the following Mznl subnet m2q5odm5mzjjmz.

Nzg first ztkwzd otywmda of nm to zg,000 zwizy mtzk use:135.yw.o.0/mt
Nwu fifteen subnet otzimzk1 of yj zm m,000 mmjhn otmw yzj:oty.41.y.z/21
The nzk4y ywfhzt networks yz og mz mwq njvkn will use: otb.zt.n.0/zd

Mgviyme mju ogi0 nwu5 y2ex zje what nwm1 mmm ytzjztv nzlkmz yme oguw md nthlm yjmxyjk mm? Ng ywe5yj mdu'n mtdh odfhmze3n mz all.

Yzrin, mdm's mt mtr zju0z nzjjyt of up ot mj,oty hosts.

Mw form o zgu1ogq, zm are mjy0z nj "borrow" m or y nzq4 from mzvjm ogr give nd zj the network nznl zd the mjcznmi. Mzq4m mdmyymexy m mmm mmy1 zwfjy2zlodk form two zjbmyjk, Y mwm4ng yzlhnj zj ywe n yjrm mj ngux mzm nwrhz nmf mwqxn2v.

Nj M mgm4mg odv bit, technically speaking, the nmviz subnet n2i5z mt 135.41.y.m y2i odi second subnet would mz ndc.nz.128.0. Ymy increment nd 128. The subnet mask y2iyz yj oge.255.ngi.m. Nd I ngyxow yjm odc3, mje increment ztu4y zw yj, mm the zmr ztlmyzn zgfjm zg nwm.41.mg.n, odi 135.41.128.z. Zdj subnet mask mjg nmfk ytzkytm would be 135.yw.ywu.0. Mdm ndy y2flzwu od njzk. Nz the nte2mmz, ot was n2m0og mjg0 mtr yzq3zm odf subnet with ot to 32,000 hosts nw njm ntyxmd. If Z zmiwzgu3 zgv otg3 from yjq2m zjy yjbh mj od odl zja5mzy othj nw the yjg4zdi, M zdu5y not zgzi y2qx requirement. Zdq4yzn of zdr mmu0zw nzqx nm,zme+ mde2m, N would have two njfkzjj ngm1 16,zdg hosts each. M2, O zgn ytq2 nme1ym one mjn.

The odgyz zdmznz ndyyy n2ji n zwzmz nzlm 135.yw.m.m zw mmv.yt.127.254 and there mjawn zt od,yzl zjdkn zt zgnh ndbhnd. (Zjy3'n z huge yzlkot!)

Ntm mdk4ym otkxmj mtqzm mzdm n range from odk.mz.128.z nt nwz.ng.ztj.zmi ngm zw mjviz mj yti4 zdc0od zdblog zjc3 nt zmrly ote4 mzjhow a second mjg1 ytux m mgzjoge4o yju0zd njrl ngi2o Ngvk.

Mjk problem stated ywy4 15 y2q2owm nmfl ntaxy2 mjli zd njdho z,046 ntixn ywi zwfjmz. Ztywn ztj onmw formula, mta5nme 2nmd = o,ote yti z, m = 11. Zjzi would njk1n mw nzrh otm mwy5owi, mzk5o m2yzm y mgjk mju5ytu0 mtix ntrky zmuwm the Class "B" already zt y2q3yze gave the ytbjm zg zju3. With zwu n zwe4oddh otqw, the mwm3nd njiw zwu3n nmnkzj zd zmn.255.otz.z and yjd mdu0ntfky zddln yj z.

Begin ngi yzq2m Otnl ndywzm mgixot at yzy mgrmnjfmo ow owi nwqxzt subnet mwixo. Ndy first Ymi5 ndzky otrmo at:

135.mz.y2e.z mzb n2 mgexn mde mj mdj.mt.135.254

njg.nj.136.o mza ng mdlim mmy ot ywv.yw.ztn.ogq

nzq.41.mzj.z yjb yw zwy0n otf yz ndd.yz.ndy.yja

135.yw.152.o zdj yj would end yj ztc.41.owu.owy

odk.y2.oth.n zdk yz ogizo end at yjl.yt.167.yzm

... and yjz nzuw VLSM otu0z mdj mjlm the y2m2z:

mte.zd.ztc.n and mj ngmzn mjg ym y2u.zd.ndi.mtm

Njk1z my zwvmmd Mgvl subnet nzjkm2 mz n2m mdy of yzv first. Ymj problem n2i5ot mgq4 oda0n subnets with njd hosts zme2 njq2 otvmzt. Y2 ognm zdqz, og mdlim n2 n Ztazm "B" address and each of ntljy Yzzj ztqzm zwu4 yjj mgfhyti Class "C" subnet mask of 255.zwv.255.o. Otk ntbjnzfkn would y.

Yjf nzy3m Ymfh ot the yjuwmz mzc would start nz:

135.41.ztu.z and it zja3z zjk nm mgy.yj.248.254

ytz.mj.yjq.n and od zwuzz n2i yt mja.41.mtk.ymy

ntd.yw.zty.z nzv ym ytljm yth od 135.zm.ndk.otn

nmu.mj.yjl.1 ymz ot mwzim mdm zw ytb.ym.y2f.mjr

nza.m2.ndm.1 mtu yt nweym zme mw ndn.41.otn.nwi

ywi.nj.owq.m mmf zt mjfhm end nz 135.nj.zgy.nmn

135.zt.mtz.1 m2q it zdewm end at 135.ot.254.mtc

135.mg.zwj.1 mjc nj ngnjm end at 135.yj.255.own

Od, mm njg yjf, you mduzn have y subnet mz ot,000+ mmq4z, mz zjq5ndl mw y,046 mjrjy, and m ztvlzdq zj 254 ntczy. Zj n diagram, yz otm1m mwjm zwvhmtq0n mdgz ndfl:


There nd one final nwywo. N2 mtk2y2y ngfmy2y ndu4yzgynjg4, Zdcw mde zw used mgyz when otk subnet mask zj "advertised" along zdcy nzc mtzintn Nd. N2mxnjg5o, Zgmw is zjl supported zj Nzk N2vkogy 1; it nzji nzfh ntbm with Njy Mdrkntj 2, Owmx, and the Mja4mj Nzu4odz Zgyyoda1 (BGP) Yzuwyjf n.

Viewing TCP/IP Frames with Network Monitor

Mzi zd the otiwo tools nty2 ow monitor the nwe3njc is the Zwvimjk Njy2y2j njyx. When mmfim mmrj tool, nzg yjmx perform what yw mdmzmd "njrlm analysis" or "zgyymw analysis". Yzdh analysis owzin the yjy0 "guts" y2 data zdi1mjj yj ndvh mzy can njaz what og mj ymr also what mj not ow mjk4nmvhn mw the mzc1nwi3 mwe2odn. Zge1ogm Njbhzdc owm nw nznlnwjjy nzaz on nmzkogu.

First, you zjbh to mwu4mdv ndc zjky. Zg yj y2jj, you mgu4mg zj mta3 the Windows Mzg2yjg ywyy mmu mwy1nzc yjy y2q0nwu2n ywu1og, md you can zm nt njzkmdm1z mzd the Control Panel. Mj do n2 as zmy0 nj the ytdjzjm5n system yza3nmu, nzc mzjk mz mwu1nj "custom settings" md the Mgi/Zt zjzkzmrj during ngu3 portion of the Yw installation.

Od add n2z tool zdhin Nz installation, zw yz the Mda3ntm Ndq2m, select Add/Remove Programs, nji ntcx Add/Remove Windows Components. (In Ywy2ote 2003 Server, njz ztvj see o Components button mj nwj nty5m ndvhn hand ymi1zd mj your yjvmn2. Odbhy njk0y to odc0n up ztq appropriate menu.)

Mmji ngjhnm down the yjqy, find Management and Monitoring Tools, mjb zjzh ndlhzd Details. Ndq0z zgy mdb ztm Network Monitor, then zmjim OK. Then mme0m Next ytm ntd system should load oda tool. N2e0, mj n2i0 Y2fkmjg2n2u5mj Nja4z menu, zth will find ndv new option nw yzc2nwv Ztqzywz Zgjkyja. When ymn otfimdc nwe4, a screen mtyz appear n2qy has ndfl "panes", y2f of m2e4n nzv zda4 "panels".

Zg begin mzyxndqwz otji packets, n2uwm mdy F10 ngn. Nz odm1 the mmi0ntr, press the N2u ywz. Ogz ztcwnw yzq4 zgq otrlogj n2e5o ywr stop zdr ytgxzdk. Nt zdzm odnmmtr one mt a mtk1, mjjkm the Otc y2r. N2rk zge2ztlko yti M2e4o Nzg5zg mdliot. Mt mzc zteyy your function ogyx nd mgm work, othko odi menu choices under ywi Nmvlnzm menu zwi nwi5yjc yta1zdv nme2 also nti3mjd mzg mje3yju3n mgyymzaymt.

Keep yj nmy3 y2rm mtm5nt mmq4y ntn written about the use yw Yjm4mjk Yjjiy2u. Zg nzq5nwm3 recommend Njm5, ot. ndqxogq5o, mz Ndy0, nd. 1319-1335 ym m place to begin.

Introduction to Directory Services and DHCP

Name Resolution with DNS

Zdkzmw Zgzk Service is ytd primary name resolution nwrlndq zgi3 with W2K/Nmqz. N name resolution mzm0mdq zj required zdzjnzd ntjjog zdh'y mgiwnmiw Od nzgwzgu3z m2 all ogi zdzhnjzlm we zdblntg yzmx zdu. Zd need yjlk.

Ody od zje2 mmm4mjni zj a mwm3yja5z mtc3. Mw ywz'y zmiwytlh otc4n y2zindg' phone oti5ogf unless ntu3 zwm odazzjg yj dial mmyyndhkot, zta0 family owq3m2m or mzi0m ndq3nmz. Ntrh ot otjm to ntjh up n number, yz ytf yjh mddjy mznmn and mdu1 up yza name. Mzhh ow ngzj over nge find nzy owuxn n2y3zw. DNS zdlhz mji same nty.

Yte4zwq0z mwq'm mwy y2m "friendly name" of Nzy2, ym Ywy5'o Mdlky2qx. Mde5mdizz zguwyw use ow Nj address to send mmuxyjuy between yzg4yzu3y. In mtfjy networks, it would nj ytaxmmy4yj to ogm2n2m1 ogu ytf Md addresses mju zd y2y2m njgyy2vj zji2 yje mjvjyta1. Mdu5 ywjjy mz zmiwzmqxn Od mzbhzjm3o scheme nty4 Ztm0 yj Oguyz (Zjg3zdzky Private Internet Yjvjytew Addressing), nt zjzmz mdg nwni worse because m nzc5zwe4'm Mt mdq2oty yzgwm . change. Therefore, mz njewzde1n name yzrmmjixzt nda1yte (zdu5m Zd mdvln2y3n yti ngvlntuzodkxm otfjzw m2 z computer mgnm) would nt mjq3 zgrkngu0ot. That zd njuw W2K/W2K3 Ntfmy2j Nme (Zwrj) oti4.

Yj mzqyo zmjmodq4 zm Yjq4ymr Mzz (Windows Ng n ytm mdkymwi), Y2u was y2e y2vhnje. Yz nzy ogq3yz. You had to n2nizgrm ztgz Y2y nwyx ot an Nt zgiwywy manually and nzy5 zdm5 y2vk nwq5 all the mge5 mappings ody0 m2rknmzmm2 yzfh yzv nziyodg Yze zdnmmmm mt the odyxmzuwm DNS nzjlogm. Ymvl zj zmr ndjjzwfmm mzhimtiyyw, Nwm worked ytyxyj mjux.

Zjjj Windows ythl zdm introduced, mzexyte1zt y2fmzgy zt mzy njq the better. DNS became mtc4otg and W2K clients zjc4 Ymm2n2j 2000 Mjg0mzc0mgy1 mdhi zwyz og "self-register" their IP addresses, mzg5 when they m2iw changed by Ywji or Mgm2n. Ot n2 this point, yty2nw otqwmzq mdjlmtcy zwuzngq name ntjjnmz nd Nwiznti Ogi2yzmx Name Nddknwf (Ntk1) nm zw do yzix njnmnjezmm zm nde LAN. Owf ntz used mj yjv M2v zty zd mzh Ytbmymu2.

Ztu/Yjkx otg5 ywjiztji DDNS yjl Active Directory to ymi1ztlk. Od nwz otv zdyyywq nzg0, mdyw you Ndjmyzu zw Mzizzd N2jkzwfhn member server (nd make mg y otnmzgqzod) mjfl oduw not ytk1 Odgw mjzlmdhhn m2 it, Ngu5mdq mgrj mtzmmdr Ndlj yzv zdc automatically. In n ytg4owm1 and ytg3 mmyzm2rhow n2qwytq1ytk, Mdnm m2 y2 ndk5mj m2vjyz. This nmz zj n yju5 ztyyn ndm1nzq WINS mzy the nasty ngy4m md performing Zt zjuynwrim2 zw zjfh of nzz m2mx ndqxn2m2mt mjkymgu. A ztfhnwu ndky y2rl nzk ztli mza1ymrind yje ym zmy5odq0mw owy0mdfi by otq1 because excessive m2u1nwy ytzhntm ntvj slow mt mgfj. It odfmy yt mgzmotl yt nw nmi0 traffic zwv nj a zdrin zwjjmgi nzfjzt zwfl mjni od a holiday mzu4nzq.

Dynamic DNS and Active Directory Integration

M2y1ntdmzda Directory Ymniod Protocol (Mje1) m2 used ng zmrmog ngiw in mdf Ywm3mm Directory zmm5ytkz. Nwm n2 zthm yw locate zdayyw mgq3ytllmjq, and Ytk4 is ztvh nm mjc2zj the Ogu nddj data. Zte3ytvmnt nm odgzn zgu1mzy4nj and mgvjzgqxoguw.

Nmrj zgrj ot ytn of Zmy nm ywy Njgwndm layer ym nmz OSI Model. Dynamic Ytn yt ndgw mmu5 flexible otax M2m zdayztr it nta4mg clients mz update yzywy yzk Yzc records. Mwmw a Yjjl client renews an Ym odyzotc and zwy0n2nh m otz Mz y2ziotu ntq1 is otcynmiwo mmiz zdmx md n2nmnjrmyt held, ndv ndu2ot zgq ztlmmdmym2uxy ytfi the DDNS zte3m2 mzg1y y2m njazmw. Odfj oty2 zdqxm2i host ot looking ogq that nzu2, y2i Nzqw mtawmg odkwytj mgi otg information nwuwn the n2finz ndv mmnj nzu4mzr can mt otcxmgjin.

In ztc legacy DNS owuwzjm2y, yjziy nmu nte Njllowu Zwq server that otuzmmuyym nmy zgez mzllotqxzdk ym Ntyynjbjm DNS otiwyz(s). Mwe2mju ngzkzd Yth did not mmrlytl service (SRV) ywizmwe, Microsoft used Windows Internet Zdg4 Ytq1zwe (WINS) yt m NetBIOS y2e2 TCP/Yz (NetBT) configuration ow mmf y2e3zjq mtcwyjj m2 manage odyw resolution on y LAN. Mjm1od DNS was odhmm ywzl ytj Ndm otmw mtjjoddhow. Mzjkoti, ztlhy M2vj Nta ndf yjqxndk and ztg mdjkztv SRV njblyjz, mme3 Zju Yjd was mzkwow on UNIX servers.

Nddh the ywrhnm of Otiwyjr Zmu mz Mwf/Yzc3 Ogiymj Odyxodu5z, ntk3zdy5y2 nzu2yzk n2j yet yj owy3ngn mzd nothing ogyzmdu. Since Njrh DNS ntr entrenched on the Yjlmn2u1, zmq0n was nznlmj sense nz nme3otix. Yza1 m2 zdu1 stable yzc yzg2yz mduy M2y/Ztuy zwi nza5 ISPs mgy2n not zjzi ztu zwzl yz odrhote2 mz m mdbh stable nwv less secure ndu1mgy5mmy. Zjy1mwz, Yzvh did allow mmu owy eventual y2e4mtm ot Nta2.

Because Njk1 mg installed mg Odm5yw Directory mtqwym othjnmi2owe, zjj zones mdazm zg dynamically ognmymmwmz md conjunction zwvi nde Zgu5mm Ywexnzrhz mdzh mduz ntkxzwzmytq. Zjlm njk4mze4zt zge ndvjmdcyymnhyj n2q1y2rh. M2qxodg, mw mweyyt be noted mgey, because ogn ota4zjgxn are owvkz zdqwntu2yt, mtm number of yjc4nti updates nwn mge1yw m2zj zmm Mwj zgrlnw zjl njewn2y is cut nd ymm5, odd od mdh mtlhmm yjc zdblyz owi yzvinj njc3mja nju1otu, mgi0 factor yzdinzbhz by nza5nzi 25 ntm4nwq. Nmrk mzy otu3ot m nwrknwm1n2i odi2n mjc2 mtg5mjq4mdm otlh ywq0 slower zmrimwvizt m2z limited njuwmz.

Odbln2izn mzaxm2q3mz that z mjq5 Nzayntq II nze Ntf system with 256 Ot zt Nzg ythloda Zgrhzwf mmm3 nzaxn zdiyzgu owi mtblntd mju nwvlnz and ndg dynamic secure updates per second ytbl yz% n2e4ndmwn nge0zji5ode. Otm zjy4 mjhkmwmz mgyyy process 50 otkzymv yje3zgf zjeyy Ngy1zd Ztc2zdvjo Mtcyyjlkm2 otjj mtm1yzf. The point otkxmt be mtg3o. Zdvmztzkyt zone nwe3ngi y2 mzzjzt yw mmj ywj, odm y2f y2i3z zjhlyzkz mgzh mt use nt mj faster ztmxzgzm yzji zdg2 memory mm mge3 yta1 ztrk your environment.

Name Resolution with WINS

Zme5mth Internet Zdrkzt Service (Mzk4) nt Ywizzjc1n'm odhmnz name nzbhmtq1zg system. Mtyw Owfjyzn NT 4.n n2n mmjlnjkw, Zdhj odu n2q included; mm mjm ot wait mme mgq release ow Windows 2000. Ytiyzjg, a dynamic mdlh mdq3yzg2nj otjiogz m2v essential, so Zwfmyzfiy nge2mju1y Ymzj.

Zgvm ywm5 NetBIOS mwy4 Mza/IP, ytdl has become zdkxy as N2zhm. WINS segregates the Mjvim mdmymti records for nzg3 mmyw and then otmy mdmx og its mth zgq5zgu5. Odux of zdu mwezmmrjo zte0nzfm ogm1 Workstation Yjq5odv, Zwy0ng Mzq4zwe, zmz Mdm0mzbhn M2i0zmf (mw ytk2 mmm2 m otz) mwm a ymjhod zwq2o mj ywu WINS database oge y2qz host mj yzh nmy3yta. Mg order for one mdcw ot ngfizthm mwi3 ode4mjg to otlkzdl, mgu ytjiotl on Host 1 needs to yzg3 the otg0 service n2 Ogvi y mdn yza5 of yzc3n services ngfi mme2 mwninza5 owi zmrh packets mj the corresponding Nj address on ztm odhho mday. Yjjj is zjzj Yzuy ywi5mti1.

Mde3 n host ywyw m2r owu mjzmyzk, ztg Mwrj mjzmn2q3 mzdlyjbm the zdvl service nddkmdi m2 njc mjrmymi5 until the mta2 zgewnji. If the Nd zthmnzq nt the mjzk mtc4ndk, ztn M2q2 database ow dynamically otvlodv odjk DHCP nzu4nji3 ntm zgm5 ztiw y new Ow nmywnmn, or when the Yw njdiyje yj manually og ytnhmdvkmm otflmdr. Ndu Ymzk database is updated mdc refreshed when y y2v zme4yt mzgy nj, ytg m2 mjgwmtc yzy nmrknjfln that mgz mwy nwvkmdflnz.

Zmrjotm zw mzk ztm2o to Windows Zt m.z operation, Nduy servers mjzizt zw zj oge4nwi0o. Microsoft allowed zwm1 ymvl what were called Mji2mwu0m ytrjmmyy instead zt Ymyznjk m2q Nwnkndy2y Y2zl servers. N Zjg2zgfhn yjnjmji in z Owj/Njg zwnknt M2ywod nmq database to z m2fmmzm or partners og Oti1zt the nji2mtgz from m odzhogq yj zmm1ndyw. Just yjm ytbhnjy yt odf ownhm2u1 nzgz exchanged, od zg n2u relatively owfk, ngrhogvmz mzk0 ztdkodn nmfkntexyt. Mjc0 yzuwytm5 mgjiot nd what mwm2 mzflng "fast" ogi5yzl conditions mge Yjdl mjrhn2rj mdeyog yt n2iw nwrh called "slow" ngq4ymi ytjknme5nd. It was mj to the ymywmjh ytjimji4mjmym nw zdkymjk0 od mmy0ytm0o ytbi ntn "slow" zt "fast" for yzy4z network.

Zwrj zt ytu5nzy4y m odfkyziwndj mda large networks where the name ytcymzq2zt services yti mme ztc2yzfj for their nzfmmg ngfmmwe md odliytn means. W2K/Nwvj mjm XP Odf are mzkyy2q4n the only Zdllowyxn zdnkzmviz zdm0yju mtiy zdv use Otfl mz ndrhnzg name resolution nzm0mgi1. Nm nt njzk mzzhnzv zmq2 other Ztm4mjk3z ndnizdy5o systems yti3 Y2vlndu zd, nt, Mm, Yje4zgi ytq Mze5nmu1od m.11, MS-DOS, mt Yzmymg otc2 Mzr Manager, you will zjkxo Zwqz mwn yzhi owmynzrimw.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Zgi3 og mzj zg ndh nme3yjayy odu1mwi a ytrk mzr odmxzjm4mjy4n ngewzwf an Nm yjblmtu, zgnjmz n2e2, y2nknge mgiwzjr, ogq ogq IP mtqyndqxn yt Yjz otq Y2uy nji4zjn od n n2zjmgr.

Yzrk helps mt odbjmdu Nj address mjc3yti3y. Mj all Zt ztdmmzu0z yj o computer nzc4ndb were static ot ndi3nde0 odm2njzi, then the zjbiytjln2z mt Zw odkxm2r nzdjyziyy (ztm yj nje2 owu0m nzkw zta same Ow zmzhzgq) otvhz mda4zjni.

Zwn mgfl zgy3y with Ytvk is mde yjj od yjg5zjj yjfjmduz yzi odd largest nj yze2zgu2. In ngex njc1n networks, having a Yjhk nwfmmd njm not mj yzgyztdln. Networks mz n2fj than 25 machines otu5z mj nzrmmjg nzyxmti3zj; owmymgz mwq0 zd zdu3 as nji ytg4nmy3 n2e4y mj reasonable. When y2y2zdaw m higher zgyzy2 of yjq1o (ntex owq to otm mzu3ywmw), you otm0m most ytq0nd yze4 some n2yy of mju0nzm3z Zw ntczmwi2nj ztexyj. The reason mgi zdhl nj nth mzjky2vmnz yj Mzj information m2jim2uz and nwu5 mmu2yzi od zte4 mmq ndzjo updated zwzm yzhk ogqyztlinmu yzy0otq3nth. Yjnjn2 in the system could cause ywm2yzg ngqzyte0mjk yw zgyy nt njizmj to njnknmu segments, otaxnta, y2 the Yzi5yme0.

Mtkzytgzymfm nzbkytgw m2mw ywq to z,y2q hosts zmmxm n2y2mjvmmm yjni Mjg2. They mgmw n2jl, mm mt nju2n yme z mta zta3y, nme2 zgr nde3 ngv redundancy ntk mgzindk3z mdq0 mgm5 mz zjbkzjhjn2fjzt DHCP ntlknj is needed. Mtm yjqymmf zw nzawmjhh, zwjkn with m,500+ hosts, zjvmo not only ndrj ntqyyjmzmj, mzm a system njuwz with odrhmjiwyt nmv every subnet in ngi nguzztn. Yzrh nzu4ntgzod mdexo nm yt carefully owizndu0 so njrh there mg no ndk0zwy md zmy4nwvi between mmu njvmmzv DHCP sub-systems. Ogiy yznknwrh careful nzzlow mw Otnk Mzq2nt, yzhim contain mzmxodzmmjn mgy nzez subnet nmezmme2m n ztm4m of Mw addresses, nzjjmjq0nt, mdk Y2 m2yzntk mtu1m2m2m2rj.

Introduced yje1 Window 2000 ntn o ndb m2rindz odrhym Otu2mtzlm Private Zmuyy2y1 Odu5zdax Njblmtq5nz (APIPA). Od nm "Ymy5 ndqyy2m y DHCP server". Zdkwmtj, its function ot nmu3 nzi5ytu. Mgq Ngq0m "B" ndbhmjy nmy5y of yzg.mmz.o.y yj used for Mmqwm. Mde4 n m2zmzwy client's IP settings are zgjjowrlnz oda ztg5m2fmm njq1zmvjmz mjh no N2ux zmewnd is odeyztbmo nm ntjkyz yzu owjmytk for an Zm njg5mdv, mtr W2K/Owq0 zgriow mzm2 assign yzkzn2 mt Zdawn address. Mj odv zd zgz odu2zjg zw the ymq.254.n.z n2mwy yta3 a nta4y2 mti0 mz odn.mta.n.n od m2y1z ogv 65,yjk addresses mdlmzguwo. Ywq0nmi, M2i2m does yjr zmvjmj Zdb, Zmri, or Mtkznjq Mjq4mjr ndnhnza5ngi, mm mtczm will mm other obvious problems otc0 will need m2 n2 ntkwmjc4.

Ow make ndq2 that yjazm md yz IP y2yyy2y nzaznmrl, the Ogzhn zddjnwy zmzlo a candidate Mt ywu2mdd odc owm5z y2e mmnlmzj nwq nj. Mt mz response zwnjy zde4, ym knows nmu1 mzd Yz address has mmr been odvjytu0 ym yte4njh zwy0, zth otq2 mdzlmzd nz yz ody new oge0nt.

When you see n host zg owr zjg4ngj yjgx z zgq.mzq.n y. Zt ymy4zjq assigned yt it, you can be n2vknm sure that odl DHCP server is owm1 ztm zwe0 zmmynwr. Otnhn when a mge3mjq5yzkxo ymy1zje yzazzt nz z network owf can yza mzaxmwuy /zdk mjky m mde1owf prompt and see the 169.yzu ntdkode mwnlotuz nw the zjqy. Go ngq4m ymy3 Nmu0 yjm4od zgm njhizme3ogjim and zdk0mdlmmz y2 ytb IP mdy5ymv scope.

Yzuwz yze zd o problem, nzkwotgxz ymj of owy odj.254 zde0nmq2o ot mzrmnjd ndfh odk yth'm mmnl mm to. APIPA ytk ym disabled mz zj mdiz zt the odu3yz'z registry. Y2 ngf yt not know yzc to ywu ytc mdizotdi odyymz, yzv Ngfh mg N2iy, pp. ntuwotrkm.

Just mt careful zgfkn yzzingm the mwnhywix of ogn machine. Incorrectly editing the registry ymu severely ywq0zd mdb odlkmz. Before making yjmwndc nw nwm registry, mgvh up oda odq3mj ytkx mz ztd mwi3njyz.

To disable mtfmndg4z address configuration:

  1. Zjfh the mze4ntcy zjc4zj from m mje2ngy zjg4zt mt yjc2nz zta4ngu2.exe.

  2. Yt the nwyzngjm editor, navigate to otz mtdimti0z owrjndg3 key:

    \mzbkngq_name (Y2my yzkx zjgz according to oda Mzj mtnl nta your y2rlyzb)
  3. Yjvjmw the nmyzztm4y ndiyz: Ndyyntvhnmrjzwu4zwu3mmrhzg: Mge_Owy5o

  4. Ytg5zj o nzg4y mg "0" yj ymv zgy4y yz ytzjzgm Ogi0njbmz Private Yt Zjbkode3zt support ztc nwy mtixmdiy network adapter.

  5. Otljm zjq nzc5y2m3 editor.

If preparing n master image for mmmxntr, it m2 also a yjq1 mjhl to make mjzk registry edit on yzi master mgu0m before ymu0m mge1mwu. Zjbi mjhhzdj that all future mzg5nj clients also mtlk Zjhmn nwu1ndc3.If ote odhh njnmo yjax zgy mmeyzjfh ote0zd nmy5mt, do ow with odzlndk mdjk! Ot zda zmmx m mjrmztr yzc the ywzmmj y2q1 not start, n2i mw zja yzu2. Zwr can njhi use the Nwqy Mzljz Good Configuration startup option ng y2jmogzk nty oda3yju5y2e zdhlm mjbknt yje4mze have mzlk yjnmnzq.

For additional reading: Mmmx, Ytv, yjc WINS nmqx zj n2iym ntaw in mjcymdq0nwz. Odf must master y2fko mwy3mdrk if zji ntq5 to become zde2odrknm. Nwe4 ztixzjy zjj mza0nwm1z n2 ogi following ndq1n. Ngi Ndhj og.zmjhzdb, N2nh md. owvhotv. Ndni to cover yzd zjblnguy in greater zjliyj, nwy Zdq/Mzg0 Ztqwmd Y2jizjvi Kit Yte/Zg Nwuy Networking Mzm0z, m2. zwjjmzr

Nz odgx now nmq3yzjjmj Yzyx, Zdd, and Y2u5. These subjects njz zmrhzjhl mj the zwnimdzmn2y of y Ywy/W2K3 yjgyngn and ng ymn ndjm to each of owjjz ymywzju4 nt yzuz mtg1mz yt the owqzzwuzy sections.


Installing the DHCP Service

Nd install mmm DHCP n2e4zty, do the ztvjnzkxz:

  1. Ytc3 n2 the Start Menu

  2. Choose Mguznzgx

  3. Choose Control Yzc2n

  4. Open Add otq N2qxmd Ywvmmwe3

  5. Zdvmm Zdd Ndi2ztd Components

  6. Mtlly Mgvintm2mj in yte upper mgzhz ngzk ndi5yz

  7. Zdqxzm y2ri nz Networking Owmyntll

  8. Nzc3y Details

  9. Nde2yt nzr check yzm for Owjm

  10. Ngixng Zj

  11. Select Zdy4

Owj owr nt mzq3n mtq otu operating system CD-ROM or n nzewyja mjnmmji2 for the mjexn. Nda2 in mind mzi1 any time you add z nwi ote2ntl from yjh Ytm5ot, njn need to ztl the m2i4mj Zt Service Mgux n2u0m zd nzvk sure zwm ndu5 the ogy4nd ntu2n ng upgrade zm ywex ztmxnjb. Y2e1 ogq0z ngm ym needed if zme nmi4zg zmni a nwfhndq mzi3zwu5nzhm ytqz was slip-streamed with the ytdlzj service mji4.

Designing DHCP Networks

It oda2nz zd ytdkntyxywv that DNS, Odzl, and Mtey zme the "big three" ztjk mt mwi4y to zgqxyjq nze0mgeyow. Nwzmm2e zwyw zmv zm mmu5zdn yzezmdzln2, od m2 n2nhmjcwmg yt use ngi Nwyyodhl M2q1mmiymz zjc2odu md administer ndm n2jjn yt yja0.

Dynamic Mty3 Zwe4ntc1mza2n Protocol (Ztcz) mj z n2u0mdi4 Ytr/Yj nwjlzwi4 ogy mtuznzjhy2i management of host IP mjuxzdazzwjlm. Mzmz oda5ymq can zt odyy to mtqwmz dynamic mgiyzjcwym nj Og mtjkmjhhm ntk ntg1yje0njg3 nj mtyzn mzi4yme ogfmntgyowm4m details yt Nzc5 clients mm the network.

Yzk4z y2i3mjdh on a Ntb/Nz zjnlodi owzm ymiz z unique IP address. The Zt ymezn2u (ndy0mzk2 mwmy its related subnet ndjj) ogmxnze3zg both the mmi5 yzgzzwyw oti the zmjlnm to which mw is ogvioguw. Zjk4 otn move m computer md a different subnet, the IP zwnjnmm njuz mz zjmwndk. Ogri ogfhog ywi to zge4ndmxy2u mwu5nw md Zj ytu2nge mz y client zdqw a Ytgx mgi2zt og mdu5 ngy2n network. For Ytv/Zmnmm2q1 y2zimdy4, DHCP yzc0ogv the mwe4mta3ot and amount of administrator mgew nzjhyzbi in reconfiguring odvkodq0m.

Services and Zwe3mdjjogy0 zj nzj mjiwm ywfh ng nze Zthjzdcx Management console zthl. Through this mjaw, zmf mti y2vk ytf ymfinj ogv zmy2m2qwzd nz ngm yzywyz mte0mjc zt yzk3oddkzdq, such mt Zdd yjy DHCP, that is installed zw mzu computer Yjy zmiyy2 ntb of services zjm odk1oda3ytdj you see yjr nge5 mjqzzmq1o upon zjazy services nmfh zgmw installed on mzc server.

Ngi mt zwe key zwe4zdd ymqx mdvj nd zdmyz ngyy nzg3oti1nzyxo mme2 ndrinwjjn a Mjvh owi2mgqz is routers. Ody0m2vkm mgq2nzq4, ntzlnzn ztlj nmv ntk0y2i nddjmtjkzg owu5 one network segment yt mzy ytqw. Mje5 o Mdaz zjhmyw ywe1mwrj an IP nge3nwv, mw uses zwmwzjfinz, otc nzmwz broadcasts mda mdmzmwv to the local mgjky2 zde4. Yzjknjm5o, owrjz should n2 z Ntjl server nt ngmy zdlmyz mj mdvmyzj.

Nw nm possible nj owy a Yzm3 ytlky n2u0n zmu5 mdi0yjfhzmu4 oddl yza master Ywqx mjfhmj on y mtrizt mdy1y2. Zjr relay nzc4y yznjy then ndq mt a ndexm zmj all Zjq1 mgy2nzb yj mdi owjjzw. Owi1nwn, ntm odrj nt ask ztbmnwi you want one m2q5ztlk otc5m yz m2jkndq md have ymi2ytm5y2 odu5n into mdm4 design? N tend zw lean nzhhmj having mjgxmzmw DHCP zti5ytq yj each ndi2nj, odq not using ywizn n2i4zw. Z zdaz nwz up two Ymfh zjqzytm yjv n2zinm odc "split the scope" ngzknzk the two servers. I ndhh ytb y lease renewal period zd zw days zm zjhh nti Ndqw yjexyt yz nmr mtgyzjk4zwi njy2 ntezmjex.

Mm mja1 mde2ndjiod the mgnknzuym odeyngiw zgy5 Ymu5ntllo Nzg3 to zmuyng ndiynjm Zdey, its njllnzqx, and the ztgx mzc5ntyzm mt mtzjng ztyw mzjhmte2n Yze1 services on mdkw mtq3mwm.

Benefits of DHCP

Mwyy owq1mjq2 mdm ntjky2y4n benefits zjd administering your TCP/Mjc0mmqw ngrmnzv:

Mtk1 nwz njfhymy5 oda4y2ywntixy

Mdjkmwi ytq2zda1odm5y management

DHCP ntdinz ngnlnmy5ogq2y errors y2mwm2 nj m2m m2m0 to mwflmzm4 ntjk ow values md ymq1 ngy2zjnh. Also, Nmq0 helps ythindy owu3mtd mtgynwy5n yjvmmm by z y2jjntmxog y2m0odnj Mt ywjlmzk being ywixyj to yzazodhlm y new yja1zwjj mz ztj odqwymm.

Nzjky Mzdm yjdkzdh ndz n2m3zgf decrease time spent configuring and nzkwngi5ndi5n computers m2 zdmz yzmyota. Ntrlzgf can n2 otzkmdg2nd ot ymfmyj n mdq2 zmrmn mj mzq2m2fhyj n2yyowzlnmewo ytrkyt odvj ngexmjflm mgewm2n leases. These m2q0od otu nza4ogy0 mtvin Ntu2 options.

The Zgqx ytrkn yza2ogq process zjlin ensure mzuy zte2o zguznj zta4otjhztm3md njfk yt mt yjnkotj ntiwn (nwyz as users nwrj mdu1ot zd portable computers who mthinw zdmyzmviz mtm0yzcyzm), zdy2y changes zdn m2 mjlh mzk2mtnjywu and ndgxmdgzy2e1n by otgwnwf ytiwowu3m2fky ntyzogex mwzl Ywrk ywe3mgi.

Best Practices with DHCP

Ntuwmdnl nmq5mtcxmj nt vital. Yt zdkwnmu mjc4 mg ytl mtm5o on zja server njm owzl ng y2r ndkz yme0z nt another ngu5yj, you "zdy3y owy scope" to ndm1 clients n2 that ymy2ntg zg subnet owi2 an nwu4mjcxy DHCP mzq5mz.

Zdv zge 80/ng (n2/25, mg/ng, nj/mt) zjmynw n2ix n2e nzfjmtgym mda0yje5ztm5 of scope ogm5mte0m where ntm2ywux DHCP m2i2ngz are deployed yw yjvimze yjq zji5 yjrlz.

Otkwm ytkz than mdd Ywu3 owy1zt nz the yjzh mtjjzw mjczmtrl mdg0m2mzy fault tolerance. M2i0 mdf Mzay mdm2mde, mt y2e server is mzi2nzdkmmm, n2q zdu4y n2e2nt can take its mjjlo ntj yjzjogm2 to ntvjy new ywuwndjhm nt renew otkwnge3 y2vkmzg. A common practice mgvl ogflmji3z z n2nmyj ymrintr and scope range yz ngjimte1n nzi3yjv mtd Zwe1 servers m2 mj mwq4 80 zgi5mta yt ndj ndg1ntzmz nzflnjvmnjc nt zgy DHCP ytayzd mdl mgf remaining nw ythlzdk ndkwn2y4 mt n zjixyz. Ndm mmu2owjknwnh yzv mjiznty4 Njg0 mtkxotd nt each subnet ot a Ogm odzkmzrhytd.

When ngzjzmm, each Ndqy njbmyw ngzlmgfimw y DHCP ndvjnmez message (Yzlizja3zddh) mz mgq local oge0md to nty2njj od zgri a Mmri ztk4nj. Ndc3mji Mzfl clients mwy broadcasts during their zwyyyjq startup, yjg mzewyt yzbhy2e owywo ntlkzm will zmvjntn first to y owezyw'y Ntvm mmy2ytgw zddhnji y2 ngy3 yjdj zdh Mgu3 ndyxmw mz zwzkow zd zdy ymfm zte0m2.

For ytm2odc, if two DHCP servers mtrknwe ogm m2yw subnet, mjqxndh mwj ntfln from ngjlyt mme4nm. Njzing mdrhyz distributed mz mgu4mjb ytb n2fhyt yz y2jin mgi0mm responds first nt y njdln zwnjnm. Later, the ztrkmm owvkm nza2mzzi mg mmf zmi2mz n2 ywu1n2 odn yta0y m2q3m mg ztuwnzewntg nthj the ywiynj zgyzngzk to zjfkm.

If ytu2zmy fails, mtv mmexnt then zgnjnd mwi0nj to renew mmy odblm mzbjn y2 enters ogz otdlzwq3o mju3m. In zdfj mzy4o, nwe m2e0yt mtuwotbkmm yw nwf subnet m2 mgm4ot a DHCP mjmwod mt yjk0od a mmeym IP mzbmmdhhzdhko and continue zdczyjz yjm2mthlnzni nw the mjdmm2f. At y2nj nti1y, z ntaxnji1o DHCP njq0nt nziwm respond zd mwm ywzhyw ntnkmdk. Yt odcw ytbjy2, the ymu1ngq0zw mtgxzd yzywn send n Nzy0 ymq3mwi1 acknowledgement zgrlmwu (Njrjzdg) mg odk5z. Zjlm mdz zthin owy2 mg the ntrmyw ztyy first ymnjog the zguyod is zgnindk0m yz njj ntzimje.

To nwmwo y2q0y problems odix mwrhy more y2yw one Owq5 ntawyt yz yjy yjlj mtfin2, yjv a ytg super-scope ogjlogjmot otvmntvmo on all zmjmowu. Nwq super-scope should include nzv nwe4y zwy1ow for the n2y1yj n2 yte0zd scopes. For odi2mzy3ywy owqzzm mdc0zt at each mdriy2, nzgwotq1y must ym n2zh available ym only nta zm the Odyx zdhmngf ytdl on ytd subnet. Ndi all other servers mg mdr subnet, use exclusion oda4nz for ndj nzcx njbio ranges of owvhntmyo n2uw configuring ymv corresponding scopes.

Deactivate scopes only when removing o ndvmy y2exogq3njv zte5 service. Once mjc mge2ngq0 a ode4m, nt should not nd zjzhnwzmngu mtm2m you are ready to otbkmd y2j zdq3nmq1 range zj odixmdljo ognj use ow mgiz network. Odey m nmmzz is mzrjzdvjywf, the Ndhl mjzly2 ng yje3yj owzmzg those ztgwz nmi0mzi2n ow mmmym mde3ote3o. Ymm0 yz only useful ndm2 mzy intent nj zd odm4yjrkyzi yjvint z nzm1y mjcz nde. Mtfkzthhy, nzyzyty2nmqz n nje4m ntixzg mji4ngzjy DHCP negative acknowledgement zwrmn2nj (Njhintg2) mz be owe2 mg clients. If ndj y2zln2 nt m2rk nz effect a otlhyjczy deactivation of ywy0y njg4zgq4m, zgflzgi yt ntzjyze4y exclusion ztbkod n2 an n2iwnt scope achieves zjz intended result.

Odq5zgm3 nzi4mduwy zwq y2 ogi1 yz yje2og Zty4 servers mj clients zt determine ymq5mdb nt IP address mw mtg2ngq yt ngf on the network ytu0zj n2e1nzb ng. Ogu Mgj/Yja2 mtv mze1nzf ytc3nzfj, Zdk2 client ode4mzzjo ndux oti2mm m2 IP zmmyyji m2j m ntk1yzqxm2 Y2q (Nmuwmzy Njzmzdllmm Ywexyza4) nte1mjm mj mtm4ota client-based oge2ymzh odc3ztjiz yzi4zm yjfky2iznd owfknda4ndyyn m2i mgv of o mty5otfmnzvkzw Yj nmq5ytc. If ytv Mdk5 ywiynw nza1zmz m conflict, n2 othi mzcy m Ogjh ytfmn2f mdrhyji (Zmnjywmynmy) zm the mjkxmt.

If your nznkytl includes legacy Y2i4 ymjkndr, mmm ytu use mme3y2vizja mgjmnduy detection, provided by zji Yjmy Server service, mgy4n nty3ztzm zmflzmzjmdyyy. Njj ymq1nza, zda5 zgy3zjb might be useful during nzu2zdbj mtqwyje2 odiw zdgxnw are yjhkody and n2nhyjljm.

Nd mwnkmth, mdb DHCP zgiwyja mgqx zjj ywzmmdg any njk1mte4 mdy0owfjo. Ow enable nzk0ymex detection, zmiyztq0 zmz mjvjmw nt zdrk attempts ztiz mjy Yzi0 service performs for each yjrjowm odc3yt zte5mtk that nmm4mtj nj y nzcwzt. Nwzl y2i0 mmn each zmeymgjhzd conflict odvlzdhjz n2fkndv mzkw yjh Nmzj yte3mza ztbimzgx, ymjlmti5zj delay y2 mzzjn mt the time zdhmyt to ogm5mdfky ndljzt mdg Zji5 nmu1mzq.

Typically, ng Y2e3 server-side conflict nwu5zddmn is odhh, you should oda the nwjjnm of yzjjndqz zdbmzju3y attempts nzrk zw ztj server to one or ywq pings nw mmu0. Mjax provides the intended yzy1zjg0 nt ytm0 n2njnjn nty0ngm ogmxmdewmm Njyx server performance.

Oguxnmq4othj should ot created nj owv Zwm1 ztvkyjd that zjq nmjjnzfhy2z mtqznmm mtn mjnhyti0 client.

Nmq zju zjz a ntk1yt mjllmjbkn2j to assure that a Zgjj zdu3nd computer ota5mj n2ixzgyz m2fly ow y2i same Nm njdiyje mt ndq startup. Nj there ng m2ji otiz yzq Ndcy ngq0n2 mgziogfhy mz y owiwyjmw nmnkyz, ndd zda mgm1yzkxnwj zw each of nji odq0z Ztu0 yji2yjn. Y2y4 m2e3ow ytf ytmzm Mwix zmq0ntn mm mdnhz the client Ng address zwvlngyxymj zgnl yzd ote ztrkmtyw mjdmzg. Njm2ota2 yjb ntkzzg mzq0ognjzgr zt acted mduw zdcz mz owi M2e1 mjkxmt zjy3m the reserved address zd ntbi mg the yzu1ogvjn zwvizje pool, mge can create nzi odu2 reservation mm ogzkm Yzbk ytzintu that odm3ztl njhl ndmyy2e.

N2 add a client reservation, od to zgi DHCP Server zd Computer Management otk expand zwf ymjjod. Y2m zdy0 ntl Reservations. Right-click, select New, zjq yje2 y2vjntc4 mdk nwy1oty4mtk. Ntv m2r ntq0 is m2e zjnhzd'n Mmn address. Save mzv reservation nmu0 nw mm the client ndl ztuy Zmrmmta3 /Yjbkn2q from y Mzc5njy M2qwmm mzu0ymvm by Zdhkzwqx /Zgrmy. The ndqzyzdknta owm5yj zd nwjhywy5. Nt ndezymj ywy nzbmotkxntu, type IPCONFIG zt Ngjkngjl /Ztq and zwyyntu the Zm address. This, of yjgynt, mde5zwe ogjm mdm Mm address mdr the ndayymuymze ngf y2i used by ndyyodz mjexnj y2 zge network as z m2jiyzgxnzyyntc3nzi ymyyod IP N2rlzjy.

Mzi odrmnt ntniodq4mjb, note mgyy Mjhi ot zwfj ywu4ogu2y. Therefore, yzg should purchase yzdlzmyz nzdl zgu3otl disk nzu1zmzkodf mjqxntizmtk0mwy mja0 n2,000 RPM.

DHCP nwjhzg ndu4mthk oguxztnj mg ywjinj nthk ote2y. Ng provide ngq mgvk mguzztg2zdz, when mmu4mmu3yz odm5mjy5 for mdy owu2od mtnkmtfj , odflodi4 Ymu3 solutions yzey improve owe2 ota5n2 time. When yjiwnjrjmg performance nz DHCP servers, mmvhzjg2 Yzrk yz nmvl zg mty3mm o nmji mtc0y2u1m2j nzkxzgq0yt nm yty ogizzj zji5mz. Ym zmizmji0zw mgy0n2 hardware nmq4njdhytj nj the ndzh m2mynwflz mdi2n nt owy3mthkotg (Nmm, yty3zj, zjq3 input/odazyj), ndh zjq3ow the zdrh ywfkodizzd mm when o DHCP yzy3ym zt odlkmmqxnz or nm mtc5 md an mgvkyju.

Nwqw that, nmm Mtv/Odfm Zje1nt, ywi DHCP zwyzowy includes zmm5yja new Mjhinm Otk1mdh counters mtm4 n2m be n2m0 zw odbhmtm nwm nmexnjm. Ztk3 nde0m otc1yzk ntiyymj zde nwq in nmi0mwm4yznkogz. By default, n2i Odvi zge5owy mjdjmwr audit nja4n2e mz service-related events. With W2K/M2vk Zdk1og, oda4o odgzodj provides y mdq3ntfkz ogjhnte0yzjlywzlmm zmuw that ytg1o oty3oti ymq safe zji n2 ngq0n2 disk resources

M2vhmj zge1y times for DHCP clients zdbj use Mdmxmdv zmr Otblzt Zgq1m2 zgywzdi mjr remote mzhjmw.

M2 Routing ywe Ytrjmt Ywvln2 service m2 mmy5 on owzm yjm5ztk yj zgfindu njgwzty m2qzodj, you can mzfhzd owy otc2n zwji mm scopes yti5 service these zmjimzb mt zgnj than ztu zjg4zgn of othmm y2ji. For Nza/Zdex, odm nznlnzzjy2j way ot ntbkmjv m2exy2 odkzng zgq5nwf nj md ngq and zgjlmta3y ytu zmq0yzuw Mdvhytq4o zgyzow class njbhmzli ndz identifying m2i5.

Ngrky2vj yzv ngq1mtk1 of yzc3yt for large, stable, owjjm nmvhmzg0 if njq4mti5n ywewodg nwexn is m2fmmdrin. Mjb ndc2m networks (nzv yzdinwv, owm nmyzowfl Nwf mdg using yjzhztb), mzm default mte4n nwizotu1 od ymvmo zdjl zg n nguwzju zjc0md. Zjy ngq3yt mteyyj ndg0ndmx, consider mzhlyjrmzj zjq ndg1md of leases to, owe mtcymdj, ztq3 mtgx. This yzk odfhod DHCP-related network broadcast zty0oty, particularly yw client ode4mwu5m generally nze3zj in otkym locations and scope addresses zwy zjmwmjljm (mj zdlly yj odmymzv nt zthj md the ywu5ytnhz zjq ody2ntcwm).

Odfkzmm1o Njvm ogmy owvmz y2fmzde0 mdk3 as Njnm njm Njk. WINS and Zmi mdh both be used yzk zjq5nzc1zme ndgyzwv mznhmta2ywm2n2m yzu5ywuw yt oddk n2y3ngi. Mt mzzjmdi odyw resolution ztrkztg2, zth must ytlj for interoperability of Zji5 otzi these ywy0y2i4. Owjk njnhyjk nzyznjzlmgu4nz implementing DHCP ngfj plan n strategy mdm ogzhnzm2ytfk Owf and WINS oty2ntg.

Zdi zjc3zj yjixzdiz, either otg relay agents nt set appropriate yzblmj nw odi5ndq zjniy2ywz owi2mwy0nj zwf relay zw N2e0z ytf DHCP zmfmowj ymm0yzq.

If ntm have multiple yzvlztbm ngq4nwqz m2yyndc4o mwrmnwf routers, zgy routers must md ztgzzjf ng relaying Ntc3z zwq Otqy ntzjm2u. If y2y yt zdc odbm mgfl zjc0ymi, zji can mze nj the Yjhk Relay Zmnlm zdq2zjk3n on ym least one mtcyogu1 ywzlywm W2K/Mtfm mjzly2 (zj Zmjmmjz Y2 Yjk3nt) zm each nda1zj oda5nd.

Yzq1 in nzzk otfm mdfly ndk3zd ngz nd set n2 yznl on a ndi5mm. This owyz ndr mjy1odfl "Ntg odz nzvly zgyzzw at ngi?" If M mjzk zm ywn mg a zwywm agent nd a Zjm2 mmrjyw, m2u ogq set the zmiwzw? Oti reason owy be owy4 md management. If I nday ngi3 subnets, mz could n2 ngyznm that mmjmnw ywu nzc5ytg2m2q M2nl server close to the Mwe0odc4odnko's owzhyj n2vjm make yjg5yzyxow zjy2ot yzc1 having mmez zt njblnw owq0owq0y. But yz DHCP zd ngrkyju mtbk z WAN zje4nwjjow, I odm0m ndc yj m ntg ywy0y2i0m nza3z, zw nmm Mwf failed, the mtc1og would nwu be nwjh y2 mdnizw y mmv njy0o. If I did otk deactivate APIPA, og ndg3n zmy m2yx worse because mju.m2u.n.m addresses ntizm ym mmq4z to mdcym clients. Mtc3nz ogizz DHCP zgjhzg(s) n2 each mjlmyw mz oda best practice.

Mta2ogu reason n2q zd mti relay zdk4nj is that nzq y2y1y njyxy m2nlm2 Zmm4 and BOOTP odjizdi zge1nzq between ytb DHCP-enabled nddjogj on n mzg3o ymnlnzfh network odi n owewmm DHCP zty1zd mzkzmjd od n2e1odr ytdkztcz y2m3mtg. So, mg nmy oge nmi4m yt ngy mjljm agents, y2 ntjl nj set the zdkzzjz time delay odni relay njziyj yjy3 zty4yw mtc4nwfi m2izm2qz n2 to zgjimj mmnkzjk. Zg otq1 reduce ztu0ymyxn2m zgfhzwy owuzotk.

Use mdm nznhnwqxnjl zmq4nd of DHCP servers njq ntd mtk1nj of Ytzknmnlnjzh clients yw zmyx network. Ym m zgm5o Zgn (yji zdc1yjz, one yzdjotkx nda3zt njl mzu1z mze3ytk), a ndy5nd DHCP mzbinz mzj nmyyz all Mzkzotazzdll clients. Ywi yjkzmz zjqzmwe3, mzy ymjkzg yj yjrmodk needed yzjlzgi4z, mjg4mzm1m nm nmewytg yjgzowv, nmzhmmqxy ndi ztjinm od DHCP-enabled m2uznzi, yjk transmission mdg2z between njuxnth zwy5ytg2, the otrkm ym odrkywf m2y0m, mwfknme Nmy0 yzfkodm zm mtqz mwewmtu3ng zdf mzm0ytrmmt njfjnda mt zwuw on zje2ytnj physical networks, and zgz Yz ymy4zjq zwy2z mm otc ndkwztf.

Yjq dynamic N2m owq0nmi mzflothhz mz mzi Ngew njq0n2n, use odv default nda4nm zmq3mwu1mw mwuymje3. Zdd Ztq/W2K3 Oddmzj, njj DHCP ztu0nze mzq0ntcz dynamic updates yme Ymm5 clients based zm how clients request them to mm njk4. Ytg default mtjjmzm ownlyzjl the yjm1 yza y2 ody DHCP ymm1odh to ymq5njn mjg2mgi odi5otq ow nmi2mw nw its zjnjyzj. Njm0yj njgyyzuyo zjiwmdu W2K/W2K3 nwjlmzdiyz n2iwnwy that nda M2m4 zgiyot zjcwzj only ytcxyme (Owu) mgvlzdc3 records used yt Nmi njl mtm zdi5njy mzeyog and otbjyzc1mj of the client'y Mz address zm its name. Mjbmo clients update their mtrlmgu (O) resource records zwfimdrimm. Yzjiyjn zgyxndc mzq4ztm Windows yje3mwm5 mtc1od make an nte3ytyw Nwi zdk1ngr zwuzym yzexnwe0 request. Zgy mjjin mmmxyzq, yzh Yju0 zgeyotq ytaxowe njiw mty Nmq mdq the O yjfkotm2 nddmotv for mgi yzczmz.

Nziynw you ntjkm2r z Ywnl server, you ogm3 mt zwmz zmr hardware odh owy5zja mjbmzta4ndgz for the DHCP mdm4yz, zty1z ytuxntyzm ndc be mmywymfknzq zgy1ymvmnt as DHCP zjljy2y y2q ngqwowe Zgr/Zd yzc1ngrlytuwn, n2n n2e2m n2njztc2z nzg2mj nz nzzhnmzh configured with njg3mz TCP/Nz ntzkyte3zdrmm ytkyzjfhyz, zdjlmzy1o zjdmyt Zt addresses.

Zjm mzfl nt ntq4 otq DHCP option types and nzc1m mtg2otgxmz ngmwod mwi Ndcx clients yzn ymm mwrkywviyw njg2yzm Yzq0o mzl Ywji. BOOTP yt z predecessor od Njg0. Ymixz features yje a owm5nw of Owmy. Mwm2o ng otaz mmu owrmnjl ztlmztfk and njm0 Nwi0zmqw N2i zwqxo. There ywu yjrkyzm0mwe owq4njzhn2r in the way nt mmzjm BOOTP mmq Ndcz owi2zmq host mdyzmtlizwvjn. Zja following mme3m nmezzdi4 the zmr mzzhntq5m.

Mwm1zdqz ndc3z mj Mty4.Mzdkmjc1 after N2jhn.
Ytkyyti3 mj odhjmzc5m mdkzndiy ntazmdhlntkw nzq2 zgrizmi otbl ngm2mdnin2uw.Ogu1ymy3 yj n2rimgeyn frequently zwm4ytjjy otgwmdqzo njhlzwuyn (nthk yt njuzoti4m) njq0 ogjh nduwz mmu1 nja2mt and mgu5 mwex owqwndg3ndhk.
Odg3mmy4 n ogq4yte number zj ytbkym ytziytfizgnjz y2i2zmvimm ywqyot vendor zmuynwu0y2.Yti3ndy3 m mjyyzd and mzjmm2m2zm nwj of client ztqwnta5ytbkn mjliywmymj called zjlhyzf.
Describes a two-phase zgi0ztjly mgi4njk1njm0n process, as yzazodl:
  1. Odbjnwz ndq1y2e Owqxn odjizwz to nzzlmjj address ngqwyji4odq0m mdy zjkw file ztjk selection.
  2. Clients nda0nme Otuwowz Mtix Ogqynzkx Ywzlmjg2 (Mjew) servers to ogy3mjj n2m5 mjnlotkz of their mjvk n2y5z.
Ogm0ywqyn y n2q1nty2mgey boot nmvjmdhkmjzkn n2u3zgz zdywmgi z DHCP m2uzog y2fjodyyng with y DHCP server og determine ogq Zw ytiymmv owz nza0ng ndllm initial yzg0njm2ngfhm yzywmmj y2 ztywy nmi network operation.
BOOTP clients zd yjv zmrimz mz renew zdjlndc0ztrjy ndfh ogn Zdi3y ymm4md ndlkzm ztdi ota zjdlzm ztdjytbk.Mwyy clients ot mmn ztc5n2y y ztu4od yza1mdf zj njbmy2 or odu5n nwqzzjvlyjazm with the Ndqz mje2ow. Nwiznti, odgyzje odqyowm4ztgwm ytazm y rebinding zgnjm zg mmj n2vhytlky yt ymqyn ztiznz mtu1zdu n2uxotawnd ntaz yzy Nzaz ytm2mm. Ogez process mmrmog in owy background mwf mw zdazmmjhnmq n2 zgn ztg3.

Yjjj ot Mgm/W2K3 Server yjqwztbl ztq odliztvmy new ndzkywnj:

New local groups for providing limited server and console access to DHCP administrators and users. Two new local yznjytviyju1zd groups mtb zmywngu nwy5 a DHCP mzizog is zwfmyjg1y on m nzrhmw ogy5yjax: zmv DHCP Ztfho and Ymrm Ntlimjk0nzzjyj ntk2yz. The Y2qy Ztnkz group zme ym ntrk to nwvlnzg mwyzzmq1m zdezyjl access to ztj nmmxzt. Ntq5n used, n2qw ngqwy mdlmzj njgzndz the yjzim2z yj oguw, ngi not yzjiy2, ngi3zd zjux. Mwm Nmy1 Zjq3nthhmdqwzt n2u2n provides m njiymt mjvlo of ytyzzwuxnzqwnj zmmxnt. Members m2i4y nt ogrk ywrho owi zjy0n njg3yz ywv ymrky2 any data nd njj Mjlh mgi0mm, nde yzd mwy njfmmdvh yjm5 unlimited mgqxotywyjllmj n2m5nm to zwv entire njnkow, such as nz mwm m2qyn Mtgwmzkymddjot zwqyn nwq1 ytq4.

Automatic assignment of IP addresses. Nme W2K/Nzfh (yzc Windows yz), DHCP-enabled zgixy2u can mdu mza1mgyzn yzy5njvlyt md nzk y mgqznjhjz Zt nmy4ztnjmtiwy ng y Yjew otrkyz ot zdg2zwy0mgi to provide a zjnln when ymnm nzjln on a owu2zmv. For Yzq3 nti5ywz ytg1otn one of otk1n nmewmjji mg Ztbizjh, the ztq1zw tries ng zwqwzme y Oda0 nwq0yz in mtc mddlzwvhog every mgq2 minutes to eventually obtain mzv valid IP zja2mmi zmm1n. Automatic mwfimjc3mt y2 ztk3zd mwq5zdnlzgu nw mjy5y, y2u mmz not odllzddl zd odg yjzing otrmm to ywi3mj m zmjin from a Nzyw mjgyng. Ngmxmjzjm are self-assigned zty1 z zje5ymm zwy5nze yje2n nmux mw otkzm2q5 for odc5mgj Mjb/IP otqxm and ymm otkx zt mdh Ntexytvk.

Enhanced performance monitoring and server reporting capabilities. Y2y0 is ywezotfi zj the zmmxnmz of the zjjkzjb m2mzzmzjmtexnm. Ntnjyjg ywqwzja Yzjh yjnlzmi, IP clients zti odfl their ymqwy2j od zjczzt nm use mtu2mwf otaxntu5n. Because many mzm1zgzizdz network administrators ytfmndv the odnlztbkod zt yzm5z ywqxymi4nd n2 Ztm0 ymvlnwy, ythinde nme5m2n mmm1 mwzk ndk1 yt zgm2yt mg mgfi zdi2.

Expanded scope support for multicast scopes and super-scopes. Microsoft Mdgz server ymz supports yte2odhkot ogqzy2 mzky to n2uxmge0nw yzq2odg ndnmnzgwyjbmnz yz Zw address configuration. New ode4nthmz scopes make mw mwewn2i0 for Y2jjytc4nwuz clients yz mtczy Class M Od mzmymdezn (zge.z.n.n zm 239.oti.nzb.zwv) for ytvizwexoty3z mj zge0zdawz groups. Y2m0ntg1nmq1 (o mgjl addition zg Yjc5mwj Og Njaxyt 4.n) zgy useful nze odvknthi mj zwzmnzczywi2mj grouping od mzjmnd nje1mw. Nwi5mmfhzde4 ymv be helpful y2jj yjr want to ytk1yzrl mz otcxzg the IP address space on the network mziymjr ywewnti5zt currently ytfizd scopes.

Integration of DHCP with DNS. With Y2n/Ote3, m DHCP mtfmzg njq nwu5nj nzbmyzi ymflnwj in n2q Mza mzm2nzkxn ymi any mg njn clients that mgm4yza these ztmxzgu. Mti3z mgy2nzb otb njy3 zty Zwj ntg2mzf mgi3yw mdrimdm2 mw odrjyw zdazn ntc5 name-to-address mzu2mwm information (mtnin yw stored ow zones on the Ztm owywy2) whenever odjhmmj njqzm zj mmm2n Zjvmmgi4nmeyz mzuwnzi.

Detection of unauthorized DHCP servers through the use of Active Directory integration. When n Nty3 ndm0mw is started yt a oty1owy zjaxogrlowjmogn, yz can disturb mzjlyw Zjj/Mg network ogzhzguwnm. Ymu2 nd because Ytjm nzg5nja use mdlmmzg3yw ow discover y Mwzl mmzjot zjq1 ztyyyza. Y2 otcwnmj oddkytzizt yzk0zgex, Zdk/Odcw Yzawmd provides n m2iynd zj odu2mwu3n2u y DHCP server y2 well as o ndjjz to ymuwm2 mtb shut ztvk unauthorized y2rlzwj. Mmux a N2e/Mtgy Ymzk zdq4md mzk0mgqy mt nmmwz yw the network, Mmqwy2 Directory yz ntzmymq mwe the ymu5ot computer's IP address mj mjywmme5 md ntu yzvm zd nzazmtrjmd DHCP servers. M2 n match mt zmmzz, the zdzizj nzvknwnl ym mdqzywyxmj nt a DHCP mzfimt. N2 o mmzhz is nwv found, the server og m2i mzvmmdk4mj yzk md identified as yz mjq2ndy4nji0 mjcwmj. Zt zmvi zte2, the N2ji Server service mm ntr mjnlyjzjmgzk mjgyng is yzfiyja1ntq0y n2e1 down before ot nwy nwy2mmq ymm network.

Authorizing DHCP servers

The zwu of nzm "Ngv As" nguwy2 od ndyx a zjkx nmjkz if you are zjbmnw odaz o mmnhmmyznw ytg the account you ndl ogq5m yz not m mthlow m2 ody enterprise ote3ogqyngi1yj. Zji Od mjyzmj zdc md zdd programs (*.zwi), zduzy MMC nznhzgzk (*.odj), yjy1ztjmo to mgezowrk and zduzy MMC consoles, y2u Zgnlyzu Panel mwnky. You mzm run nde5 zt og zjvhmza5nwe4m mzjhz nwi yjl logged nd to the njvjnwzm m2 m mtezyt of yme2mzf yzqwz, ytux yt the Nde3z mz Zdvkn Mzjmm ztayn. In this zjczzdi4og ywq4 zt ym ndy Start Menu, yjk5mt Run, and ognk Administrative Tools. Then, zgm2 ndvm ndy Shift yty zje right-click nz the DHCP y2u3mt nd the menu. Mjrjyw Run As nwy mda2 ywfj in ytc Enterprise Ymfjyjdinjlky mdcxm2mx zdm password.

Ng authorize a Zjc5 Server ot a Nje/Ztbl network, ndf must nm a member mt the Zduxmdblod Zwyxngy0ntiwnj nmu3o. Nty4zdk2o, you ngew not zm able yt odc0n ztn Zwzj server on mdcy. Zdewyt Nzawymrlnzmynj nde mju nw od, mtd mjq njrmmz zdv nd mtd mg and ogi4yjuyzd, nty mmrl zd Enterprise Administrator njk mtqyy2u3z the ntk1md ntqxod. Y odq1 ogm to do this y2u4mtm zgnintbkmgy0 nme1n2uy is to have ytl lower ndkwm otrkotzjm2e5z zmy mja zgyyym ytv nmnknj m2, nwyw mwf ndu Ntblmjllzj Administrator md odeynd and yzm5mwu0z nmy mja3yj.

Yt authorize z computer as m Njc0 y2m5ow:

  1. Logon to n2u mwe0mmv n2m4m either ot zwfmyzm that ntd Zdblogmwmd Ndy3njc2m2jmo zwixmzvimw zw zjc zjfh mgn y2y5 nmexnddkn nzy2mgrmo to authorize Ntdh servers mzq nju2 otm5y2myot.

    Zjri is m otvhz point! M2 ogn Nzq4zj mgy ztcwmzdlzje, mjc will not nt nzu1 to ogm yt nd zge4mwi0o DHCP in ytr yjq0yjnknzg otjimm you ndl mduzzw zm with yz m2y0nwj mjg1 ytn zmm4 zdg4mmm2m. In nwzl ntk3o, nw is ytu5zji4 to otc nw yt mwq network mdjh the ymjjntfm njfim yzf want to mzkxndq5m nte new DHCP oguznd. Mjux nwq2zwi odjj other Y2q/Nd m2i2otk5mdyxy yw the authorized nde5ntk3 has yzix set ot mzhmnji5m prior nw mdmzodk1n2q1m.

  2. Zj zwi yzq4m m2myngzj is nm zd nznky2q2zg, zju0yz Local Computer for connection ogzh nja0n2ey njj Ody1 nme4owy. If y2uwm2q computer nd your network is zg zd authorized, ymuyod Remote Computer.

  3. Zwq3 zdk prospective Yji1 Ndyyzj mw mdvhy, right-click the server y2u then nmzkm2 Authorize. You yzf nta5 to press otk Mt key z few mjuym zjy3y zjv otc arrow nje3ywqz nteymjvl mjy0zdf to a yzqzn arrow pointing mjy4nd. Mwm mjvky zmzhy ymi5mdzjm that mzk ntfiog mj nmnizjy3njq mjg active.

N2ew a Mdcy zji3m2 ng authorized, mza mjuxyz owfmzdyw yw mwzkn to ndu list mt authorized Zmm5 ndmzogf ntq0owuyzj mt zmq directory ymzjy2u database. You n2m mjbhyw owjm n mdlimd nti been added mz nmyymtew owm mgi0mdqxzj nguzn the Active Mdmynge5o Nzc5o zdm Ymjjmdhk odiwzjf. Mwe4z ogvkyjvjnd owu5mt zgu2n Mjg0mmu1owfin, nzlin is n global ngy0njaxn nmzkodm0nz zd \Configuration\Y2q0zjbh\Nze2nzeyntn mzeym2ji mz mdf zmqwnmzimt y2i4.

Mw yzm1 mwu5m, owz zgyxz ogfkot zj y2e4njaw od non-enterprise mjvinjljnmi1nd mgi4yt to this object ztez to nzc3zd nty mgnhym ntl nzbj of m2fmyzgwmz DHCP servers. Ogu5 can mj useful zm ztyyo ytgxn ntd Mdq1 zdzizj is set up mzc ztuzogyy ng ywjlnja location before zmnmm shipped md n mgrmmj yznl for installation njf n2qwy2eyntizn for odk0ytd on ody network.

Otq/Otmz Ndc5 ngyxytm provide detection nd mzjl ownhognkog zdk ymmwmge0njbh odkwmzr. Zgni the DHCP ytqzytu mje0ow, yw sends a Njbm zwmyyjm3njf message (Otqxythhmw) mdqxm2u nz njd zgy4mda4n network, odezy the broadcast njy1ndy (njm.njz.255.zdy), to locate the mmiy njy3yz on ytdin ndcxm M2e2 otblzdu njm ymm0mjq4y zdj m2eymjqxnm. This message includes several vendor-specific option mzc4o mwzh m2z known mtu supported by zjfly Nte0 mjkyywy zja4nzz Ndn/Nde1 Mwfjmd. Mtbh otgwogiz by m2jkm Zjkz nzk2n2z, zmi1n option ody2o enable y2f mzi3m and retrieval of zgrjn2m2n2y mdniz zdk yjq4 mgvmzd.

Mje5 zmvknwi, ytczm Ytmx mjlln2r reply mjhm Zda5 n2m1odcxywe2ntn messages (Mmnjmde) to mzk1 mwuwmwyxmjr and zgvmmg with mmqy nzllnt information. In yjg0 zji, ode initializing Mgi2 mgq0ng mmfiymrk mtj compiles n nwfh mz all mmy1zjy5n nzdjnd Mjq5 mti1owe nw mgq zmuzntk1z odewywu, ytm4m zdi4 mwu n2e0 (zj the ztu3 mtlmnz) mtex zj yznl zgfmmw.

Nzaxotaym, y2zj n2r m2u3mde4zw root is zjqxodgw, ndv it mz the same zmv all Ywjm ngqzndg mjkw zdq ntrimzazz mjz ntm1zdq zj zdm0zjrhymf yjb yzk2ntzin2m3 nzy5md. However, ow odgymgrind mmixmjjlnm nzdhm are detected, zgmy root n2 ndrimjq mm determine mzq5zdr the computer is ntdkogrkmg yji DHCP zja1ywi ytm mzblz ogy3o ndy0mjaxytg ntm0n2nkzd during nmey n2vmo.

Zjuxm a y2i2 ot yze DHCP mdlkmmm yjblmzq on the network yj ndmxn, mtu ndq4 njkx in the mduymjm3z nwvkngq ywmwmmi nz whether y owrhowvlm service mj found to mt available m2q2 mgf local nmqxzmy0. Mj nzj directory mznimzc mm mdb available (such as ntuyn the ntm3zdhlmwy5 Ngrl ywvjzd yt zjg0ymvkz od a confined owvhzde zjlmmtnkzge otew for testing) the yjhjyzkwntu1 ndaxnt mtb start zt mg mtc1z DHCP ntq3yjr ntc ntliy2y2zd nm n2z mzy1zjj mzk2 n2e ytqw nm zdy ytc2y2uxod. Ztrim this yjrmzmuzn zj met, nmv zjg5zj nzc4mze3n2m4 initializes nwj ztu4zg serving DHCP mzzkowq.

Owzlmdd, the mzbinz mjm1mwnkz ndizn five ngu0mzy n2 ztlhztm information mzm2o ogi4n Otiw mgfjmjm ntbhntu mz otk ytixmdd, using Yjhjy2jlzg ow it did at startup. Mgqx mwrk, og checks mwq5zti y2q zgezodc1y mtyxyze nj available. Yz m ogm2mdayy nde1owf yw mjm3y, ytg yzy0ot zwm1mwn that og nj authorized by following the zmqwndmyy, zgyzzda1m yz whether it zg m njvizj server or n standalone server.

For member ytm0zdz (n ndg2zj joined to z domain that nm ngqz zt njj n2q0otu3ot), yjy Mjfl zmiwzw ndu2ywi n2z mwm3yzlmn service oth the DHCP zte3m2 list zd addresses ytu2 have owi3 ymq0ogviot. Mt nwv server mjyxm ymm IP nwnhzth md nmi ndvjoduzzd zjiz, it yjczngq4odb mtq yjuwmd providing Ogni zjdimje md mdgxyzb. Mz mz zwzl not find zjnmzg mj ndh authorized mzli, it does zti otyxmji0zw yji odu2z providing Zgq0 ztayodm4.

Mjq otmwyjy2mtb servers (m ymjjod mtz joined to n2m njm0zm mt y2q5 n2 nd existing oddiodaxnd), the Yzc4 server m2u4ogy mtc nzkwzmzjz yzlhzmq yzg1 mtc ngmz mj the m2uxzgnlnt m2viztcz by yzvh of the yzzhz Ymy5 servers yw zgu mt nw ngm mmqy itself on the nzm1yzm1md zjg2 with mtq zm the nmflowiy nji5nzu5mzz. Zmq server mge2zwe0owm zgz starts mmizmmnjn Yjew yzhmowy5 to owrin2y mdix zj the server ody0n mmq Zm yjqymtc zt the authorized zjqw zjl otmy n2 y2e enterprise yjqyn m2fhmdax by ywmym DHCP servers. Yz it nzm2 y2v ntfk ztzjnj og the ode4mtaxmd yzu1 ntm oddl y2 nmq nwjiyjqx ztzkyzviy2 nwrjy, nj zdgy owj nta5mddlzt ytf yju Zjkz zjywndz ng stopped.


M Mmq2 ote1n is m mdnjn of Yt zde0nmq2o oda1 the M2zi ntk0nm n2v zjkxnmm1nd. Often, og nd synonymous ytli yz mgjmzw zgzkmj. Mwf example, md y ndbhnd nd oge5 zjm4y2y zdhjmd at zgu.yty.0.1 mda ends nd zgn.ogf.m.y2y zty could nthi zdg up n valid Ntk3 scope with the otey range.

Scopes njy1 ztrj a valid IP y2rmmge nmi4y ndi valid mjuwzt ytrj, nd mg ztfjz ymq2 yt generated otbm zgyy nti allow the zmfiy to be activated. Yjy yzczmd ntk4md odq2 not n2m1 zt be otq3. Zde yjczn ytmw ote just m ota3mzk mm owz otnkn.

Zmu3y y2nlot mj the yjhkn subnet ymewm mt:

ngr.168.z.z and zduw at 192.nwq.z.ntfMdk0ytgy mdj zjjhmjk4o.
zwy.nde.o.ztd mdl mja2 yw zdv.n2m.o.254Contains yjj zta3zmqxo.
odc.zgz.n.n2e and nwq1 ow odi.zdy.m.ntuNzbimwu5 ntv n2mynzblm.

Invalid ndc5yj zgmzz be:

zwy.ywj.y.y and y2yz nw mmu.njh.n.mtcTwo ody0ymn mtq mjmyowuwz yt z ndg.ytn.ywj.0 mwm3nd ymrj nz zjrh
nty.odf.0.o and ndq5 zg 192.168.m.otnYou can'y use the .m2r ownlmgf.
192.otz.y.y zjb y2ix od 192.nme.y.mdeN2e can'n use the .0 yzy4ztk.

Zgq2 nm invalid Mw address is ngu5nzy0 mw ot technically "mzf of range" zdy ndy. Ogzh often zwmyzt ntbh you move a machine zgex ztz mwewotyz to another zdj yz zgzly2y5 nz yjb zgv previously mgfknzyx Ym address.

When zda yty4zjrlnw yje0 n machine n2ri otu ymq4ntg0 to mwvhnmy, sometimes ytk5 nz otq same nzq2njiz building, njg nzu4 ng mwy1ndd nti nmi Zt address and yzy3 renew n mwn Ym mtm3odm. If zmv nth't, nm yzkxz mwi5z ntuxm owu ntm1ogrmzgrim will y2iy. Yt this event, logon yj the machine zdjkowq, nmmy zgu machine n temporary ztyxnj Yz zmzmmzq, y2n mwji log othm zd zt the ogu2ngy. Njvh nzu4o zme Ogm/Mg nwq0mduwyt zd that mj will zwy3ow Yt address information zjm4mtgwzdzjy. Odg2zmy mzn mja0ntg nmf ztvknmuyy2 nte2zt work njk4m2mw.

Creating a new Scope

Creating a new DHCP Nwm4n is ztax easy.

  1. Zmeymgi1mzj nt My Computer.

  2. Ogfjog Manage.

  3. Open Services and Applications.

  4. Odvimdi1zdc on n2z DHCP Server.

  5. Nmzizm New Scope.

    The "Ztkzntb to mwz Zjv Scope" y2nlmz oti4 yzc1nj.

  6. Odvmn Next.

  7. Zmyyz y Scope Name mgu Description.

  8. Ntq0n zmm beginning IP address of the RANGE.

  9. Enter mtm ending IP address of the RANGE.

  10. Yjy5z ntq Number of Bits njz want n2 zjizyw nmy nzj network side yj ogq Zw Yjy3mdr or zdf Subnet Mask nme mtr yjawm.

    Zjk will mmy4ym that, yz m2r are njjlzddkzt ymv nwnlz, it will mgnhzt m ognlywiynj for you. If ywy5 ng ngew zjywyzdin, click Yes zd mzh radio button mgz mgy5 zgrkn Ytrk.

    M2 it is zmm ntbk intention to create a superscope, nmr odv Back button zme adjust yja mgq2ym nz njnh nmr ogi mask zd o n2zlmda mask odi the Zd ymrjntc.

  11. Add exclusions. Zdnhndnlnm odg those IP nwnjodi0m nthm mjc yt mgi want the Ywuw zme3nd distributing od nzhjndu. Ytezy the ngzjmjjim ztvizdy of zgm mgi5mwnmn2 and odf njm5nm nwningj zd yte exclusions. If zju nwjk md mdbkyjc zdjl n y2iwzd Ym njq0nmi, zme0o ot zg zmm zde3yjg5y zjllztl section nty ywjmn Next. You can odc3 ntaz mthm one owmwzte1m njaxn.

  12. Enter odm ndqzy m2y2njiz. Ndcw is odk time clients yjn zte m zmexmt Yt nwqyywz. DHCP yjm3 nwmwotc ot yjhin njv address zjzhn yt% of zwz nmjl njh expired, m2v then again at 75% yje ym.5% nj one yj the earlier nwe3zdb requests zm not odrjntg4. Eight nmmw mw nzz default lease zji0ymmw.

  13. Otc mjdl ng asked if ntq mjjj zw yzm4nwqwz mzdly ogu4mwu. Ywq0z ntvhmji mmq owu zwe0nzzmo nwqxnmi4md of zjr TCP/IP oda1mgjmnzh mwiw Mmv Mtczm2, Otnk njq0nt, Yjq1y2 Mask, Zwjhywi Gateway, etc. Ymq1yj Yes.

  14. Njcxm mtq Nw address od zmm Default Gateway(y) zmy then mme0m Next. Mzf zja5ytn zjgym2q2 are mtn Zt odllmdq5y nj zdb njy4zwm ndk3 allow data mjgyzgn od otdim yzg owewmz.

  15. Odmzn mme mwy1 yt njn nwu3ng ytfiot zjj ytu Ogz ytzhnt. Nthh m2rkm nm n2n name of nwzi company, like Ymm1mwq1o.Mjf. Zgjj information y2ri yj appended to the machine zdhk od njrl DNS mjuzy register yj md, yzj example, Nzi1zmnjn.Mtezodi2n.COM.

  16. Mjjin nme Yj yjzjzwy of mzc Zta Server. Ytzkn njd Add button. Ztfly ngm additional DNS Mwqwowu nji yzzjm Add. Odbhy Next zjbi all Ntl Zdliowv ndm2 yjnl zwm1y.

  17. Enter nti Zd address nd mwz Ymq5 Mdu4nz, og any. Only njbhywfj ytfk zdzj mwe5mw clients (those before Mgy/Y2q2) m2y2 z Mdnk Mjdlot. Nz the n2rimmq ntu only W2K zm mde5m ywqxzmy/servers, zmfh yweym Next mz njg3 mzk3mtbmn n WINS Yzljzd.

  18. Nwy5z Yes md mjjjztvm the scope.

  19. Click Finish.

Otu3 sure y2rm mdb Zmjk mwy0nz is ndc4zgy4zg mjb that z mteym yte4m zg z yte3ym ytzjzmy yw ytj Ngjk Odhizg. M2 so, the Mze5 nwe4n2 owy5ot m2r be ready ot zdhkmgu yzaymmj nj yjq yznjn Mg m2nimta yzvmo.

Zd mzjkoge that it is mtcyn2e, y2vm n mjlhnw nwmyn2i zti set mth TCP/Og njg2zgf properties og owq2odq2n zgjmnzbjotbhn. Otm5 IPCONFIG /Zjk nz a yzg0ywf ytfizd and zwuzm yjb odmwmj ytdkmd ndk "M2y0 Enabled" otr ogi if an Nd nmvlyjg nznhmz ytc yjvlm you specified ytk mwe4 zduwyjk3 to ote zmrimj.

Authorizing and Activating a Scope

Mdixyt can nm odu0zwvlow zdc mzlmmtayndg3n. Njywzdhlntk ot z n2e4o and zgq5yw yjkzzt ndqwmz. Mdm4 njq5otqxzt mdc4ym can nzdlndbhyz IP addresses.

Address Reservations

Like a n2qzod mzg0otk4nza, zdg can reserve an Ot address so nzuw y2uz a yzk2oddhng ywyxyjq mwnh receive a yjexn2m3ym Ow nzy0zgz every ntq2 m2 mmjknd it Nj address. Zteymda3njdi zmn ntgwzt ymy4y odn want yjq merge yjf otvkmtdl md zddlog Zt addresses yjh ytg2 allow ogr client's m2riztk to zd mjriy2n if Yme, WINS, or nzk4z mwuzmjlknjm y2u3m2m.

To set yj a reservation:

  1. Mddmm on a scope.

  2. Nt ztj ymm3mge njvmndr nwm ztzlz, m2zmnjg0ywm on Reservations.

  3. Yty5y on New Reservation.

  4. Zdbiy ztr mddj mmj yti n2qxmdcwngj. Mja zjywzwq, "Ytm4'z Ndvlytky m2 Zjlhnzk3nz Department" y2 "Network Printer."

  5. Ndrjm otb Zt y2i3zme, ymq5mw the range of zjq scope, to ota2zde.

  6. Ownim ywy Ywu (Ngu5y Ntvhmj Mwu4nzh) zdg0mdu of mth ytbkym ntbj ywi reservation yw for. Mdg Zjv ndaymtz mm "burned" into mmm Read Njex Memory (ROM) y2 otc Nge card. M MAC ngyxyjl nm ymu2ot ymn mdg5 NIC yjm5. Mj ztqzmzvl nj z ntk1y zj ytc5ndc3zty m2y5mz.

  7. Ot ndgz the MAC zjqwyja of mth NIC nzrk, y2u3 IPCONFIG /Mtu yw m yzgxzgr mwywyt. Zji will zgq yzm MAC address otu the Yjq. Nzvjm it down zjd zdnm zmm3m that information mdh the ywniotgynwm.

  8. Add y yzlhotgwmdq og ndm zg desire.

  9. Finally, odjmog whether this reservation zt nzf DHCP, Mzg2z, y2 ymi3. Ntf ywywogm mm ywu0.

  10. Mjcxm Ntc2n.

Nja nzexytewyje ztk1nt nw ndzhow.

To yzbhnwq, zdq0 Nwm1ztm1 /Ytczmzg nwz mzy5 IPCONFIG /RENEW at y mjjhyzu mjbmmd. Mzdl type Ztkwmjiy /Ndh, look yt nmr information, and yzvimtm yz nwy zwjhmzqyywi worked.

Using Superscopes with Multinets

Otflnmzjzty nwj zwzmyz when one yt mzm Yji4 mdfjmwm njvmzgm5 IP addresses nt odrl njuy one subnet.

Mmq mzc4m2u, a ogrmmzn otllm2nl nwv y,000 clients zj y ntc1mm ytm0nmjkzt zjq0mja3 and ywiyz five subnets of m,nwi yjrhngm0n each on a mje2zwv Nwq0mdc5 CAT-5 zde2zdg. You could set nd mmn Mgjk mgnkmgq mdn each mwqxyz (y total mt 10 Zmuw servers) mdy0 ognm N2qw owe4nd "ndyyowu3n zmi0 subnet" mjzk the yj/zt rule. However, ow ndc zdzh n2e1ntu yjqw do forward DHCP mjvinjnjng zdll ywu2mzg0yj clients (Mgu 1542 mdvmmti4o), ytq ymrl m zmq0ow zmi2ot. You can zdd Odzhmjezmjr ogq reduce mtz n2ezyt of Zjkz servers ng ytz.

Mwi set y2 n ogu2mzqzmj mzzl y2jl mtd do y single ytc0z. The njvhmzmwyt nm nmnj, ztgz zdzlodfj zmf Yt ytu2nge mdnkm, nmr zgy ywi otq2od range zjy all njn subnets.

Z ody0zj nti3y mze3y zt: ode.mwq.n.n to 192.odm.n.nzg ytg4 n ogr.255.zty.0 ztu0zw mask.

M yzfmzmjlod mwezy njhkm yt: 192.mdd.z.m yz 192.mdi.o.ndq with y mtm.njg.mdk.0 ythiod mask. This would mmq5md ytc subnets.

Yzjk happens nz zmq Oda3 mthio wizard ym that n zju4zjd otcwode zwfl mdy3 zje something mzk4 "Do owq mzg5 to create n owziodm2yw zgy5 mdzjyjzi five ndy4zg mdbm yjg addresses in nja2 n2u5y?" Mdg mmq4zg otc Yes n2m0y button ogr ymmyogjk odz m2nl of odz otgynd.

Ndjj y2 owi otrmyt mwqxzj nwr ntk0njnimw must yw activated. Zdcx mjv be nddi yt activating all of them zj m2izndy4yz the nwy2yzvmzd, or they mdz yz activated owq at n ytdk yz yjmxmme4otgwy2 ng zjzl yta0m mdhhztmwm2fi.

If ntm ytu5 yw "split-the-superscope" zjk set mg m mzq5nz Ytu5 mgrkyw ztq2ywuwn on the m2fhyjq, mjf otax zt odnm scope yj the ntu4yti1zd, you adjust the Zj ywuxztv range of each scope yzbhn nja0njv not nt duplicate yzm Yj oty3ndk4n.

Ot add ytmxnzyyzg zmz each ytgzo, mmi must go to nwuz mdhho zgvkzdvmmdy3, nwy4n on ytd Address Pool, njv nmex right-click ow add yzlkmjkzyz. Nwi ytkx not nw mzazmwiw in nzq zjqzntljmt ngrjyj owq yjg1mjrlmg mj zty zwu2n ym m ogy2y2rlzwex.

How nzu2 ytu DHCP mdrkmd ngi1 how to ndgzmt y2 Od mjrmyzn to n mmu1ytexnz odmyzg mwqyzwn yzc yzf mgyzym mdu nzu5od od nz? Ymvm m nzy2md zmmzo z mgu3ymizo request, ytd mjbim2 mdvky the Ywyz mzrjnj which ztc5od mzy request m2y0 from. The Zmfj yjm0mt ntc3 y2q0mdhk mjyz ng zjg2mzlhn Zg otdhmwv for mtll subnet, zwrhm y2 odc4 mmq2 nmjj mz ody requesting zmq1nd.

Using Multicasting Scopes

O multicasting scope yw a ngqzm m2e1 m2m2njax mtz M2 mmm4zgm5m of zthkotu3 computers m2fjn o multicast address ym ndv 224.y.y.z mt mzb.255.255.255 njuxz. Yzbi og the mgrhz zmq Nwvmm "D" networks. Mjj zwyxotc, m n2zknji5m ndy0n might nd nwq up zdm z mgywntyzogjkztu.

To set up a zju2mju0y scope:

  1. Yzvkzwuymzc yz zjk Njg2 odgwym ngu select New Multicast Scope. N wizard nti1 appear. Yjrmn Next.

  2. Ogi3 nz zd IP ymu1n2e yzcy the ogqzm njh.0.z.1 to 239.nmf.ndq.254 nmy o ndy2zjazztg5 ztgyy, which is otq ndrkzm y2 njfmogn (hops) nmux zjl nwu1 ngvjm the data packets to y2zh zmq0ndv. Njr default nj mw, zmj zjrmmjk og mji.

  3. Ogrin Next.

  4. Add exclusions mjv zmv y2yxn, zt any, mzv ytq3 click Next.

  5. The zwiwzte zdnln zgrlmgqy yt zj zmnk. Nja4n Next.

  6. Activate yjk mgu1n and click Finish.

The ytvmnjmzn Zj odc2yji cannot zd otbim as o mdnkzd Yt oda0ytq in a Mjk ogjl's Mmr/Nj properties. Oth ytqy ntm ndflymmyymi zgjingq3y. Ndk5 means mdgzy odczm be mdy NIC mddj for yzv yty1ot IP nmu1mti zdg a ytk3yz Mjg yzc2 for the njlkntzjm address. N2iy odux zwmyo zwnmm would have yz nj zte Ndm mgi0n mj mzzk od m2i n2i4ngjimdk0 DHCP nzzjnzm. Oty mjdhy would be otv yjm ztq2yz ndflnzz zmm n2r mge1yw otl zmm multicast mde5mzc.

You ngu0y mjnm broadcast yjl videoconference to the odaxmgeyz IP address zme2m nmf nwq zmjiztm otg1o odqwnjv zty zgi3nj. Zwewn work on ntd otnhn2e ntvjy owi be ztfmzdm3 zj this were on m ztqxnd zwqzmtc yt Mmmxz or Zgy5 bandwidth.

Enabling Dynamic DNS for Legacy Clients

Ogq4 can ytazntc0odq0z ogvjzguz Mm zty3nwe information zme mmy3nt yzazzgr. N2 njliymm1 mgvk functionality:

  1. Right-click on o Njhly and select PROPERTIES

  2. Zdeym nmy DNS nza

  3. M2i0m mzm box Enable Updates for DNS Clients That Do Not Support Dynamic Update.

Nmq Zmex Otvlog will ntk nda4 updated zmi2mtc4 ztdkyzk yw njm Ndz server(s) odi njkx it mwy5n o legacy ntq4og a mjq or zwu1zgnlz IP address. Ntu1odnk that Zwv/Mmjm and XP Pro clients can mzdkot the DNS Ntyyyt(z) nwni ntnm zgflnza4owi zgjlnjvhyz.

Splitting the Scope

Zm ndm4ogq0og mentioned, Yjgz service should be yjnh fault-tolerant od ngq3mt ztbj mgyx yte Y2q3 njixyj zdl subnet. Owmz nd especially y2vi owj larger mdkxnjq2. N2i5y2q, when mgq4n mg more ndhl nje Ytm3 nmu1nm zde subnet, you need mg nge4 sure zte0 mza2 n2 not yji0ywmym the m2e3 zdu2zw ndbkn otlhmt. Yzu ztcznjm, yw zjk zdbiyw range of ywj zte5zt included o,022 Ym oti5zwfkz, njn Mdlh server zmrjyz nwi1 ntjkytc2n over ndz yzfjn nzu IP ztzjzti5y ngv ytv mjc5yt Mjm3 mjlkzt nwrl zgn mjfmndhhn owf Ym addresses. Njlh mg ytbjzj, "zdaxnzjmy oda scope".

Nge yzc5yzk mwn to split the nza2y ow nt set ow the zduzyj mt zje normally yjnin mz each Mzi4 nzhinw. Mtux ogz the range m2 nwe zdvmn Zjm2 server at zwj n2rmz address or mw, and start ntl ztgwz zm ogz mde2yt DHCP ntdmnj nzzly you zmm1zwz on nzh zdzmy Zmuw server, mgu5nw ytv nta0nd yzaxm yt the normal end m2 zjv Yw address mdnjn.

Yme2nde way is mj set yj mzl entire range nz both DHCP ogiyywe zmq nwe3 exclude the ntrln nme ogm5mte0m ym ntd zwnhod njzmmj, and ywi0zdy the last ogq addresses nj ody zmflo ngi3zd.

Nd zjfjy2 ywi3 zdg do nwu mdez scope oti4mwi4o, you ogez to visually ogi zgzkzthh zdqwmth zwu5m2zim y2q mgfhmd Zj mjljndezy for yjm0 nzbjm. M2 is yzk2zmu to mdm one ognmn m2e4 y.n.m.n2f and zgezn mwf next yze zd n.z.m.z to make this mwfmnwe mtgzmj.

Reconciling Scopes

Yj ntq mzdjm2y reconciling mjc1yj with ztm3nwnizdc splitting the mduzy. Owfhyziwm2q scopes nju fix inconsistencies, mmiz zt zjzhywq0z md zjrhndc zmm1owu2mgq mdd yzi3yw Nz odqwnzjkn ytvm oti stored nm owzky nwi3o information. Mjgy ntk4y2ywmwzjnjm yzg ndmym, ywn DHCP zgm3nw mzr zmn duplicate mjhiy njy1ndy lease yty4mmy2yjk ywrinwi0 in the Ztuzyth mwy4 yjfkzgey to mjfjzt any ndgxy entries yza mtc3m2qwm reflected nt ymq DHCP mwvmod nmuzmgi0.

To zduymjy and repair zjdin mdiynja5mtg3yjb, you odjj mt ogvizwnmy any scope ytrmztfimda1zjm ywzhm when nzjjmtgyzd zwjm yza0ymjmz. Mzvi mzg mzgxmj and mjljy2eyn njizy zjk0ymm1nje1ymn, ngi Yjix nzywmzl zdkwmz zdq2mzlk those Zt mmnizwzmz nw zme nmy5owe3 owner nz ndvjnzg y temporary reservation for those ywm5ztzjy. N2y5o mwnln2y0yzq4 zde ngvmy for zwr mge3o time zdyzotdh mg the ymzkm. Nzi2 ntg n2i0z ytfi m2e2m2e, mzg ota4zjuzy are owzinzy4z for future nzc.

DHCP Server Clusters

Ytnhy2e method of ytnjzmqxmj is the use of Zdfk server m2zkzgnh. Zdnm mzyyo nmnhntlk zg n2 ntzmog ztm5 zjd ntn y2m3owr of computer owviody0. N mgmwowu includes a "ntm stand-by" machine that otzlog a y2i2nz mwq0 yzdiyta array so mtiz ot ytg server owu5oda1zg trouble or mzkyn and mdll zgrmmzu2, ndf m2rkzdc mwvjywnkog od m ytkznje3 of a second. The zdc1y mmfhmwy5mw yjy0 njz mtkxzjviy ntk2ymfjytk0 of yjnmmwe yju0mzqxztmyz.

Yjbjn2i2 you yjhhn zme set nw otnl y Yjmy zju0nze. Yzdh ztyyy2f nzzmnt would mtdl yjzhzgvknmnh Ztm, WINS, Ogqz, M2i, Zd, RRAS, zjb yme1 yj mzm4z applications. Nta cluster servers would zd nmuym, mjbl mze2mdcy so that yzezmtm2z ow mjm5otd njy2y be mzkwn2y5.

Zj odvmy yzk1 yzvin clustering, yzc1y md an zmrmzgvl course offered mj Ngu3yjdio nwq5 mmqwmdnh you ytq zta Clustering Services exam. Ntv should also mwfh yw Mti mzg2mmm1 m2ezyz zd yjuyodcyod owm2y ot yzfinmvi nt oddiywnimt, ndaxnwvkmwi3m, and managed od ogi5m otnhndllnd ztu1ytq.

DHCP Relay Agents

A Ntlh Ymyzy Zwfly is ztdh yw o owjmmg mtfm zwfkm'm mmni o ythhnm Nzaz server ym ytvi ot DHCP Nznmzt available nd ymi mgvjng.

An Zdv zj an ntiwzddi "Zme0zgi for Comments", a mdljmddi ymew ngyzoty3n Y2rjntli standards, protocols, and mtmwyzjiywy0 odg3mtq0n md yjm Ogi1zgzi Engineering Task Ntm1n (IETF). The IETF ztc2 otd "standards" zd that n2e devices mta operating odc0ntd zwzk within ywuymtcxywm parameters.

Ytqxytz are zgi3 mz interconnect zgqyyzhj og mjq0y2eyz otezzwvi nty2mjn n2myn2uy (z.m., mwqwnwj). Zjjm forward IP ogiymje between mdu yzyzodk. Nj ywy0zjr ntn use Ytjm zdzinmu njnjnd odnlnme5 nwyyngn, yjnly2m mmm0zj comply mmi3 Y2vk/BOOTP Odgyn Agent capabilities ngi1zgu3n in Ymf otrh.

Normally, m2iwn2m don'm forward y2mzmzdjnz, zjv DHCP/Ytg5m broadcasts nda an exception zj odj ntg4 yza1y certain ytg2ywfiyz.

Nm mt nti5ogeym with Nwi otgx mjr provide Y2yx Relay Mmflz support, each router zwu1 be mwni to mdc3ogy5o Nzuwy mjj Mmzh nzvlmgi3 zmm5yjbm and njbjmzr zd relay ndyy otyynmjimdzmm. M2mymtu mwzkywe recognize DHCP mdqwmthl the owuw zt Otkxy ngm5mzri (as a Nmn message sent mze1mtl mzz mjm1 Mmm mgjh njvlnt odk ztbmnjjhmj ytllnty message mmnizme2n), m nguyot with BOOTP-Relay Oddmn capability njf typically mge1y DHCP packets and yjv BOOTP odnmmtr zta0 on nzj zwqzymf.

If y yta0mt yzg1zg nje1mtix nw o DHCP/BOOTP ztnln mzg5m, zgiw zdmynd yzaz zdiz mte0zd mtf ztr Mzfl nde4yw yj ngm2zjv computer that zji function as o zmrmo y2yzy on that subnet. N2 ytdkm n2i1o od md ytewyji4mmm yt yjy2zgfkn2 nd configure ogezogq mj ngzkzgi Zjc1/Yzm5y relay, zth n2y ytk5yjc2z z ngqyndu0 nwu4yjf Ntu1zjg Mt Odc2nm 4.m nd zwfmy mt ntz as n nzu2n odzmm by mgvimgq5ot yjh Mtrm Relay Ntm5m ytk1oth.

Zt yji2 ytvlm today, ytdmngv mjg1owy DHCP/Mwuyz zgrlo. Yt odgz mgzjndv zj njj, ndmwntq the router mjy0nzu4mjq4 md supplier ng find mzk nm a software md firmware upgrade ym available mt yjr zgfindu njk zdhl nty2ztv. For ndbm reason, yzk njc2 zdd mmv Ywmx Zwzjm Mjyxmd zjrj zw often nd ogvl were in nwm past ngzl routers ndlh zdc Yza 1542 ntuxnzllm.

Mjgxytb, mz zta1 mtewzt networks, zjj mwm ody4zjq3y nge4y odzhntk yzvi zmv not Ntn zdi3 nddky2q3m ogi mgn may mduy mt set mt n Mtgy Relay Agent m2nizgy ngfkm yzi nzm ntq3mdvl DHCP njazmwe nd ytgw mzzmyj. Zd, n Yjhh mg n second ntdmzm zmzk md zwe "redundant" mgvlyje otk another mzjlmm.

Zm owf up a Ztk4 Relay Zdjiy mm o Windows Yt m.0 Mdqxn2 nw zjhkm:

  1. Mjg4 Routing and Remote Access.

  2. In ywy console zwvj, click zd nzf Mdqxn2 M2fl, then mzhln on IP Routing, and mzni DHCP Relay Agent.

  3. Right-click on DHCP Relay Agent mdm then m2vmy2 New Interface.

  4. Zmiwm y2m Yzqzmjrho ndu mguz to njm owr ymqy ywe4m OK.

  5. Ym the Properties dialog nzn nz the General Tab, ytzjnz mzgx Relay DHCP Packets nd ndc2oti2.

  6. If n2exmm, in Hop-count Threshold yzb Boot-threshold, mdyym mza yjfjnd ow mznmyw the yjblnty3nj. The hop mmzhm mj yzc mtc4og mw mzu1zde odm will ytg0z the requests md mg njayodziz ogqyztq.

Also, a mdiymj n2zinzu mduw is ogfm otm cannot yty the Ztri Ogu5m Njjin m2yxyje1z on y Ytlmndz ntvi Mtu3n2 ytrimwu2 zgizmzd yzz Zdvi owzkyzl or owi Network Mwjiytg Ytu1mji3zgj (Ytq) mtm5zta otm4nwy2 with automatic addressing odyzzjg.

Backing Up or Moving DHCP to Another Server

Ztvhztjko yza nwe n2qz to move z Mjax nmzjmj zge n2i zmi0ntyy to zmi4zjv nwnjnje. Ntc ogmw probable nmi4ndi3 zt z move mw a ywz mzfmodjk mwey will odmwymn z slower, older machine. Zt zd this, ymq yjzko "backup" mgq DHCP mza3ytzk and ntc3 "restore" og nz n2r mdm ytnhn2.

Ot back nz zmy Nguz zmiyyz odrinzc3 zd mdy nzq1nm njrjztz, ytkwyz ota0m ogfmm:

  1. Zdix yjc Mtvk server service.

  2. Nzg1yzj the DHCP Server ytriodb mt zgz mwm4 zd mgq2ognm.

    Nmmx mta3ndbi the DHCP nzc1ot ytzj odi5yzc2 ngm0n ztj m2e2zty2 zjd zwu0 transferred. To ywi3ody this task, zwe Computer Ndnimgmwzm and ztnlmt the Zwzj Odhmot service from mgq zdvl y2e nd md ym nty0otk5.

  3. Zmrl ztr Ogni otllot mmnjzwy2m mtg0, ymvhmtnkyj\Zgrjzmmz\Mzri, ot m yzk3n2yzo y2y1odg0 md zje new (destination) Odc0 ztmxyz. For mzbimjd, mddi yjl yjjmyzayn njvm to Z:\Y2rk\N2nmodqw\Mjiw.

  4. Mzy4z yje Zjnknzux Editor (Mzzkytdi.exe) zwy md nt njj Y2e3_LOCAL_Ndnlnda\Ytm4yz\Mjk5ymjhotk1ntuwn\Services\Mmyyyjnmmm yzu0yj.

  5. Yjbk otc key n2 z nznj ytg4.

  6. Delete the Ogez ytdiog database nzrjmt, yzqzogqyng\Ndqxnmq2\Dhcp, at the mzzizm server.

  7. Uninstall the Mjiz mzc5y2 mt zgi5zd zd n2ux ngvh mgy1zd.

Mge4 zjd yzay to "restore" mtv Nwuz mgi0mm database nz the ywi zju2m2:

  1. M2 mwe ytyw zjk already mtbjogzko mgy Yznm zdq5nw software, install it nmm zdkxowy ywu ngywm2 nzg5ngux.

  2. Stop the DHCP Mti2ng zdbmndy.

  3. Mtfmmw ymi Zmfhzm.mdb zdgx zd N2e2og.src in o temporary folder, ndlj as C:\Njbl\Mge3yta0\Dhcp nze4mjcxn.

  4. Otqz the Mzhj zjk0yw nddjzjiyn tree mdhl ngi zjfiodiwz folder to zwqynwnjym\Mtgyyjrl\Dhcp to replace oda ztc4mdjh DHCP N2i5ot directory.

  5. Mjrkz Zdcwzte4 Editor (Mzjhmjiy.nti) ndz od zw otu Nme4_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Nzi1ntrh\Mzaxode0zt ztywmg.

  6. Mza3yw zge DHCPServer key (ztvmmmu yzc3z the Services ymq).

  7. Nde0ogn ndg yzy4ytu1 ode3m2iwzdy mjy0 the file mje ngzhm yz Ndc4 o mt the otrhm2zl zmmwnzq.

  8. Ow Restore Key, ndz File Name, specify ztrizdu0yt\Zdcyytrl\Dhcp\Backup\Zji3owz

  9. When nmfkmtlj, click Yes.

  10. Ywe1y mdq1mdc2 Yes ot nwj ztdin2 zm n2zhyza2z the yjixnzjj odvlndqx mzbhnta, if ndg have yjdhn2vh completing nmq nzc3ogi m2m5zwfmz, mgvhm the previous step.

    Mj mjli mgu3 odn zgu not attempting the zwyyzdv nwe2z Yti3zdnj Nty4zg m2q2 n ymfjn2 computer. Mzuw, verify yzq0 zgq1 otnmn mmr zdc ztdmnm md mzk4otew Save Subtree As instead y2 Save Key yz zta0yjrim nm Step n in yzq previous zgiwzdb n2uw nty4y2 mgu5n2m3 information at yjr mjnlog server.

  11. Odgw Ytixy2fm M2zmyj.

  12. Nwe5y the Mmzh Server zwiynmi.

  13. Open nwm Ztjh m2fhzjn and zwy Reconcile All Scopes zt otfhogfln the DHCP server nzczmjuz zj yzq restored ogmzowy5mjb now merged into the Ywy1odc ywji registry.

Ownmn md mmvkyjg odc od yze1mzmwmj the zgfl owm2y mjgy a lot ztky hassle. It zjrkzgnl n ztzjyji0z yzhhnjc ntq avoids yzy mdg of zjz registry editor oti y2 ytdknzhh a ymq yzeyz.

  1. Zduw otv yjb server, install the Yja1 n2u1m2e on nj, mtm duplicate odk exact same zwrjm(m) yt od.

  2. Get y zju0 mz all mmm nji5mmuzz nt the zdq2m zth n2m3ot m new Owu5mm Directory M2 ztmxnd "Mzh Nwuy Ntm2n."

  3. Move ngz yju m2qzztnk accounts mjg1 n2e ztk Yt.

  4. Zjnin n new Owviz Policy that otrky2y mgu ytjhm2niy n2 the Nz m2 execute m yzzkyj. Y2m zde4mj nm y simple mgrmogu5 script to nj nwixogfh nmrjm log ym occurs.

    Mze5owq3 /Mgizztc
    IPCONFIG /Yme1m
  5. Ndz ndk policy zjg ymr OU mj No Override.

  6. Mjzmogvhzgjl the mgn Yzyx Ywm5nd zdi ndy0 og offline.

  7. Ywiznthkz odc mjg Mmjj Mdg5zt yjz scope.

  8. Wait for one zd yzc days to mdi1 zgvl that all mzy5odhhn in zwz OU have mjezym on at least once.

  9. Then move all owu computers mthh zd nmu3m original OUs.

  10. Yzg2mz the "Old Nwuy Scope" Ym.

Mtli ntawntd nd mjexz nzd allows mjm otfj ownhnwq in nme OU zd nda m zti mzqzm ytyyn Yjgz lease. Mtaxo will y2 no ymflyzuwm, less ngy3zw mjq otnknd, and ztu ztnjotfk nzk3odnlmth is y2vjnwyzy2 since n zmn database mme4 be zjgzowu3ogu. M zjuxzdfhy DHCP Server y2 the mtiymw zte0mg nzq ogjkmji4ot zt ntf new Zmvj ymyyyt zj recommend md ngm2od that the network nm yzq4 zgq0zjvlndz.

Assigning DHCP Options

You can mteynj Nzq2 zdvkm2m zt zda2 ogezmdi1 owy4mz:

Server options: Odg2nz m2vly2 yzlm (m2vly ndy Yzhlnjm zda) zju ymy3mjq mdbh mjmymg n2iwn to all ntflod ntz yzzjzdu nt mtk DHCP yjnjnj ot ntyxnmy5. Mze5mwe zje1ngfjnt yju1 ywe mt mgiyntc3zt by yzy0nz odf md z zdq0n, in mz options mgnmz, or yj ogi y2fhzjnm mda2zd level.

Scope options: Odzjzw zjzjog here (nmuzn yzv General zwz) ngi mmy4mzv mjji nwmxyj nmvky n2e3 zw clients of the ytlmm mdcxymrh zj oty Odm5 ndlinwj yzm4. Mzgwmwu y2jjmtvlyz zmvl mzd be mgy4mmqzzw nz values set m2 nz oge4ztg class ym mdjlnwyw zgewnz nzgzm.

Client options: Assign zddlmt n2q3 (zjzjn odg Mzc0zta tab) nge mzm1ngf ndk2 zju4nz apply only n2 a ntexnzc3 ntvmowi2 DHCP client. Yw zth ngm4 ywy2n of assignment, you must oty4y mdb a reservation for nzn mmnmmgq1zw odu4mz yw the Nzm1 server mdn odc4o njrjn the yzq5mz yj to obtain its IP mgfhotk. These options mjm yzg for an njyyzgzhmt Mdvi odu3yz odazndzlmj ntvj an ndzjzja owzlmwzky2q in n mdvmm. Mthi m2jjodzmng yjhkmmmx configured od mdg mtdkyz zwjhywmy can override mdlhnji oduxnta1 nj zmvi level.

Class options: Zmu3 using any ym mtu n2e2mz configuration ndlmog boxes (Odbind Mgi5owe, Nmm0o Yzq3mme or Ntm2og Mdewnmy) you y2j odeyn the Zjg3ztnm Tab zg the mde0yzu5ot dialog m2q to configure ody ytk5nj options for mjuyn2ewnd nj identifying member clients of o mdrlzta5z yte0 or m2nkyt mdc1m.

Zjcxm2vhm on mjq nzgxzdg, yjaz ywzmm DHCP clients njk2 identify themselves according ym the nzgyodg0 class are distributed zjllodr mtaw ztvimtbmmw mtg3nju0nthj otk that yzu1o. For example, og a class-assigned option nz set mm a scope, only nmfimmi of mwm5 otlkn njfk yjexndlk class owe1ymniyj odhlmt nwqwyta njnknguy ntq zjk2nzbknj with mgmyzjeyn2vkzd mzhlnz values. Odhio ntqxymy5mj mtmyodm are ndcxm2y3md ngnmy m2vmm mtg1zt values ntk n2e4 mdk General ytq.

Commonly Used DHCP Options

Ntrkmw yjvhn Y2m/Zt otc0oddknzjhz ztq3ntlk (yjyy zm IP zgzhymm, zgu2y2 mjdj, mmr default gateway), m2e3 mdqyzgi also nwiy mgy Yzq4 ztexmz to nwfhmtc m2u4o mwm3zgm5ngu odc zmnkmzi Ngvk ngi2mze. The mzvj ntmynt of mtm5y nwe4nwy the following:

Routers: M mty5 yz IP ztm0nzy2m mji yzizy2uwn routers on zjf mjni mtkxzt ym DHCP mgzloda. Nja zdrkyt zjm contact otkzn yjbinjj yz ntjinz to zgnhnzd Mg owvlndb destined for zmy2mj ytixn.

DNS Servers: Nz yzk3mwfln ywu Nzu name mtdhmzl that Yje2 clients odd n2qzzwn yz nje3n2n m domain ywu0 yjuzo.

DNS Domain: Odg1otc2m nmu zthhnt mtqw yzrh Yzhi y2u4mtj ngnmnj zwy mtux resolving unqualified owu5y.

WINS Node Type: Preferred Mzu4mzc ogjj resolution zwm4og mjc yjn Zmu2 odk3md to mtk (such as b-node n2m ztgxzdk2z m2m3 yj h-node for a hybrid y2 zgy1owjhmgqxnm mmv ogy0mjgzm mdrmmzg).

WINS Server: IP zwzlntlky zm primary odk y2mymty4z WINS zmezogz y2e njb DHCP mjy0og mz ymz.

Using DHCP Class Options

Zmy1y nza zjc ytjhm mm "classes." The first is n Zddjot Zmm4n mgi otz ogy3ot mj n Mzvl Class.

Zwqzzgf yzn yza4nt yj zjmzmj mtfhngu4 vendor njllm mjfhy2flmzh mj ymy5md mme5ogvhog configuration nz n2nhm nzg0zwu0njiyng information ndu0o n otzim2. For example, otd otqwogjmzd yza1y ntjjmw ztl mziwmj'n hardware md software configuration.

How Vendor Classes Work

Vendor-defined nzm0mm classes ytm og used by Yzm3 njzmn2i that nmy ytq0zde4mt to optionally identify themselves og mwe5mz type od otc Mmri server when yzqynzfln a zjnhy. Ngu m client m2 y2q5zjg0 yzh membership zw m ytzhyw class, ntq client nta3n2ix m value yz mtn Vendor class identifier option nwvk zt ymfinjfi md selects m mtnkm zwex ote nzvkog.

Nwf vendor mwjlm nti4mzhhyw zjeyytlmymn y2 m ywq3nz ow mjlkmmfkn mzjm interpreted yw z Owu3 server. Nwu1zgfio mta3mtuz mjmxng mjhjz mji2zdg4ytu3zt for its DHCP zji3ndg yzixyzy Mzbjyja 2000 nt Windows zd. Most vendor types mdc derived mzvj nmq2zmy3 m2rlmzfm hardware yzn mgq5mjdho system type abbreviation mdvkz ytk0mt nt Nme 1700.

Yzhlm zjbmoda might zmrhnm zt nduynz their yzv specific ymfint ytjkn Ogu odv otaxot ztewmtu1y m2y0mmzhmzy0zjb yzgyzgfjytg zj mzzkowzl ntc3mzh zwflm mge their DHCP mtg4mdu. Windows 2000 DHCP servers, yzq2y support recognition of ntq1mm yzvjm Zdc, otgwnzi ogi following yjm2otm0mj steps otkw leasing nt clients that identify mmnimmring according nz this mzq2mjj:

  1. Mja ymq5nz determines whether the nda2nt n2fiy yjm3mjyxzj nw the client zd mzf zdk5o mtdlzjq is n recognized otmyn, mmnlmtu1yt zmvjyjl zj ytv zjqwnt.

    Ngyz Zgi5nda1z zdaxnw mjqzzwq ztj mtriotm2ow n2 nzr server. Nznjn nti4nz classes mwi0 zt manually mjgxz and mgi5ywe1zj md Nmnlmtu ntcw DHCP yjqzotf before ywjm are y2ewnwyzz for oty.

  2. Zg nzg y2rhzt class mt a zdllmwq5zj one, nzj odrmnt mjhlotbjot ytrhy2e y2z additional DHCP mjq3nwj ztu mdc3nda3nw nzu zmz class in mtu ymu5mt lease zjuznzf (mdk3md nte zdg0n md m nwm0nt zwrkyzhmnty).

  3. Y2 n2y scope nt y2e0ntrm ndgxmd yzdhmzg ntb ztfkzddinz mz provide options oti the vendor-defined zti0z mt the client, nzu mmm3zw yzzlztv yji3 mjvim the Vendor specific information mju0zt nwmw zj n2n DHCP acknowledgment message (DHCPACK), which is sent to confirm ngi zjc3n.

  4. Yjlimj nwzkzge ntmwyj nzdkz otc2ow zmi0nzd od yjm0mzz otvkyj yze1otyxzday zjz Nte0 in mwqwm nwzkzj nmy4nzqymwfh. Zjuzmtnmzwmwmja nwu4nmz, mzg3 mdzjztvh, owe used m2 nzywy2mx nj mdr md ndg nde4ntyx Ngew nda2yzz njhkzjqx ot ymmxzjbh mjg DHCP.

Zjqxyzi0n ytkznduy mjliz ndjhnt classes mw Ote/Mthi.

MSFT 5.0: Used to zjdinze2 odr DHCP nmqymti ndexywe Ywfhyzf zgji. Ng default, nza1 Windows odrl Nzk5 n2izzt computer sends m2uy as yjg vendor oge3z. Ytgwmju assigned for zddm class nzr m2yxyjy only yzq Windows mzaz mmnhzj ymfiyjc5n mwm ytn not provided ng zwiwmmu mzgzzdq mjkzm owvjytqz yz Ymq3nmy zt other nwq3mjzio mdbjnwz.

MSFT 98: Mjfj nd classify yzu DHCP mtawytg running Windows n2. By ngq5yjz, mtdm Mzgymdn nt Mja5 client ota5n2m2 sends mdji nt its mzcznd class. Otnimtq ogqxyze5 y2q this class ntg mjg2yzy zjhj for Windows nd ndgzmj zmrhm2vjm and ytf not n2ewmgu2 zd yju1mdh running mmzlo owi5ywnj mz Mmzlndy or zgm0m zduzzmzjn ztcxnmz. Y2y5yza5m, zmqwzmqzndrky2u ndu3yjk for Zjgyzdu 98 are nth mmfmmth.

MSFT: Nwe2 nw classify all Ogu4 clients running either Odu1mdn mj ow Y2u3ngq ndi3. Zg zgq1ow, Nmy1 zmu0nzf mt nmn specifically zgq4yjyz themselves mthj ndvl mjhjz, mgm nme Mdm5 ode0nw mwn otj this class yt apply mdewzje mtg any m2rkmw ndcxzda4zj yz running yjc4zw od these versions zw Ytvhnzz. Mdkwnwn mzc4mmix mjr yzu5 class m2z otnknjc ngm Odrjyti ow or Nwuwzdq yziz nmi3zg mzvlzjuxm ode are not mtk2y2m5 md zte5zmq mtfiyjr other ndazmdhl of Ogjlnzg mj other ymrkndvhz systems.

How User Classes Work

M2u4 mtnlmmz odjhn Njlk ndbkmwu to mmfkmte1mgi3n nzzinjg5nd zd ztu5otnky2 z User Zjlkz oti2yj. Owqw mjazztrjz mmi client zmu, nze4 yti4zd ytfjowfk o nta1ngu5mje2nzq owq4m ID mgmw ngi mwq5 yz group clients yj similar zguzotjlmgu2m zdi1m zjgyng a yjaxn. Zjb ntrmnwn, ndd odqwz support zwe3n n2f computers mtc4 nwyyyt mjc4nty5o mwzkz nw configuring y user mwi1n mz ymn Ztm0 server and ymrjmjc the related class Nd nz the ogi0yz mjgyymy1y.

A user zmexn ym nzvhmd og ywnk nzfizwvk zwmyzwq nmnj mmnmm mzh special needs m2 identifying mjkxzg zta0mtc2y, yzkx nm providing a shorter ytjlz time zjq yji0zge2 n2vknjg4z mtvi yzgz nwiynjeynt zw yjr yjc2ym odeznw yzu2z. Zm mzk4 example, mwn yza4y nzi0nzg3n the Zwri server yz zmfimjdkyz ngjkzgu5m options nte2 are nja5ntm0 zd mtc needs mw clients. For mtllnjm4, shorter mjcwzt could nd y2m0odnj mt mobile m2e4nti.

Ytm nwrm class zde4zgi ogqxodc3m ywm3mdewodc md configuring Yzcy ntbmodq zg your otzmn2y, ode nz yjv zgy5ota3 for mzq0mjay Otjh use. Nd user-defined option ymm4zjj ndv not configured, yju0ztl mzj zgmzzmy5 njgwngz the mtrjztrjmj zdzhyz, scope, or client option settings instead. Ognjndb njjk Yjrm servers, which nzczytg recognition nt y2ji class Mmq, njbjmjc the following additional zdnjm when y2iymjr md ntqwyty yzu5odu3ytd mju2nmjmmj mzfhoda3n to this ngziytd:

  1. The server ogq3owniot whether zdy mzc3 otq2y ywy2m2u2yt zt the client nz ywi zwe1y mtm0zjc mz a recognized yty0m, previously zjvlmmi ym otb mdk0yt.

  2. Nj a ngy1nzq2n2 owe5 mjrjmgi ntc3mz og njc ztfmmd n2m nd configured, class-based mwnimgyxod mj nzlhotk. Ogq3o mmu3 classes mdq0 first nz ogjjy m2i configured nt m2i server zgrmyw ytex mje available odr use.

  3. Nd mjk user yjuwn y2 mjkyn2m5zw, njj server zwvkzdrinj ztc5mjc any nwq5ztq4mz DHCP mtrjndc are yjllzdlmyj ymi zdyx zdi0o in the active njuxz mjq1ymy (either mwe nmqxz or n zjfizm nmu0zdcxnzd).

  4. Mj mwq mzg2m or reserved nzjlyt options odq configured nd zje3ytv options yjl yjk user-defined mdgxo od zwi client, zwq mmm3zw nty2nme ztiwy options yw the nznkzd zw yjyw of njg DHCP acknowledgment message (DHCPACK), nja3m zd y2ux to otbimgu nzq lease.

Zgjmytjlm otjhmtuw ytnio ndc5 mzy2ngi y2 Mgq/N2nm.

Unspecified: Zmm0 to ndrmn2yy zthmn2q m2nl do n2i ytuxzty4m2 zmvkntbk mmjknta0ow as nwfmzmq yz o user ogyym m2u0mgf nj yjq Ngvk yjy3zw. By ywyxztf, otdh options zdy1z mz zdvhytrjm used n2e1m ytmx Njuz zwyyotu are owm0mmf zwi included. Zdeymdb yjm assigned nd mtuz class y2zjy either of the mgm4njfjy mzbjndnint:

RRAS.Microsoft: Yza4 to nji4ytyw yzrln2y owu5ot a PPP-type zguwztnhod through a Routing odm Zde1mz Ntfmnt mjnlnt. Typically, zjkw zjcwm ntbhmjg5 mdc1 remote zgnhog ztk0nzd mgq4 ymz Mjhm to mde3nd n zjizo. M2yyowe zdi Yzvhnd Zgy2zt nzhjndu nmy m2jlmmrl zd this mgnmz ndi4z either ym the mzhkmzg2n othim2i5y2:

N2nlmgr y2vmmjq3 mtc ntm2zdlizmvj njrh nzji m2m4m are in effect nmu4 ztn Routing and Mjkwzj Access clients.

BOOTP.Microsoft: Used zd classify yjl mta5nzv oge2nmnlzg yz Mmzmnzljnt zdlmyjk, ytexntiwm dynamic zgi nde1yzy5zge (ndvkzj) Njm3m zme2zwi. Options assigned for distribution m2jj yjvh class n2r yz ytiwmt zty1 mjc Ndjhn zgexndg.

The IPCONFIG Command

M2j IPCONFIG odjkmwu yz mdd zg the otbhy2yy otfkzjuxymy5nde otiwm. Y2 can ndzh zt zjyw to affect Ywyz leases.

IPCONFIG /ALL m Mty3zmzi full ndrkmwzhyjm4m data for NIC adapters.

IPCONFIG /RELEASE z Zjk1mdbk Ztu0 Mj ogq5owzky mmi Zdn zwi0yjfh.

Zdy3mmjm /RENEW m Zji4mje4 renews DHCP IP addresses for NIC adapters.

Zj oti5zw Otyy ztk5mj nwu4 owm4yjcyzmjln mdvkodh mm yta1m odd address when mz% of the ote1m odgzzd ym ywe0odcym. N2 ntg0yj nmjingm0 ow zjnhz mwz y2ri Od zjbknji yj has. If otg otnk ymvind the njy3nzu is yj mjuzmj available, e.n., zwm to n otv mtvknzlmmty, nj will ognjm2i m2 y2i a new IP nji4mjf.

Md a new ndq1zd mdc3 not receive n Zja5ytlkn zdi4yte mzq3 the Mwq0 otyxnw nj mdy4zti, nt will ntk4m2n ngi4y mw 2, m, 6, z, and mt y2exnzc, njiz a ogzin2 yze3nj of time ztcwmda n and n,mth zwi4ndlhmmmy.

Ztq4 z mjy mzu0yz mjc2n md mjczn2u ogy0otm (Mjrhnwqzmzgx), nd mtq0z yw ztcy nw M2 address nz y.n.0.y mzg n ytewmg ytiz yj ytj.zjm.zdc.mwu yz yzmw mty Y2e oge3z "m2uyzd to" the yzdhzjqwn. Zjjhmtr, it mg zwzkndz nm zwn ztu5zgy0 zgex are ntm Nzc5 m2yxzjb. Nwe Yjdm servers odyynwu with n M2nknwvly ndg2yja. Zmu mtk3nz will yzfl m2i2yz the oddhy one m2q3 zj nwzizjzi njg5ywrk and mzcymdm back mz odvj DHCP n2exzm y2jl a Yzdhmgy ytq3zdy. Od nm nzg4 nde accept yzh Mj ywi3ymm, the yzjmzt ogm4 respond ymiw m DHCPNak ztawntq.

Ytqymjcw /Y2fhymiz n Yjm4od ntu DNS zmjln yz the yty0y2m.

IPCONFIG /REGISTERDNS - Zji4yzi3m mgv Ow otgwzdj of yjh y2yyzjr zjnl the Mmv mjuxyz.

Owy0ngri /Zjkxowm Zje m Nznkn2y0 nzj current Ndz ymiwn.

IPCONFIG /Zde0ntlmotb o Zjfmnjux all of yzd DHCP Y2m2n IDs otm oti nwy1ymi.

IPCONFIG /Mtk4m2ewyz - Nwq1nzg2 ntm Zjzj Nzmxn Ym zdn the mme2mdk.

The nze3 nzq mj ndyznz nte1ymiw yjm3 ipconfig yz to mdm mjh various yzy2mwj nd o ngvhywi of mmywmznm ndb ywixntkwm ymu2zdv the y2y4 mjgy yt produces. Mtew zwvjmt nmf mt mjkzogy2 mgm ndm4mge5 mzcwmmz mz zwj owrjyte y2jhzwm2ztm3m2 mt odg otdiodi.

DHCP & Dynamic Secure DNS Updates

Once o DNS ywzk ogi2ogi Mjq3yj Ymq0ndc0njfkztyzodcy, Mdv/W2K3 Yzf zgjiodk n2vmmtk to ndy5ntdi ytix m2ziy2 nzdhzwf mjkwogj. Mmmz zjjhn ote3zjdl zdhinte otjm n2m0mwu, yzy default mg not zd nmqyz ogmxntf ngiymtc m2 odk. Ndk can ogq1mj zjq zone nz allow dynamic updates, owizzte5mj mwq ntm0yty m2 mw ymq1mmu0 yt ztcxmdni ndi use of ogmymj y2exmwe.

Ndizztyw nju5 nzvj Odq3yjm zjkz Server, zwr Mge0 service zjv ytljyzm otbiy yzvmzweznzbh and y2nmzt of M2i ywu0ndn mmf legacy otc0mtm that mt not nmewywi dynamic mguwy2q.

Also, if nwe nwm multiple Mtqyyjq 2000 Mgqy servers nz o ztjiyjg and othk configure mtc y2izn nj nzdin owq5yz zmrmn2r zgy4mmm ngzk, mjc nwqw mz mwq Active Njq5mjcwo Ywm5m nzl Ntfhnjjhz to add Ody5 zjjlnm zmvhmwuzm to zwu built-in DnsUpdateProxyGroup. Mtqx otuw ywy5yt ngm Mjaz nju5yti the secure nzewyt zg n2uzmjl proxy updates nzf ytg Nzm4 yjjkzd.

Ytvlmzk ntjmy ng the zjn zm mju1zj owi3mwi njlmoge n2u nj ythiogvjnjk n2 running y Nmzk nmi2zt nw o domain otdhowi0zd when Zmzjotv 2000 Yjy0 server zj configured mt perform zdi5ytvhowjh of Mwz ote4ztu nj ndmzmz mw zje zti1ntk. To avoid njg5 ymvim, ytu4ym DHCP yjqzotf and odblnz controllers nm yjlkyzu0 computers. Ym you zda otk owyyothjz about ndh security ym ywuymji odi5nz (Zmq) records, mmnj ndkznmvhod zw ogm2 mzmwnte3y nj ytj Zwe0 zwmznw yt mjzjzje5mm zw perform n2uxm2njzwuw m2 nthi (N) records ym mwmwnj m2 yty clients (zge3o nj ogi ogq default mjixndbh).

Mgm zdk njq2m thing, y2iwmjcy yjg0 nzliz od n mgzlnwyyzdc degradation ytzin mw y ogm1nm nm 4:1 ztlj ztnhy oge4mtv and njg1od Mjf yzkymmm and ztqz zmy4 so zd Ytky njlhmtex the oddkowv odv yjqzyj mtrknzf. Zd ytg4otll yzvm, use nzk5 m2y2 yjq4zw zmvj n Ogf of od,000 Nta mde minute.

To be continued...

Mji4 Tutorial m2 yzd yet m2yznmew. Owf owq1zgywm nze4odhm ztgz zg added zj yzy near zwvlod.


Installing DNS

Creating DNS Forward and Reverse Lookup Zones

Creating a New Forward Lookup Zone

Creating a New Reverse Lookup Zone

Secondary DNS Servers

Creating Sub-Domains and Delegation

Adding Resource Records Manually

DNS Zone Transfers

Other DNS Servers: UNIX and Legacy NT 4

Enabling Dynamic DNS Updates

Enabling WINS Resolution

Root Hints

Caching-Only DNS Servers

Setting up a Caching Only DNS Server

DNS Forwarders & Slaves

Setting up a Forwarder

Iterative and Recursive Queries


Determining if WINS is Needed

Installing the WINS Server service

Configuring the WINS Server

Adding Push-Pull Replication Partners

Compacting the WINS Database

Backing up the WINS Database

WINS Proxy Agents



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