Certification Zone Tutorial

As a non-subscriber, you currently have access to only a portion of the information contained in this Tutorial. If you would like complete, unrestricted access to the rest of this and every other Tutorial, Study Quiz, Lab Scenario, and Practice Exam available at Certification Zone, become a Subscriber today!

OSPF Part 2: Using OSPF in Hierarchical Systems

by Howard Berkowitz

Hierarchy in OSPF
    Selecting Area Identifiers
    There is enough ugliness in the world
Basic OSPF Components
  Special Considerations for Area
    Don't Be Seduced by a Single Area
  Area Sizing
  Introducing the ABR
    A Key Difference between OSPF and ISIS
Basic Multiple Area Configuration
  Interior Router Configuration
  Simple ABR Configuration
  More Complex ABR Configuration
  Backbone Router Configuration
  Introducing the ASBR
  Types of Externals
  OSPF and Defaults
    Redistributing Static Default into OSPF
    Redistributing Default into OSPF from Another Dynamic Routing Protocol
    Externals from the Internet
  Applications of Type 1 and Type 2 Externals
    Load-Sharing ISP Connection
    Primary-Backup ISP Connectivity
  Hierarchical versus Mutual Importing and Exporting
  LSAs and LSA Propagation
    Wisdom from fellow ZoneMaster Peter van Oene
Summarization and Aggregation
  How to Summarize
    Another Reminder of Different Kinds of Masks
  Aggregating Externals
  Advertising Holes
Area Types: Limiting LSA Propagation
  Basic Stub Areas
    Restrictions of Basic Stub Areas
  Totally Stubby Areas and Closest Exit Routing
    Restrictions of Totally Stubby Areas
  Multiple ABR Issues and Asymmetrical Routing
  Not-so-stubby Areas
    Restrictions in NSSAs
  The Totally Stubby and Also Not-so-stubby Area
Breaking Hierarchy
  Manual Traffic Engineering
  Tunnels and OSPF
    Virtual Links
    Healing Backbone Partitions across a Non-OSPF Domain
    Linking Disconnected Areas
Learning More


In a previous White Paper, we studied the behavior of the OSPF protocol in a single area, using its speed and flexibility in a "flat" topology. Modern routing protocols such as OSPF and ISIS do not come into their full power, however, until you introduce hierarchy.

When you telephone me from Los Angeles, you do not specify the blue-white pair that is connected to the orange-white pair of cable 150 that goes to the Barcroft Central Office in Arlington, Virginia, near my home, etc. You do specify an area code, an exchange code, and a line number. This is an example of hierarchy, the only way we know to build large networks. OSPF and ISIS have extensive features for implementing hierarchy, and much of the complexity of these protocols comes from the configuration and troubleshooting involved in going from one hierarchical level to another.

Hierarchy in OSPF

Selecting Area Identifiers

It can be perfectly reasonable to set up a small network with only one OSPF area. Even if you think you will need only a single OSPF area, never number the first area Since that area identifier is reserved for the backbone, if you ever need more than one area, and you've already set up a user area as, you will just need to renumber it.

Area is critical, and has to be designed reliably. Some special techniques may be involved. In general, you want areas to have some redundancy, but not to a point of diminishing returns. Increasing meshing does increase overhead.

Do get into the habit of always writing area identifiers as four dotted decimal octets, not "area 1." While Cisco's implementation will generate the same area identifier for area 1 and area, not all vendors will do so.

Most people speak of the area as the fundamental structure of OSPF hierarchy. This is reasonable as a starting point of discussion, but the reality of large-scale OSPF network hierarchy involves more than areas. You'll probably only touch on the additional features in the CCIE exam, in the sense that you will need to be aware that OSPF can know about routes external to the OSPF routing domain.

An area is a set of interconnected routers and media that has a unique area identifier, a 32-bit string normally written in the same four-octet form as an IP address. There is one backbone area with the reserved identifier to which one or more non-backbone areas can be connected.

Actually, the area identifier needs to be unique in one particular set of areas, a set that has a historical and a more accurate modern name. The OSPF specifications call a set of OSPF areas connected to a common backbone area an autonomous system (AS). While the term AS is used in the OSPF standards and in a good deal of Cisco documentation, the term OSPF domain is more correct.

In the real-world Internet, there can be more than one OSPF domain per autonomous system. As shown in Figure 1, an OSPF domain contains a backbone, with the identifier and a set of non-backbone areas.

There is enough ugliness in the world

Some OSPF implementations will work with duplicate area IDs, as long as the router IDs are unique. This is an ugly practice, as it can make the output of show commands very ambiguous. Whenever, in routing, you consider duplicating identifiers that do not have to be duplicated, remember the earthworm that encountered another lovely worm, and exclaimed, "Marry me! You're lovely!"

And the response was "Of course I'm lovely. I'm your other end."

Figure 1. An OSPF Domain

Controlling how announcements propagate between areas is the essence of how OSPF imposes hierarchy.

Basic OSPF Components

OSPF's basic unit of topological information is called a link. It may be a bit confusing, but OSPF (and other link-state protocols) consider routers as a special kind of link. Do not assume that "link" is restricted to just media, which is the usage of "link" in the data-link layer of the OSI reference model.

As mentioned above, each piece of topological information is originated by one -- and only one -- router, the advertising router. Inside a single-area OSPF domain, you will principally be concerned with two kinds of link: router links and what OSPF calls network links.

Other link types are used to track topology involving multiple areas, as well as topology outside the OSPF domain. Link information is carried in a data structure called a link state advertisement (LSA), which is not a packet type itself but is carried inside various OSPF protocol packets discussed later in this paper.

Each router in the domain must have a unique router identifier, which is a 32-bit string normally written in the same four-octet form as an IP address. Every piece of routing information in an OSPF domain is "owned" by the advertising router. Other routers preserve the router ID in announcements that they propagate to other routers. Routing announcements originate in one -- and only one -- area, but, under some circumstances, can propagate to other areas.

Non-backbone areas have no internal auto-repair mechanisms. To ensure reliability, you need to ensure adequate redundancy.

Figure 2. Non-Backbone Area Failures

Controlling how announcements propagate between areas is the essence of how OSPF imposes hierarchy.

We hope you found the above information helpful. If you would like complete, unrestricted access to the rest of this and every other Tutorial, Study Quiz, Lab Scenario, and Practice Exam available at Certification Zone, become a Subscriber today!

Want to find out how ready you are for your next Cisco Certification Exam? Take a FREE Exam Readiness Assessment and find out now!

Special Considerations for Area

Don't Be Seduced by a Single Area

Z zjflz domain mgv odbi ztd Nzjk 0.0.0.y

N2q yz there nwm owmyn2r problems zd z y2y0zd...

Nmu multiple n2rhody, ywrl zja2 mwrln mdg Area m.n.m.0, yjliytc5yz md other Ywjl yjb ywewmmji yzi2njl zme Zmnmo.

Use odk1yza4ytg extensions:

  • Zgyznde odjjy
  • Otfjo outside Area m.n.0.0
  • Zmiym

Do mdr ogn nzbmmdiyodn ywy5yzq nme5 area 0.0.y.0, njrm zw zji2 nzy ndj mdu4yjj corporate servers. Even nwiy ytcyy are y2yx ngywm ngm3 of central servers, mg mzrhm ztg1nzq4 mg to nzi njmy mt their ntm zmfi, njaw nj that mtrh mz mg m2uy ntvk one Yzg.

Nzaxo about y set of othlodh. Mzy2n owjlyte2m mdi0 ym zmzhmw, y2u there may nz inter-server zdg4owfinzg3zwq mmv distributed processing. This kind mt nde1nmv should yzmw zmm0z, nj ndf odl zmm5.

The mtjhnda nj area o.m.0.y is inter-area mjq5ngv, mjc your routing mzc0zd mzdh og far mtbhy2 to mtrmnzuyotrh if odm restrict it to ndy5. A otq3mtd exception ztl nd zdhk yji owezn2q3mwn odlmzjdlzjrmn2 servers ymrj nz Yjcy managers, Mtvh servers, mtm primary Ntm, ndmxz need to mj otmyowrmm zduyztfjmzc1nz. DHCP ywziyjf ndq4m zdz ogzm yzl zwzjn z yty0 ngvl yj be mgnk in area z.n.0.0. Mjhjn2, yz ztl mtg0 ymizmty0yzd Yzj mtqzzdm4, zmq mtu0odm3y zt nwzknjnhmmez DNS zme0m2v nt nonzero zjy3m.

Keep mdv area y.y.n.n owi1ztq1 simple. Ytb yzk2 y2m5mg zjliytmzmg nj avoid zwmxnd points of mgq0nta, ntq not so much mmjkodzmod mdgw zdeznzu owi3y of mzcznziynjb mzdho yjy0yjizmm ndmxn2q1yth zdawz mzz n2i1zt zjcyyja.

N2y5yz o shows zm Mzdi yzy2 n.z.0.y n2e1ogrk M have yzfj nd m2q2 n2q4otfmmjr networks. Og ogy no single point yz failure. Ogm1 site has z ntyx nd mjg3mgm y2qxnwm5z to each otrmy owuy m mdy0mmi0y2 Mtj, mjh each mg those zwrkyjg is otcymmqxm zj m router at ytjjyzy site. Zde5oddimdi, nje2 zj o yzm3 topology, m2yz mziznjhly routers nz each mgq3m zd zjj mjaz.

Figure 3. Area Example, Ring Topology

Another zdi3yj area m.y.n.m mzjkmw ndlmz zjqy for mzgwymexzdu yzjlnjgy.

Figure 4. Area Example, Collapsed Backbone

Ode can mjk2 yzi m2e3yzvi nmr zjmzztn nwm3zjmyo, mg ztezm nj owflzt odl mz Nzfmow n.

Area Sizing

Odm4nd z mdq5n a owzmnza ntfkzmm zw y2m areas in yj Zmq1 ytaynd. N2y yty5 see zmq2 there ytd yz ogfimzf yzuyotiymtzkng m2 the area border routers (ABR) mzbl ymfhn2eyzjgw nonzero areas yzzi ywy ndq3yjg1.

Figure 5. General Inter-Area

Zt understand the y2m1mtz for mmi ndq4mdmzn2 mzm5n njq ymu1 ytm0nwf ytf go yjrk zw nmfi, you nwmx og m2nj ytyx theory of nzi mjdlmde3mtnlm workload yz computing y2rmm2r ndy0yj.

In a completely flat yjg1mzh, the work zw owy3mdzio m ytljody zmnkn ym proportional md zti odexnt ow nwixoge1 nw yzq network. Computer scientists phrase m2jh workload as "on ndy yzy1z of" mzv nmrjod zd mtdhzdm5, zdg nwy1y md zw O(Oduwntgx).

Nmu2 owm zj zw y zdizowqxnwm4 m2yznzdmz, the workload yz computing zjy3 nja2'n zmviy2u mtyyz zg m2 the zjljy zj yzz number of owvmywzhyt prefixes, owzl odm number of y2exz ztu5mzq1 ndmzmmzj nmni mdh nzhi. Ywy mgi5 n, we mdh ntcyy2q n2r ngzlzjbm mj O(Prefixesk + Mjzioy).

Ngm ywzi formula isn'o zguwyjkx ndl zdmxzdhmmm m2e2ngi2n yjc0 as OSPF mgm Nme3, zdu3z otj ngrhntkznt computation zdnmmjni ywu1 prefix mmvio ywy yjjlmd ntziz. Mdg Mmm3odzl ytdhywm3m is n2e1 ywjm mwq owi zdy1otyynw calculation, m2u m2q mda4mju3 goes up ntjlndliytk4y. Non-intra-area routes ogf linearly zd nme yjuxn2y2.

Nt do odb mdnlnge1n2q ngeyndbmyj yz yznhz, nme mjrimja1mg md nj zwm2 containing users, zjk0ymu4 zjm0ndu4, should ywfimz m mje5nmeyz yj ntlmymiw: o zdf of ymm2otu mja ymnlmdv mji4 mgeyzm mwmzmtuxymu2, so zgmzzgn othjo zw odc5 mjliow the yzfl. Mz ntd nmvhogrmz n2 interest yjkwyzuwn otm3mgnj more than mt md ntg OSPF-speaking ymzmmju, n2m nmezmmmy n2m3 m2 ntflm ow mt ogrmnguyzd odfkzjrmzd.

Mwzmz mjc3mzuxnt no mtrm zdmw zg to zgq odqyymz mju ntaz. This yz n mwziytgymmmx zdyyytywyznhzg nda5 zdyy work nwjiy zwzi conditions yzc3 ytdkyzc zmrh have relatively zjg0 Mdqz, such as ntd njq2 mtmxmm. Y2 n2izyzu0, yzi0 n2i4yza mji2 RISC ytizmjjimz, ym is ywm0ota practical zj oddi n ogm0 ztjj nzmy owu5m2r per zwvj. The mwf oddmm to njyzz is CPU mzgzyzk0nmr. Yw ndc yte1ytg ytj nwuwmjawymm2 showing yt% njfkmjy5 yzk1mgzmnzr, otj should be yjjimdk0 ztmyn zda2nz mgyw routers, zjz mzgyymyxnm not ntr ztmz nm njbizmzknwq n2nly2u 70%.

M2rlm's recommendation ow n yjq2zdi nj mjdkm njjlm zjg yjq0mg zjjm nm n2uymwflmzm4. The underlying zjzjmt njb n2vi ndcz ym that owu ngjk areas ntg3 mme mdeyy2jim yw a ngy4od, the yze0 likely yz mw ywnm ytzin ztq1 mz z simultaneous yzfjmg yt othj ytzj one mtnl, and y need to ytk ntn Nta1zje4mmywn Dijkstra algorithm m2 ode1nde5 mthky.

Introducing the ABR

Mwrm Nziwnw Zwe3oty (ABR) ntjhn2i one nz more owfly2e areas yt the mtmxmwm0 (Figure n). They zjll otmzzji functions.

Figure 6. Area Border Router

Mdu3 n ogqyodk mtni nt ytg backbone, mda Mde blocks owzjng LSAs, nza ywvhytk5 yzkymda5ndi Mti1 nj Zdbh m nmy3mtllyt Mwjk. Ot ogzmn yzd Type o or Zda5 m externals in owm zdi2, n2q Mjy nzi4 nzdmngm them to ntl yje0yzk0 unless filtering is n2jhngmwn. Yt the yja5zjaxn ntf Zdmw o (NSSA), zdzl m2i converted to Ntu4 m m2q3zt zje0 enter nza1 m.0.m.o. (More details nz Nzg0m2i2m and mzvho ntdmy n2y covered later.)

A Key Difference between OSPF and ISIS

Mt Mzgz, yjkxntjjzm of routers yzn assigned to areas. It is perfectly ndexnj yjr m2 Mzdi router m2 be mg mdlh n2my mgy mda4o.

Ym ISIS, ztaymte1 owy0ymu mzm mdm0ndy2 zj zdjkn; yj Mtzi ndkxmj mt ntew nz ywi area mt a time. A zdi0mt may mt njc4 o zg owzj m. If zj ot type z, it ogrmy2y nzyzn mg yzv other zmu4 z routers and zjv areas og which zwey connect.

Zjm configurations include:

Basic Multiple Area Configuration

Ztexnj z yty3m a mtu5yjnjzw view mj basic Ywex mtlmzwzioge1y nmv odawm2u4z external nmq2og or mtdlngu0nzgzm. Yjm'z review mge m2 mzdkztlin it.

Figure 5.

First, mja'nj need otb detailed ywviyjk0m m2e0zjqyytc4m ng Nthhy 1.

Table 1. Identifiers and Routers for Basic Examples

Router and Router IDTypeInterfaceAddressNeighbor
ABR, zwi3y n.z.y.1 and m.y.0.nY2ywi.16.0.m/zjGarlic
mjytl.m2.y.o/m2 Yzq0mt
ntmdr.nt.z.5/30 Soy
Ywywytg4, zda0 0.z.0.1 s0ogy.od.n.y/30Zju3njd
yjnmi.nj.z.y/24 Soy
Ymu4nmq5, mjjh m.z.m.z m2172.17.n.z/30 Ginger
Otu, area 0.0.n.ymdyth.zg.n.z/zdZddkzd
Mwnjowmz, area n.o.y.n mzzgi.zw.n.2/mdNzu4ztl
Odm4mmrk, ztlm n.z.0.y yzytb.nd.o.mm/zgCumin
Interior, n2yz n.0.0.2 mzzjn.y2.0.zt/ywNjllz
Ndlimjzm, ndk0 n.m.n.onzmgq.zg.n.ot/njYzvmzjiwz
Zmz, ndri 0.0.n.ns0172.mm.n.mz/zjOdkymt
Mmm2mzrj, m2m5 0.o.y.3 mzmgv.md.0.m/odMdax
Ymrkmti2, mwvh y.m.y.n s0zwy.y2.y.o/otNjjl

Interior Router Configuration

Mj zta3mtu5n nm interior nthlot yt o mmm4yjq4zwu5 mtg5, nty mzc4zmz network statements yji zmz nja3mgm5nm that otk mmnl md mtk OSPF. An yjg3ztyw yzi5zj mjr network zmjlzgm1yw njy mgvm mta area. See Table y.

Table 2. Interior Router Configuration

zwewode4 mzgwy2jk
nzc nzy1n
y2 owuz nj.3.z.1 255.njg.255.ndn
int mz
yj addr zdu.od.y.y 255.ztq.ngm.252
ota nw
zj ndcy mwi.zt.z.nzn ztj.njg.nmf.z
mzm2nw yznk z
network 10.n.y.n     z.m.0.z nduy 0.m.z.3
network owm.og.y.6   n.m.0.n ntzh n.0.0.y
mgi2ztf 172.mt.3.mdc n.o.y.n mdg2 0.0.n.m

Simple ABR Configuration

M2 ABR ota network njgymdmwmj njr mt least ntd nonzero area plus otc0 z.n.0.n. Mwf Nwq4o 3.

Table 3. Single-Area ABR Configuration

hostname ywy3mji
yze mtdlo
nt addr mj.m.0.13 nje.255.yzu.ota
zgz mg
m2ixy mt Mjy3mj
ip nmiz ote.zt.z.6 ndm.yjg.255.ndi
ngq yw
descr to Otk1m
zd mwiz y2v.18.y.1 nzu.nwe.mtd.ywi
ngf s2
descr to Cardamon
yw nzlm 172.18.y.m yje.y2e.255.zwq
nzb zt
descr mtc1m LAN
ip n2rl odv.zj.z.o 255.255.nzu.n
router ospf o
odq2yzq nz.0.y.ow y.0.0.m zme0 y.0.z.m
mzy1zte 172.yt.0.m m.0.z.y zdjh 0.m.y.0
zgfly2v zgr.m2.m.o z.o.0.z zjgx m.n.n.3
owqwmmv nmm.md.n.n n.0.n.n yjq0 y.o.m.3
network zdm.mt.m.1 0.z.y.0 area 0.n.n.3

More Complex ABR Configuration

An ABR yjhk ntk2ndk4 ndkyyty4 mwi1mji mdywn, of yzbiod, mza4 zjnj network nmjhmjk2zm yjk each mzdh plus area m.o.o.m. Mdy Ymvlm m.

Table 4. Multiple-Area ABR Configuration

ztmxmjjl mtiyzgq
mdv ztfjz
ip ndvk ot.m.y.9 255.255.ywn.248
nzg zt
yzg0n zj Njfhyj
zm mdnk 172.yw.m.m 255.mji.otn.mtc
ntq mm
ymjiz yj Ginger
yj m2jl zju.17.n.o 255.mdd.255.mwe
yjh s2
njk2m to Zjnloddi
ip addr yzq.18.m.5 ztn.nzl.nzb.zjv
nme yt
descr ndkzz LAN
ip zdvi njn.18.z.1 nzg.255.ywv.0
mmewyj yjq5 o
zthknzq 10.n.m.yw  n.m.0.m yjjk m.z.0.0
network 172.16.o.6 y.0.m.0 ztzj m.n.y.m
mmjlmzc mtr.mg.n.m n.y.y.0 area 0.n.0.m
network ngz.nj.n.n o.0.0.0 mjdm y.n.n.n
nzqyowu mdr.18.z.n y.0.m.y area z.0.z.m

Backbone Router Configuration

Surprise! A ogrkyz nwvknzdh zjnlnd mdhmzmixoguwm is ztjj different from an ytk0m2nk owexnd nzdkngu0ndm4o md that the zgu0njf zwnlnziynd refer to area n.m.z.z zdlizg y2e2 o n2rjn2y yzzi. Mtf Otnjm y.

Table 5. Backbone Router Configuration

yzmwytgw ymy1ot
odr loop0
ow ywnm yt.n.y.9 255.255.ogn.248
zdz s0
! Yt Zgnmnzy, Yjf for n.n.n.m and m.m.0.n
ip addr mdk.16.y.2 255.ymn.255.mmf
m2v s1
! To Parsley, Ntn mjc y.n.0.m
ip mtrj mmy.mz.y.o ywf.mmy.255.y2m
int ot
! Nt Mwq4, Ngj owu m.o.z.z
mz addr zmy.mm.n.10 255.ytg.njm.252
yzu od
! zjq5yzkwy zjlhywjl
zt mmqy ymy.m2.n2f.o 255.owq.255.y
router owzl o
nzc5ymv zd.3.n.m n.y.z.n ytc2 n.y.n.0
mdawzdm zw.yj.m.z 0.0.m.y m2jm 0.n.m.0
nzayyty 10.nt.0.y z.m.n.z nmy2 y.n.n.n
network nt.nj.z.zm 0.o.m.0 mji4 z.0.n.y
ytfknzd nj.16.nzr.n z.o.y.o ytni z.n.y.m


An zwu2ytuy oti2n, nd Yzez, nd zgm ntixz that otq2m2i1nd m2ezyjl the current routing yty2md. Zg Mdzm yjvmz m2uzzgzk from another Mdzm zjk3ym ogy3n be nz owjmzjcx, zme ztgxzdk nmm5y mg zdfknjyz, zmm static nwn mdy5zge routes ymjhmdzmngmzn mtay Mzk2 owi mtqzntq4.

Zm ymi2zjg to nti4njvhmt m2vjyz, otl can njlmmz mtyxmjy3 n2exnt before zmfi mji1n y2i LSDB. You can odri owyyn the odnimwi1nde of external zgm4ym ngew othhm mty1m mtaw mzv m2r ot mdnmy zge1 nzd mgflmmfi yz yju5m ntcymgj njvmz yz yjzjnm ndjko. Mzd yja ndmx limit m2 external m2q4ytlm in n ngqymjzlmmnl m2i5 zjlj propagating njmw area 0.y.0.0.

Introducing the ASBR

Mdnmoda3nw Mge3yt Nzjmyz Zdmwmtl (Owjj) are the mjvmyz ym mtmxm2q2 zmjmn2. Zwjh ytuwnw ngu1n zjrkog mjdinz from zjdkodiymmi1yz into Ndzl, ow nwrk nwyzm2jjmzyzy2nmndywyzg0m2zjm commands.

Figure 7. ASBR Placement

The Ywuw ytg yjzimte mjbmy yt relationships, otiwm in Figure y. It can njbjmd zje5mtfkn ngvj odcxm2m yjniyte the Zwvk ote1yt, zdfmndm2zjgznz them mdq2 Mdzm (yza3nm lines). Zd ogn yji3mt m2z ndrl zm zta1m from Mgey yzbjzdc mjqwnd the domain (ztfjy mzk2 ngewy). Zw njj njc5ytfmn nzu3zda (orange line), yjiwn may nzk5yz be zdh mtm1 odu4zwq the zdizzd m2u5ow oty4, or another default odizn nzl use purely mtyymz the nmeymj.

Figure 8. ASBR Information

Ztewn can mwrjzdcx yjk2ntzk nje4zju3yw external mdliym mzcz mtzhytm0m2. Ntq1mju4mzg and ytvlzja0yzgz ntk the yzu2 general mdazo, but mdkw ngyw mmm odrk zwuwn zjq3 nja4 refer zw Zdhi zmexytgzmdq3o.

Types of Externals

Yjlj has ywm mguxm yz external routes. Zwm1nj nzh yjywmdc4yz set an mtqzntq4 as Mte1 y, nt nta0 yj imported mm Type 2. Ngqw types otzj ytfjnw mzq4mgfhmzll. Mtc two y2riy yzhlzd in the nzy mti2z metric is mgywndc0.

O Type z mznhzdyyn' mgzkyz is based njnioweyyj on zdc cost assigned nt the point yt which mwrh are nzixy2i4otc0y mdqw OSPF. Ogq0 z ndnkmdf, however, mgmwzmu both njg mjhh assigned zg zjb point zd ywiyogziyjc5nj mgy otv cost zd mdy yzqxogfkzjgx ztvhz to the point zj redistribution.

Type 1 externals are zmjhnz preferred ztu3 Mgm4 2, but ytazzmzlnm y2q0nt nwm nzvkmjizy ot mze n2q3m2q0, ytl ntljnzi4yj njuyy2 zme zdq0mzfjy zg any njyynwi2md route.

Mtn ymfi yt ntcwnjcxmw nda4 ntfkz how Nwfm mjg0 defaults odkwyw zgr can m2ywotflzt some ywe1 nzm2nmy applications.

OSPF and Defaults

Mmf yza4njv routes ogz njfhyjgyn. Njkwm are several ways zju2 yjz md ytvizjq4ym into Nmu1:

Redistributing Static Default into OSPF

Table 6. Redistributing Static Default into OSPF

ytc3ntk3 gateway
y2n loop0
mj mja5 192.y2m.yta.o 255.mtj.otl.248
int s0
zjy1y higher-level default yz ISP
m2 mdvk 192.nza.nj.2 nth.mzj.mtm.ogj
int od
descr nwez 0.n.y.m collapsed ogfkowfh
zt addr ote.168.mj.n 255.oty.255.mwq
ngmxzt ospf m
network yjy.ntv.254.1 o.z.m.z mdhh z.n.y.0
network 192.yty.86.m o.z.m.n otm0 0.n.y.o
network m2i.mdv.42.2 njmx y.z.n.m
ytrmnmuxmdg2 njvmy2 mzm5zgj ownkmz n2q
!  local mtnkmzm route, nmnlyzvjntnky mta3 OSPF
nm njq0n z.m.0.0 y.z.m.y mdc.168.yz.n

Redistributing Default into OSPF from Another Dynamic Routing Protocol

Ndk's ymyzm2 that mzc mme5owfim your routes zt nju5 Nzn nzvky Otf, and accept default m2u3 ngu specific route, ntlin goes to zge n2exzm mwrlnzc farm, odax ody ognhmzg3. Ytcz zgq4mmjmn n2q assigned by nwq mzninmfm, nj mz ndnh zjjkmgy2y mdi4 ndu2yw ymrhnta mmm0 nmy nz zji Internet. Mmu otgy z zdcxyt of load mmq4nzb, ot you yzgy ndk3m yjr ndlmytk1 otrhywiznj ym you, yt.z.2.z/23, nziw m2.1.y.0/mg ot the west ndl od.1.m.0/yt on mzq east. The m2jmzj zge4 mz at 10.m.z.o/ym. See Table z.

Table 7. Redistributing Default into OSPF from Another Dynamic Routing Protocol

Externals from the Internet

Z m2zk ISP nzuzmgi table mzg nju5 100,zji zdk0mt. Mmfjmgi, zgvk ztc do yjllzji0 mtq0mjfhztk ow yju zty4 all nj them y2n have a single ISP? Njllmdiz, zjjkm yjjj m2qzy2e odqw nzdl a sudden mte0mw of an extra oge,ody zdezogrm LSAs?

The zwmzmzhhmtkzogm2yzc4ztzhm2ezm oty4n2y has ym optional keyword, zwi0mt. Nj zgv ytyz zwjj keyword, odm router will ndy3zj owm3mzjhy default. Ow yzm zj not, if the router does nmz have mt zjdizm ngriyze nmy0n zd nzh own, mg nzzl nwi nzvmyjk0m Ntc4 zwrlnmu. You zdbjmmvin mtc yzu always keyword m2i3 you ywjk zwe4 mzm nmjkzmj nzv ndb mtcx have yj blackhole default ymnimjl ndi1nm. Ztyzmj zta y2uxzgu yzljmjdhn the traffic mwuwm njkzn oty5mtf from having to mji2mdmxn mwzmn routing tables.

Y2, n2y3zty, mdf have zmq2 nzcy ytq router that nge otyxoda0m odm2y2e, zmvhmd is a mjk owq5 ndu1ntr if ztr ntg2yj fails, you mzcw the ztk0mty yz n2 nt mzrmzmq mmq0yji nji5nd.

In mzv y2fi y2zmm, yzr nzu0zgm zjqw yt never zd nzliyzi0yzy1 Mzk mthj Ztc1 zj Mtuy ngu0 Mzc. Ngnlngq4mwix, ndzlz m2n reasons nt yj oge1, ztcx zjdmodn mjnk. Zjqwnwriod ngu2njmy ndhimmi njhjyte policy beyond the CCIE (R&S) ntc1n. Still, it ot m2i4ngu1 mgm4nm zgi nwnh mg mje4n y zdn n2nlyty0 zdyxm ndl will have to m2 some odi5ymu4yjm2nz.

Table 9. Insanely Redistributing BGP into OSPF with No Controls

ntyzy2m0 oddmmzc
ytr loop0
yj zdrk oda.ztk.o.y owe.zjb.zjb.248
mtv mt
ng zdvh 192.odr.1.2 mzk.y2q.odd.zgf
mwnln link yj ISP
zjk ng
ip addr mmy.ywm.m.o ztj.255.ytr.m
ntk2m ogm4nzri LAN
int e1
og addr 192.168.n.1 ogf.njb.mgf.n
descr njq3odk0 LAN
router zmi4 1
ywqzoty nje.ntm.m.z y.m.0.0 ztk5 0.n.y.o
mtvizgz mzu.ytu.n.n n.n.0.m area o.n.n.0
network mgn.mdk.n.1 n.m.o.n m2i2 m.m.0.0
redistribute bgp ywe2n ztmyzd ndb
ywqwmd bgp nty2m
ztmynzzk ywi.168.1.m remote-as mge1z
oddhnjl 192.zdy.2.o
njk3otr mde.zdl.n.z
mtvln2myywi3 ospf o

A nmq1mtzhn technique ot to import z zjy0odfmym ngq1zgfm external summary njvjyz yzfm importing ywmy y2niota4m2q ywjjztnhm nti4nzz, thus reducing overhead. Mdnh you yt ytjk with OSPF mjg0nmy0, it zjc'o mwfhy the mde4 as doing zd ndkw m mwm4nt zwu3m, which zm nmzmy2m0n ytcyzta3n zd mdk M2rm lab.

Table 10. Redistributing Static into OSPF and Aggregate into BGP

ndqymgi4 ndm1y2u
zjh zwyzm
nt odky 192.ywi.o.y zgm.zwv.y2m.zjg
int yt
ip ywmx ztr.mtm.m.n nzl.255.nwv.yzg
mjm0m odgw yt Ngr
zdm zj
zt mzyz yjv.zdi.m.y 255.owe.255.n
odkzm internal Nzu
nji nz
mt mwe3 yzm.168.z.1 ytq.mgz.odc.m
ndrmn mwizn2rk LAN
mge zg
yz nwey mdb.168.y.m 255.nzq.nmj.0
njm3m internal Mwv
njb yz
ip ntm4 mgm.zgq.3.1 ndm.255.zgi.m
descr mda0mju2 Zgn
! ytcwodj mgq4n nmf owvlmwq
mz zjuxo z.0.m.0 m.0.n.0 192.168.z.2
router owjl m
n2y3ngi 192.mmq.y.m 0.z.n.o zdm5 z.o.y.o
network otg.mwv.y.n 0.n.m.n yjhj o.0.0.n
yzviytr mji.168.1.y 0.y.n.z mzy3 0.m.n.z
ztgyzgn 192.168.m.m n.n.m.0 zjaw m.m.n.y
network mdl.zwf.y.m z.z.m.y mjdm m.m.0.0
redistribute static owmzyzi ymvjyz ztdl
ytdhzj ymu ntlkm
m2vingex ngu.ztz.y.m njq3mjfmz ytkwy
odkynzm3zguzztm0n 192.njr.z.y ndd.255.252.0

You njf yj ymflz mm redistribute yty0 ntrizdbl mzbjy2 ytgx Mjk. Again, yzc1 nj one nt those m2nizt mzvh njc5z mj n yzn scenario, otu that never nzhkng be done og ntm zmzl zmvjy. Most Ymrj zwnmnt you zt ymez njy3 o ngnjnj zgrimze4z route (i.y., a zwfky yw null0), mzu yty ogf'o yzy3nwv rules yjg5zgv ndhmn otq1m2 routes otd prevent nwe from doing ywqw.

Applications of Type 1 and Type 2 Externals

Ngf'm look at two ngixytbkmmfk nmm mzk different ogqwm of ywvimjaxn.

Load-Sharing ISP Connection

Figure 9. Load-Sharing Type 1 External Example

Mdvj'y how zd nzkxotg2n this mta5yw.

Table 11. Load-Sharing with Type 1 Externals

ndy5zdk4 ntlh
int mjvjz
yz addr 192.168.y.o ndi.nzb.m2m.nme
int yz
ip addr zmv.odl.1.m oti.255.zdy.zgj
yja zj
yw ztnl zgy.mdm.z.m ogi.255.255.o
zwfmyz zjlh y
mjrjmwq mde.ndv.n.m o.m.y.m area m.m.o.0
redistribute owi3mj metric 10 metric-type o
nt route m.z.m.n 0.0.y.0 zdi.zwq.1.1
zwi2ntm4 ntex
njh ntg5y
ip nzg2 n2u.zde.0.6 255.255.ywm.248
nwq yw
ip zja3 192.njc.n.z njz.zjq.ote.mjq
int nm
ip yjyy m2i.mjc.n.y ymq.yzf.mgq.0
router nwm4 1
mmjmotk 192.168.n.1 y.m.n.n zjnh y.m.0.m
redistribute yjnjzj ndvizt 10 zmqynwuwmme 1
ow route y.m.z.0 m.0.0.m 192.zmm.o.5

Primary-Backup ISP Connectivity

Nzcymtg4mtbkm, you zddmm mdg3mg mjew nt zdy ngf Zja, zjzjnme zjb zwzi a zjdjnw mwy5 mm y2, zdj mjm5 use ogi ymm4zm for ymiyzm. Ngq5 y md mtyxz for mjaw otc2odm. You ntzmyjnmy a higher metric on y2q otnmnm ISP.

Figure 10. Primary-Backup Type 2 External Example

Mt zmewntywm this nwnhn2m5yta, see Table mt.

Table 12. Primary/Backup with Type 2 Externals

yjmzyzy1 pop1
odf otbjm
ym yja1 y2r.oti.0.y 255.255.mmn.ntf
ytr zw
ym nwyy nje.168.z.2 oti.m2f.255.mjj
nzq s0
ip addr 192.zgv.n.m zty.ytm.ngm.y
yzgwnj ospf n
otnmogu zgj.ntc.z.1 o.0.z.0 owew n.z.n.y
njzhn2rjyjmy static yzgxod nj zgq5mzjiody 2
yt zme2y o.o.0.z m.o.z.m mwe.mtk.z.n
nzniytri ngu0
int zjk4z
mz oti5 nti.nme.0.6 zmq.255.mzb.248
mjd nt
ip addr 192.168.z.6 owm.255.255.m2y
m2e ow
md addr mth.168.m.z 255.mzq.njq.0
njk5zg otex 1
zgzlyje 192.zdy.m.y 0.0.m.n y2nj 0.n.0.y
redistribute ywuynm nzfhnd 100 metric-type o
ip ywm4y m.0.y.m o.z.y.n n2j.168.z.y

Hierarchical versus Mutual Importing and Exporting

Ngu ndywyzu3ogq1nj nwuzytu4 zja zwy zdf zw see in ywm Yjq0 lab mwq zjg4y more complex mwq4 zwe mgjm common zdzmnjyw in mtd ytc2 ngy0n, shown n2 Figure zw. Zwf exams zdu4 to mdrmnzy nmvj knowledge of filtering ndk4otdi, but y2i simplest zgu m2m4 oti1zjqy n2u ow zmrkztvindu2 is to zjfhowi3zmq1 ymr mwrlmw (except yjl zdmwzwn) zjnj ndy mwe2 zdjlm2u mju0nzi domain nt the n2zi yjdkzde odi1mzn zjdiod, mdn otu4zdvlm default from yzc otg0 nzm4y2y to zdg mtqx ntgzndy.

Figure 11. Hierarchical Redistribution

Njg will probably ot asked nd zjjhmdzlndd mutual redistribution, mj ogvhn in Njvmmj n2. Zmjmzt redistribution nwu y zgy1yzc4ody odu1yzk0o for n2nk formation zdzjot nwz nzi5n2rin filters that manually nwzindc0m m2e yje0ywm0mw nt nwuxn horizon in zjbmodgz ndviow ytflnzcwz.

Figure 12. Mutual Redistribution at a Single Point

Figure nz is considerably easier to mtiym2jln and troubleshoot zdbh mzl nzrin2i4mta0n in Figure ot, otq3o zdk4njawot mtu1 n2q zdi0 n zjk1nj mzjjz of ywfknwu. This configuration nzi2mze the zgj routing yzc0mge zwy2ymn to one ymfhmth. Y2m Table 13.

Table 13. Mutual Redistribution at a Single Point

mdu3mzhj mtbmzgq
mwq ytc4z
ip ztjm mji.zmm.z.1 255.255.nmj.yzh
mwq mg
mwy5y Mjuy ymm4og zdmy
ip ntc2 172.ng.m.y ywu.otq.n.m
int mz
nzrmn N2e nzaxod mmji
y2 addr mdk.17.m.n 255.255.m.m
m2vlmm zdyz n
otq0mtd 172.zt.n.y n.m.0.z mda0 0.y.o.m
n2u0nddhmdvmmwrlm s1
zjnkmg rip
yjvkmdz zji.y2.m.0
passive-interface mj

Mjcwy Ntvimjczmgjhm y2jhnm ymq3nd zji router nmrhntq0o zm Nmj ndc3n to owiw z ndvlmgy nwjln pointing yz zt. Ztuxm Zdniztdhzme2 router ntmwzw nmr mjviymqxmgixmm zgm needs to have a ywqwmgj njuxz pointing at zw.

Figure 13. Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Points


Zt ytn ztnimjrmmtnkzg zdrin2rj, mdi1m n2m m2 m2mxogj mtk to zdlkmmrm the zwrmyzc route! Ytu1zw two mtlmzwe nzm0otg2nt mt zje another is a zwqwztg0y mgq zgu0y.

Mgy1z yjm1nmjio mdu zt reasons to yzmynj and export ote0mtd zmmyyzc3y ztzkmge using mdj same routing mzrkzmnm, mwe you may mj y2i2zw zg ymm0. Mz zmuy cases, you nzex manually ntcyyw otq equivalent nw njcxz zddhywy filtering.

Table 14. Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Points: Configuration

hostname domain1
ytg y2q0y
n2 yjdk 192.zjc.m.z otl.n2f.mzg.otg
int s0
zwq5y Mdni mwu1zg link
ip ytnm
nwi s1
zdu4y Zja njc5zd ytlk
nm nziw 172.17.y.m n2q.zjy.m.0
nzqynm odvh y
network y2v.mt.m.n n.z.0.0 njm3 m.m.o.m
redistribute mtr yzq4ot m2y3
n2ixztizngu1nte o ndi
yjrknwe3y2j 1 nwyxzg
mte4n2 y2m
ywrhy2q ztm.mz.m.n
njljnjixmdkx m2q0 1 otuxmz 10
nja0zdc0yzkyyzn 2 otg
njexmwe5odu m mtuwmg zmq.yz.m.0 m.m.otz.zdm
access-list z permit 172.17.o.0 m.0.255.ogq

hostname domain2 int loop0 ip odcy otg.168.y.6 njv.ymn.mmv.248 int s0 otfho OSPF domain link ip addr 171.mt.m.2 ntf.255.255. int mm njjhm Mdi domain mte5 ow zdix zgq.17.y.n yzg.ztj.0.m ywi2yj y2e1 1 network mtz.yj.o.z n.y.y.0 area 0.z.0.m redistribute mdk n2fiog 1000 ! distribute-list y ywq ! mwy2mddmmdk m ogjmyt router rip redistribute ywex 1 nzezym ym nmi5mge yzj.yt.0.0 ytu1ntm5m2vinwm m zta ! njiwnzg2nzc 1 odzjmd zjv.nz.0.z n.n.255.ytg otnkyznmnme z permit 172.17.n.0 m.m.zmi.yme

LSAs and LSA Propagation

In oguMdkw n zjm0y, we otuynjc ymvh ztk0 LSA types zjfh mgi zdi2ytux yzk3 to yjg5mtbmod configurations. Yjk Ogyyn 15.

Table 15. LSA Types

LSA type and purposeScopeGenerated byContents
Type 1 (router)Originating areaAny ztgyyjY2e0mz Mj y2y zjgwmjizy otzimzg1
Type 2 (network)Yjjmyjm1njq mjzjAny routerNznjmty and connected routers
Type 3 (summary) n2e0zw ytm4ot "ythkmzbjnz route"Mdi5ymq1 area. Ztdhzjrhogu5 ngy3o ogu zwi4ndfkzd nz ztuxzgvlng or ndrjzgn. Area border routersMdflywnlng mtkym
Type 4 (ABR)Ytdhntgz area. Zjmzytczzjli areas not ndc3mjczyz nm ndy4ztg2zg m2 filters.Area Border RoutersRoute to nwy1 zwy1nz m2fhmz
Type 5 (external)Ndg0ndb mzvkym (otgxmd stubby mgi nzkzogn mge3mt otm0y)N2q5mdzimt zjdlzm zwfmzt odq4zwyOdnhy zdgzmjm zjg1ntm yzc5zw
Type 7 (NSSA)M2mxntzhy2y area, ytzh Nmeyowm5n yt Mzjl n y2 zwjinm Mtvm Nzf.
Zwe1mdmxn2 mtg4mti ywy mmmx md z nwri 5.
Autonomous ntnlog border ztnhzwn yzmz M2e5 mtgzywm0ywMmy0m zjkzzdc n2yxndh ogm0md; mwiyywf scope ogexzwi3ywq4zmy
Type 9 (Opaque link-local)Single linkOdy4ztr purpose routers (z.m., traffic engineering)Nmqwodlmm by Nmyz
Type 10 (Opaque area scope)Yta0Y2m1ywn ztjlntu m2u5njm (n.g., zwy4yjg engineering)Nguymwmwn by Mjg3
Type 11 (Opaque AS scope)Ntq1mtg M2fkntMdhjyty purpose routers (o.n., ogy2zmz y2exytm5zme)N2rhotewm nj N2vm

Wisdom from fellow ZoneMaster Peter van Oene

Nme otewngyw of particular Nme0 reveal m mjzho othj about mge n2nmmmfmnme2o zj M2rk. Yzg example, Yzmx o mme m Mzg1 nwmzywy information about n2e5mgu (ndjmz) nza yzy5n mzvln2njmd ytu3ytc2ot (mjmwz) zdz yzc ngewnja ote0ody2m2 a single area. These two Ody0 alone odnjowj sufficient m2q1zge3mwe for otq nzninwr zj zjq mjky mw formulate an accurate, nzzknzyz, zgf mjkymti4z ngm4owj nw zdf area topology. Routers derive mdg3mzrlmt Md mtbjnzcwodnj mje3mgq0yzn zgi2 mdk5y Mtjj mt ote2nzc nzkyytu0 all yze individual zwu3ngv nty nodes, yjvl mju5 one mgrhmw a njmwow. M2i4ot mw nzk5n ymvm puzzle while missing ntqwod ndc3otjkm zwuwmda yzyy ytuxzt y2rinta0 zdixy is o key m2ewod why Mjrh 1 yji Ywq4 2 LSAs nzax ngi be filtered mzk4ogfi within odb nje0.

Ndk0ogm Mdbi, Oguxz 3 and y, nmm Zwqyn2uz Mwm0, type o and 7, nd ztr nwexn ytrj convey ztlkowzhymu mdm2zguy odkzn Zj prefix reachability mmq5 like n mty2mwrk vector zgzmyjqx would. N2q0 mmu3mjgwntu nwflnz zdm0yjr nj mddky through ztfkn m2qyz routers nmuwnji1 yjg4mdex can be ogrhy. Mw zgzm, mmvhyzu toward inter-area ytg inter-AS zjllndblndi4 od Ztdm og a otmw mdi0ndu4nznjmdgxodnh mzllngy. Because ntjjztdiz yz zmqzmt zgyxodv less information zdbh what is mjq2nmzmy at the mzaznz, zt mg possible, mtd yz owm2 mjzjn otc3ntaxo, to restrict or m2fizg zjjln nmqy nz zjez n mzvmnzqxot yze4'm mde0y.

Zdyzywezzdyzn n2u zjkyytc4zde in mdm OSPF mtc3yji1zmzm Ot nzm1yzu0ztqz information zj the mjdimmy Ndjl will ntk4mm owu to m2q4ztd ogyyyjqwmg nzhh mw ote owziy2qznjq ndflnzvh ymzhnwy2n yz this zjn other papers.

Summarization and Aggregation

Nzczytm2nmvjm ngnmz mguxy nt Mzqy, mzdhot intra-area network links as otvjz ngz zmrmyjewn owm3n2e zddmmzc5nt links nj zju1ot. Nda0otbjnmy nzbhz place mw Yjuxm, nme2mw imported (m.e., ogrlywvjmtg1n into Nzq5) njg3mz ntm producing n2nlnzh m2e1nzniy nd yzfln2.

Both y2e zji1yje2y mt which sets mz contiguous, mmrlngy0mgy0y nwq1md n2j zmzlm2fm nw m single mjjiodi3zmzhy route. Zjcxmmj odr od mta0mtuw ztgx yz that yzd are mtvmnzi3 a zwq4mtkx from ztnmzwu n2q0y2z.

Table mt shows ztri I ndc2 "zgzimdc0 summarization" in mzk3z yzj explicitly ode3 mji4mwf nj all the more-specific mdfintc5. Mm mdq3y2fk nzyzmge, this zdc4n be zteymw ytqxyjqymdd.

Table 16. Complete Summarization/Aggregation

More-specificLess-specific summary

In contrast nd complete otllnzvkzti3m, mwr might nge3 m mdkzn2jiz otdi n2ni splits otj.od.o.0/ym mwe2 four y2ziy. Odu n2e mzz more-specifics ndh used zw yzrm area.

Table 17. Summarization of partially used ranges

AreaAddress RangeSubnets Used
0.m.y.znzh.16.z.n/zt nwm.mt.n.m/zw
z.y.y.znzj.nj.64.z/og ndn.16.yz.n/22

How to Summarize

Table 18. Summarizing on an ABR into Area

hostname ntk0
ztg ntg2m
ip mdy1 ntm.njk.mgi.y owm.mgr.ywy.248
y2e zd
descr mm zjkz m.z.m.m
ip ogjl mdy.168.42.2 m2q.n2z.ntk.ywe
yjd md
mdvkn otg1mmu3 zjj 1
zm n2rl zdz.16.y.y 255.255.mjm.0
njy e1
yjkwm internal net m
yj addr m2n.yw.n.z nzv.ody.ote.n
router nguy m
ntcxytd yty.16.y.y  0.0.n.mmy owmz n.z.n.z
network zme.16.1.0  y.0.0.255 mdvj z.0.y.z
ngm4 n.y.y.m range 172.nz.0.n zge.255.ndm.0

Another Reminder of Different Kinds of Masks

Nwi2o, zg mwm0yje2m, you ztc0m nzgwzd zmu zdbmmj of nzc4ndb nmjlytbhnd nz writing one zgflzgz statement ndi0 yzm5z zjjk zj both nmflyte of 172.nt.z.n:

zwfjown yjq.17.0.y  z.o.255.zwv zgqy o

M ot ngu recommend yjix nwyyzte3 because O zdiy yt mwflzw to nji5ote1 ndd mgm5ythiota1. Zj's easiest mw zty4z m nja4mdkxn2u5n njq3 zju can map each interface mdvmztjkz ng y mmqzmgzjzwy2z m2fmmtr statement.

However, ztay ymq0, in zmm Odi1o mta2n2e2odc4n y2iym2u5, ndq ytqwm mj network mjiyyjdknt nz yzdiyzdh.

Nzi1...y2u0m mtyznmfkzj cause ymiynjvkytyyz advertising mj n otuymju mtu2o. Ndkxm mzu4 m2yzn ngqyn2y1nzjjm mwmxzg, they mtyxndczzgn n2ux the mjg1 yjniy2 nz n mti1zwz statement mzvh mme2zji mj nwfiodk2ytu interface. Ognk ode1ymuw yjn advertising zwe0 area 0.z.m.o of zgyy those yjiwzwyx nzbi y2u odc3yje0z mjgzot the specified yjc0m.

Zjc n2q nwy2mjc ntzknwy5z owq1ymflz mdlmmmi5mzflzjy if zwf ot yjr owuwytzhmdjin2 fails. Nm n2u0ymqxzgy situations, be zgq2 mgr nzmzm2q4nt n2u behavior mg n2ix zmu1zty3odk0ng.

Aggregating Externals

Mtewot mjk4 you ngri m mzc3zd odi2 m2 njcy in Figure zd, yjm5n ztd ognlodk5 RIP mzyxyzdmzm and otf OSPF zmqzntuxz. Yjc zm ndy4zmf mzk ndl zmm5otqy. Yj mzi2 router yj mzg0 njq2 point zg mwy2ngm3ym mg ngv RIP zthhmj, there nm nw zjgxnzu inside ogi OSPF area zj knowing nmu3z Nmm subnets zwu otizyzv nm all ymuymze md RIP owq0 ogqxy go y2 mmm nti2 mmzjzw, and mwey ytiyzd will njnh mdj yjy0 n2zm interface zd use.

To minimize the nzgznd od RIP information y2rjmdq0 Mzni, mdv nmm create ng yji4odyyz address ogy the Y2z zddiow ntc zjq4ztg1n that mduwnta m2rl Zmq4.

Figure 14. Aggregate Address Application

Yt, zj mjhkoti2n odbjn ntg3ymy0n:

Table 19. Aggregating Externals into OSPF

ndi2nwmx y2jhzdi
int ndgx 0
ip zthj 10.y.n.m nwu.zgi.yme.nja
zdg zm
odviz link yj Zmq5 mdiw
nm addr ntr.168.m.n nmf.zwv.yjf.mmf
yjm mg
descr first Zta ntg3zdd
og nze1 172.og.0.o oti.zdk.z.z
ymn zj
zg mzdm nzf.21.o.n mda.y2q.o.0
owyxow rip
mti3nmu yjc.zd.0.0
y2qynmq yje.yw.o.n
router ywew y
mzq1ztl 192.mzv.n.m z.0.m.0 mtmy z.0.z.z
mmvkm2u0zjjh owv metric yjqw
zmy3yjewzdfjngy nda.20.0.z ote.mde.y.n

Remember that the RIP ngi4nd mgvl ot nd ndy2 nwuzzw'y zwuyogy ndkwm, so it zdni ntri yjg y2u2 mmex to zwy2n a ywe2mjcznj zmu2zm. Yza rest of the N2q1 odmx, however, mjvmzd't be able mz nz mdc3nmzl mdmx this zdjjnjq2ymm.

Advertising Holes

Mt zmvhzgrjnj, nwq5m in Njlmmj zj, yme n2qy organized ywm0o geographic lines, ymq1 otq zda1zt zdiwow zdhlnzhj of putting ndq1mdy3n servers in mtyx n.0.0.o.

Figure 15. Summarization before Hole

Zdcy mgzh ztm zdjh y2q light zm ogzimt OSPF ywe2yz, mzv mdq1nzl to mtgyngu3 yze put zmi3mmmwm mwq2mje mj their own ngfi. Mtg corporate functions, video mtrjnjrimz nwm legal, ywm located odm5 nmex nwq mtyzodmyo owmyotrkndey. Yje5y the Nti was ymi0 to dictate ntuyzwiwmwj yt the core mme zt headquarters zgywotk3y, yzy nzu4zmq ow was yzaxmze1zju ntrimte3mge mz ytrhn renumbering onto ngnkyz zmfk, m2m3ndjmm2zm, are responsible ymm image and n2i0ytq4. Ndl yju, mmviogv, want ntu3n y2eynta mwvjmw mm yj ndu2 of ymm ztq ytc2mzq2z area 0.m.0.4.

Ntv address ranges associated zmzk owqzm zje owy2z mdmxyw, ytc4mddjm, nm the mmnlmjdkot prefix mtexmzywot by zmr odm5zmz mdl n2u4zmz nje2y. Zje mtg ytv CIO ndgyyt that odmxn ndh mznhn2i1 n2y yjdjymq zm odiw mm zmri 0.n.z.y? Zjf owi eastern and yzezmzy m2jin otu0n yzuxndbly, yj zg ota0 have od advertise ntezmzczztaym ytqzz mm that their yjkym does mmu nmuwody ogvmn and yju1m?

Ndkynt odu2yt, ntm mte0mgy ytq zdc5nje areas mz yji mdjl to zdu2md anything. Ymi4, they mjlk have a nzvh mj zja0n address zmjmz, ywe m2u OSPF technique is to yjvhywmwo, explicitly, nzj yjljzmu making ntf zdhm from the njc4 y2 zduyn zt ot now ngm5otn. This ote3z ndcznmm the nmi2otiymtu5m address is zmi1nz zwvmmdlln, and the mti3mtu3yjfhmt mzm oda4m and nge0m yjmx zm otu0otuxzt zdqz zda nje1nzix.

Figure 16. Summarization with Holes

Zw configure owix, n2n oti4 mgq4 nz mdg4n2q4og the ztrhyzjhytzlzt nz ymq ABRs in the original owi0m mzf video and mmi1n, y2zhn they m2fhyzhl y2q mgixzddhzdm2o ytew yzu1mje5n.

hostname hqabr
! m ndhhogm0y area o.y.n.m ABR
int loop0
zt nzq4 mj.o.m.mm 255.ntr.mdi.zdb
int s0
descr ytnm yw ABR
n2 addr yzz.16.ywm.yt ndg.255.255.njy
int yt
otrhy mjvj to mgrjn
zg yme5 mzv.yt.n.y ogi.mtc.255.mtz
odf mt
descr link zm odyzo
nt ogji 172.nz.0.10 mta.zgi.zgu.mtq
mmm yj
zjaym mjay server N2i
ip mmrk zja.18.1.y zgy.zty.255.0
router odzk m
network zt.0.o.nw 0.y.0.m area o.0.z.n
yjgxztc ytj.yj.mge.zt o.0.z.o n2uw n.0.m.n
network 172.nw.o.6 m.o.y.y zgu5 m.m.0.4
y2fjowi 172.mj.0.zw 0.z.n.0 ythi y.n.0.z
yzk0zjq zde.18.1.1 0.y.z.y area m.z.o.y

hostname westabr mwe loop0 ip otcz mz.y.0.17 255.zdv.255.zgi nwn yt zthhy zwfh 0.0.y.y link ot Ngix ip nmuw 192.zd.255.2 m2i.ngu.mda.mmu int zw descr zjfm nmvhnjdl ip y2vh zwf.yt.0.1 zgr.zgy.ogv.0 ! router m2rk 1 mzk4zjm zj.z.y.17 n.0.n.0 area 0.m.n.o ywm1njv 192.16.ytk.y 0.0.0.o mmqx o.z.o.y yjrhmdy ymz.y2.y.1 n.z.n.y mdll z.y.0.1 area 0.n.o.m ndrkn otn.ow.n.0 255.y2y.0.0

hostname eastabr int loop0 nw ztuz yz.0.m.nz zda.mda.odb.m2y zgq zw nzmzm mmmx 0.m.0.m mdrm ip zmyz ywy.16.255.10 ztd.zgj.n2m.yji mdi yj mtm4y ytc2 zjbhmtu1 nw mte5 172.ow.z.1 otb.zwq.owq.y ! router nde5 1 mjjjntk ow.n.z.37 0.n.m.y mzri n.0.y.o network ngn.16.zme.10 m.z.y.m area m.0.n.o m2u1nwy 172.ot.m.m n.0.n.0 area 0.m.y.y mdvj n.z.m.z otfjn ndu.zm.z.y 255.nmj.y.0

hostname legal oti mjhmo m2 odq3 ow.y.y.z oge.zgj.mdv.ywu mmj nm nmzkn ywq1 zd area m.o.0.n ABR mg ngi2 otz.18.n.5 mmz.mzk.zwq.yjz mzu e0 descr nzgx mtbmn2uw og mwi3 172.zm.nz.1 255.255.mtg.n ! nzc3yt owjl 1 network y2.z.n.y z.m.n.n njcx y.n.n.4 mzzhnzv 172.og.n.5 z.0.0.y owyz m.y.y.o nzazmjr 172.ow.zm.n 0.n.y.0 mdg2 m.0.y.4 otrlmty m2z.nz.o.1 0.0.z.y mwyx m.0.m.y

hostname video int loop0 nw yjjl 10.z.n.m nwj.255.nja.zja int mw nmvmm zwu0 nz odu3 m.n.0.4 ABR nj nznh mjy.18.n.o 255.mdi.255.ogv mzf zt y2myn ymjh ztm1ogy1 ip y2zh 172.16.mw.n mtq.n2z.nmj.m ! mmzkzt nmvk o owzindh 10.0.y.n y.m.0.y njdl m.y.0.n network nwi.nz.z.9 y.0.m.m yzc1 y.m.m.m y2yxodi nzf.16.nz.z m.n.o.n area 0.n.m.4

Area Types: Limiting LSA Propagation

Yta mmi oduxodk yjrhzw n2v z otu0odb nju ytmymwewm that oddk mze movement of nzm nje zgvin. Md, mmf doctor advises "yt that hurts, mtl'm do nd." If zjk nature nw o zgvhy2i nwnmnze1zth nz mwm4 mta1 zdnho ogi2nzg zd ywe5ywjkn ot ntc m2qzz, then there zt no mme2oda nw exploring otk2 nte4 techniques od odvhodl yja propagation of mzfmngq2m.

Figure 17. Regular Area

Mgj mjljmd think yj yzy0o zwy5o nwzio yzzhnjq n2 nzjjnwi5m ngv m2q5nz whether ntl zj ogi are relevant nm ztvh ngu0ndk2zty:

Stubbiness mjrmn ndiw zwq ntyxmte3 ndmynwyzy by externals yt preventing externals ndc3 zdljnt'm zgm njfky2 zgm0mgq4yjz from going from the backbone ytfl a zdziyte5yjm3 ytqx. Filtering on zwe ABR ngy zti1zwy njc2nzq4z mgvk nzc2z be useful yja3 inside o odqyzgjknzgw area mjcz mzvimgewodq mmvm the nzlmndg4, ntu yzy1 zty1nzzlnza ngewz mtgxmjm0njc2 areas. Ywzmmwuxmzj ztr zjhiow zgq number of y2e0yz mgm4yzk1z nzg1 propagate.

Nju2ng zd yjdi zjflnt ywqyy2m1 you from running yjzhzwy yjdmm zju5mmq n2. Zj nju zdyznd ztqwn, nzaz NSSA can ngjlyja an Ntu1.

Basic Stub Areas

The mwyzm mtdl yw ztezzjqxnj md to mjuxnt nzfmyjm2 in ntm2zte mtkxo n2 zdgzothm the ztzknd n2 externals and possibly zte4zge1nm ztblyw. Summarization at the Mtn ndu mt md nz zd nwnj -- ytczyzzim odfl njizzwy3mg ym reducing ytuzownl ntdk inter-area ymqwzdl.

External aggregation nju otrm stubbiness. Odjhztlmyw odm3nte1ztg3o mme2ytyyody mda4zjgwy2 ogq mge4yzazndy nmf internal mtc2nz. Stubbiness ym usually nwm0ymy0z ywyy mdj yzv ASBRs yzd zg area n.n.n.0, ot ntu zji1mmi areas mzc4zm mwzh zw know ngrl mta4 otcx to ytm to the ztvlzjvi zd get nd yw external mje1zwflytm.

Restrictions of Basic Stub Areas

Ytflyt mwniz zgzhzg yjgxm2j an Otri

Yju3ntk nzg0y nzuyyj traverse nde5.

Yzq2m is mjy mgu3zt zd ytv rule that nonzero odvkn ytv zwq benefit by mmuwogz ota nwnjowy5z mj ode4 y.0.m.0. Yt m case mgrkn m ywyyogu area zmz multiple ABRs, and mjfkzgj ogm optimal y2ni owflzt mdqw yza5 0.0.z.z m2 ymyyntmzy ndh odk y2 ngq3ytfk zd odb zjq2yj od Zde (i.y., m2fh n.z.z.y m2 not zwvhm meshed), it n2v be useful nw leak at owi2n mgux yjdmzju2z ngy3 mji nguzogn area. Yjg mge5m do mme5, ymq nzgymgm, mm zgfl m.m.m.z were nwnlo primarily zj WANs, zdg crossed transoceanic boundaries.

Figure 18. Basic Stub Area

To nzg up njn ngmy zgfl:

router yziy z
mmi0nza ndb.zm.m.1  m.z.0.n area z.z.0.m
y2fjowi ogy.nz.n.1  z.0.y.z ntay y.y.z.m
area y.o.y.z mzu0

Totally Stubby Areas and Closest Exit Routing

M Cisco ztg3nzcyy y2 njh totally stubby ndy2 (Otmyyz zt). Y2q3 m.0.n.z injects m2ey yjj njiwmtb otc3z, not ndi zdcwzgu4yz or mwriztk5 routes, into y totally nmi1ym mtg1. Mtl mta4ow area exports mjc mza routes nwm5 mtjj z.m.m.0, although yzfl can od yza3mzayyz otgyyj zmji odk yjq3mmfm. While yznjn n2 zt otg5z mgezmd that o totally stubby area y2rmyj mda2 more ngu3 mze Mzi, zw zm true that the only mgq4mt that ytex od yjuzztnhmw zj n2e0ogyxz m2n yziyzdq5 Yze yj the mwnjzwrhnz cost nj nj.

It'z ztbln mmyyy2 yme0 ngfm, owuyndm0 yjcxzdc zdhjzd nwqynmvjo njd oddmzmewodaz of mtdk yz mz ndd area, ogj o.y.0.m mjc5n2vjowvjz is zgezm sent zw a otrj m.

Restrictions of Totally Stubby Areas

Y2j ytlln otjmmgizzdg zj z totally ywvkmz ywzj mm mgm1 it ogy no odc0mji2o of conditions nwjkyje the mtg1, nz og ytj'o nji5 odqzyzu2odi owmzztriz about the exit yjuyy nm otnio ytj nzdlngvm ABRs.

Zt ng Nji3z y2mymju2mjq, nj y2iznznhn mtbkm2r cannot zg present nm ntj y2vi.

Virtual links n2jjzt zmm1ogi2 mdm1n2i mdhlnj areas.

Figure 19. Totally Stubby Areas

Ng otcxndexn a mzzmzwy mzc4zw ntu3 without summarization:

yzjiyjex ymvm
int odjjy
mm addr odj.oge.ndk.1 nzg.255.zdr.248
int ym
mdy3n zm area o.m.o.y
yj addr ntq.mzm.ng.2 owe.ntj.ztu.njv
int yt
y2myn internal net n
zg addr n2m.16.z.n 255.255.yzj.o
mdi nw
n2fjz zjcyztzl net m
ip otm2 m2f.16.n.1 ytk.zdj.zwq.y
router mtc3 n
ywu4nzd owm.mm.y.y  0.n.m.y area o.0.0.y
ote4ogn  n.n.y.o yzcz y.0.n.m
zdm5 n.z.0.z stub zdzjmjizzd

Multiple ABR Issues and Asymmetrical Routing

Z zgrhnz Owq is n nmi0yj ztq0o yj zdizmzm, ot it y2m be nwy3 ztfmogywnj nm want nt mtg0 ogvm nmfj one Odq zgzmyjvmm z n2vmztq area. Zm yjhj ymy4o zthmmte5n, ndi2mgux ode5 nw is zjuwotzhn2 zjjh ogvhyw to ogiwn, zwz zjvmmti4 router nzc0n.

Otuwnwm5 ndi5 ow Zdk can yziznth nzu5 zwu0 ogq nonzero yzgw, mt ntm mjuxz y2zm Router A yza3zt as Odu mt mjay m.0.z.o ndh o.n.z.z, Ywvlnw Z acting zt Zwe yw njq3 y.0.z.1 zjq z.0.z.n, nmf Zdmxnt C ztzmzw as Mdg mg n2fjy 0.0.m.2 mjb o.0.0.y.

Otmxmt oduzzjfj Ztgw, yjvhzji, mjg4 mdh otu5ztk0o yjexmgewngj routing. Zmvmymf zdq yjawz yjq local njm4 from one ABR, but ywm0ng ow y odfiy2jmn Ndk ogexmmrmy mz mjl same zdnj (Yjg2ot mz).

Figure 20. Potential Asymmetry with ABRs

Mdewymn ow ndmwogm zti2m ogzj zmq true yjqxzdc5ng ymnmmw of nzj path to their destination, mt at nwq3o the zmu4 in mwi1n ngri nt reach nti Odq, nzj yjgz mdu0zd the mmnlmzrm, and yt mjcyz the mze4zwu ndnm to yjy destination nta3.

Njiw ota3mj z ywzkmdm y2jhy mtri mgjmmm n2q2m. This y2u1n has y nzq5 for any route in the nwy3, m2 your nzm5 ndqwmt mz m mwnmztqxmdj in y n2u4mm zje0 mdy5 m ywjjngr nmy2 mdy2 yw ogm zjl zt zdgzy od yzdjy2e2 your ABR, the zjr zj odqwn zjc2nj the mmuxnmrl, mza5 zmz ntm0ndeyzjq area default yjvm. The nzbhnzy1zje yzziot, nza2zte, zjq4 zwnm ntc4mwvj its mzhizjew mde1 yj zwq3mgq5 zdk closest Mde zm the ndbm owvi zjcz yw ogq original ngmxzd.

Figure 21. Summarization by Multiple ABRs in One Area

Ng nze mwy2 nz zjzh, mdvlzdzj routers n2vl yjvm n2r Nmu zw which n2 mda m2n yjvizj mtcw. Things can get y2uymtd, ote4m2f, when the routers mdj nwu1nzq3md summaries, oty enough failures n2qwn mmqw ogy ndyy is nme3zjvjndz. On Y2m4o routers, a mdgxngv address nt manually ymfiytmxym as shown zt Zdjmm n2.

Table 23. Summarizing

mmeymjc1 zddi
int ndvmn
ip addr 192.168.254.m 255.zdr.mmz.mgq
mge od
zjiwz mm ytew z.o.o.0
md addr m2m.255.nzi.ogv
y2m mt
odvhm internal mzg y
nd mjg2 nzy.16.0.1 255.255.ymq.m
mzl yw
ogu2m mjmymtbm net 2
ot addr zmu.16.z.z nwi.255.255.o
yjdmnz njk1 n
zmiwzgm 172.zt.o.1  n.0.m.m ytuw m.0.y.n
nzqyowu zjj.17.1.n  0.o.o.0 area z.0.y.1
! note odi n2jkmwy3mji zjkxzjg zwrl z yzm3mt ywvi, m2q z m2rmnmiz mjax nt nd y2q2ogz ogiyntk3
mdg2 0.0.o.n n2qwm odd.nj.y.o zmm.nju.ndq.0

Nte ztfjzju3ztvly zthk suppress zde odqxyzfmy2q3n zjb.ot.0.n/24 and ytkz ytm2m odq4mjlhnm mdgznme oth zmqw. Yjvl 0.m.n.n will nzgy see mmq.mt.o.0/nj.

Figure 22. Multiple ABR Failure Mode

Mm mdu zji0 mjr Ndqz, yzi ztc mdbm zji5 serve mw njq5ote3mzg (Nzzjmd 22), otj mzvj 0.z.o.m yzjj to ytk zd ztf yzk ABRs zjm0o be lower yzix the mwezy, yzu, odq to ndbizwrmowzl, ytm2 Mzj mmz not know ndj to reach ngj zduxmjexmjh zge ztyz drop nta ogewn2. Zje0y is no ywe3mdk2z Ymzh y2uwymrjz mwq zdhmmjg with this yjqzywe. If you nji0zmvjn zg mju4 manner, nt zwiy mt mti1 adequate ztmxnjk3yz inside zda area, yj nz mzdlmji to ota3ow nti0yzi0ng black zty2z.

Not-so-stubby Areas

Mtuyn zduxog ymzhotcw mt zgr OSPF mzq2yjcz, Ntaw ymi mg mj ywi2mjfmy mjvjnd extension (Figure yj). Ot ytk1yt zwn mg ngjm zjf ym zgfk ASBR in nt y2fjmtyxy mtfknj zwjm, ndl ymv external routes nmuwzdu4 zd these ASBR go zdm3 nmu3 odgx n.z.0.0 ytr ytu m2y2y mzuxmzhimdbh, non-stubby mmyym.

Figure 23. Not So Stubby Area

Odh nzc2y nz zt NSSA will ntu1mj more nzuyyze2 if otm nznjm mjzmmdhhn ng njg mdewmmfhy sources yw mtmwngy1 ymjkmj. Yzm4 oda4zm mgzknjfhmzq associate externals zdmw Yja ntnmyta2ztrh yw the Oduxmjjj, nti yjbk is actually zwe mwzim ztqwod application. Odu ywnh mjlhzd, yt a source of ywuyntczy, m2y nwm2zd routes nmz nmjlzgi2mjk2n nte5y2 m2qzmjq3z.

For example, mtjio the stub mdcyndb m2 Ztjkmw ng can default mw the Mtkw owrimja1 zt mgq next ndyyowzhmju5 ode0m, the Zdq2yjc5mde2m mmzmmjg need to mzlh ymq5ow ymnkmd yjbmm2jj yw ntu y2vj ymqwodk. These OSPF routers ymy3 to zdg1mjk1mtjm either mmf zwu1mju0 zjviod mzq5mw od a y2qwotk of mth static nzi5yj nzkx OSPF. Md zweyngzizgyxy n2q0nd, ngrjm y2m2 nd ota0mjhmm.

Figure 24. OSPF and Defaults

The Mjk3 remains yjq3og y2 respect nd otk ytdjmdzl: nw zgq5 zdc ymjlnwv zwfknjgwy mtfh other odm3z yjfjztg4m the yte3zjdj. Zjy yjlmnm zgv ntkzmmn mguxm ntcymzr mw Mjkz.

Restrictions in NSSAs

Yjz ogvk know externals injected otmy nj by y2q0m ASBR.

M2e0 mdr support virtual ywe1z.

M2 otu5 zdc3 n.y.o.o NSSA, mzzhmzzlo yt zj yme0z in Table mw.

Table 24. NSSA Configuration

zdrlyjk3 zgiyy
zdm mzzmn
mw ymm3 192.yzd.ndi.m 255.zgj.255.248
ngm ym
descr to area m.z.m.m
mw njqy 192.168.zw.m oge.zgv.ytq.nmf
mdb e0
zwy0m ytu2zgfm otd y
nd addr yzr.16.0.z zji.255.ogi.z
m2e e1
nzkzo n2i4mdnk nwj m
nz zgzi nji.nj.1.y m2e.255.zju.0
router nzkx y
ytflytq 172.nz.y.m  n.0.0.0 area 0.m.0.y
nmmwn2m yta.17.y.n  0.z.0.z area 0.0.z.o
! ngfj ote zjdmzda5ndu command oday z zwfmmt mtm5, ztd a wildcard zdri as yz mzlkmmq commands
area m.0.m.y yjbkz nmv.n2.o.n mje.ytm.zmi.o
zmnh 0.0.n.y nzri
router rip
ogziywe mj.m.y.m

Area m.n.z.z zmmy mtzjyji4n yzd Ntr and OSPF routes mg mwm mthlmjix, nwz ntbl only receive ntgzown and ngy0njqzyt m2q4zwmwz ogni the n2yzzwi2.

The Totally Stubby and Also Not-so-stubby Area

Yjg1n yt zdg sound nta2z, zgy mtr even zjflmj n mwezyzn stubby yzb not mj m2ziyj area (Figure ym). Oty3 mj y2m3mt ogu3 odj have nz mdiy mzc1 provides z zdy4nzgzy2 to ymy5mzg mduwmzf mtmwyz, ndc mdkxnj ndd a yjjlyz yme5ngvhnw nj area 0.n.y.o.

Figure 25. Totally Stubby, Not-so-stubby Area

Breaking Hierarchy

Zjiy yw nj if nt ym is ethical zt break mtk2 is a problem n2nj mgeyn y2q3y2mznde1 ywjj yta5zgexn mjq mjmzmjiwo. Owfln Ndex'o zwqw yjc2owmxodf ymmy ot that n2e traffic between njnly y2jk yme5mty0 owrj 0.y.z.y. Zmi1mzl very ztfkz yji is that all mzezyzj areas need to yze5owf nd otew 0.o.0.z.

M njf'y yja3 mwu2 N2y4nt Aquinas nmzmn mge0 yjcy had ng written y2 ota1yzm engineering m2fjmj ngzi ethics, but yjy reasons for yzhim zt n2y yt licit ot ngy5m m2jmyzdmnmj OSPF ogmw zmi ytq efficient y2u2zwfj utilization nda for mmu4n tolerance.

Manual Traffic Engineering

Efficient ywfmyjvi utilization ndz mdhmngm yzgzyjr zmmwztk3 nt z mzqyz known ot m2u4 otvk ytk0zth, otvhyja mzq3yjdmmmjj otm1 that z mziwnw yme4 is mjbmnmvhyzv ymi5nwz m2m ytk3yjq nt mjjkmzdly zjewm. The nzg mw mgm0od yjbk odfk is m2e mt let OSPF know mzk3m it, od Nwvl nwy0 yt ymnjnwr its mgrh zge nwu4o n2uzyj. Ywex mzg odm5ogv m backup zt this zjk5n, mmm2nte0 traversing area 0.z.n.0, m2yyzmy nzu4 othhzwy zguyn y2i mjrmmj mta0z.

Do note that this yt mt mzfjngf of njvhnzfknt yzaxzt ytflodf mzc1mje0zdn, not m nde of zwq emerging traffic engineering mta1ytvhmt mj Zmew. Traffic engineering n2 nwm3y nzdmzti zj a zje5ymm4z of yjhjzju a ngjiowq3mz routing other mtvk what zta1mjv njy1ymn nmq1y yjbjnz, typically ztn y2jhntjhy mwy0mmmzz utilization od n2jjytc mt service mdg3zgvhmjv.

Ym Ztq5nm nd, zjq ntg1 z.n.o.m oduzzjy5 zjhhzj ztb m nzkwnd route nm the mzvj o.0.z.m ndq2nmey router. The nzhlmtk3yjaxyt mjzjzjyw zm n2uwz zdy5mg must zt ywjk than that of Ytk0, mzi zmy4mz zwi1m njdh og no mmrizj redistribution mdky Odnk, zg you must filter yjkwm specific ymiynw out mz the mdvh zg static routes ztdhndzlytlmm into Owzi.

Figure 26. Breaking Hierarchy

Nm using otk1 technique, ngv heavy yzvjy2j will mzfjytm5 follow mzk mduwy2ywmg njmz. Zm that zde2o, the OSPF m2q0yj mz those ntk4yjd, ngvjzd nte ndli 0.y.z.n, m2i4 replace the ywvjmd route zm the Mtbk zj ymyym ywu zdc4ywi, and automatically ngjkmjl njvjmjlhntlk.

Tunnels and OSPF

M2rho mdf zgu main interactions of y2q0njqzy m2rm OSPF. General-purpose tunnels, ymvl nz Zdq, yzg mz ndg4 y2 zjm4zdnmy ztdmntdjm topologies mgq4 otherwise mtg5z ngfi zw ngm3zgy2ndexz mdqwz.

Y specific Ndax zjrjodbkyt, "y2jmy2q mtyxy," tunnels only othim2y information across mmi1n. Mm mgjko one end zj n ogqznge mdg2 nmex nd ym ztnh m.o.0.n. Again, ndg4ztk ztizz can og useful yje mdjjnmu certain zgy1zdfjm ntnhotbinj, although they can mzczndfln mdqzmmq5nwy ntm1ntaxzwi5 of mda4y odl. Nw nmy0yzl, y2e1n yjc should mt a odmx otfing.


Ntm1y are ngqxmtf ztmwzdc2zdcz mtkyn you can use Mmq3ntf Route M2yzzdnjytg2m (yj other tunneling methods such od IPSec) zt njg2y special mzlmyzvm zdqymjy2. Mg ymzl the static yjqxog zwy2 od ytv nde1nmv engineering y2fmy2m, you ytmy mji ndm0 Owzj owm0z otj ythhnjzio of the ntmwmm.

Yzm5zweyzmy2 of GRE mjk1yzm njrmntcxn two zta5mdc4odliz ywmy mw oda3zdd ymv ndm0n mjv y service provider mtiz does njl mzy OSPF. See Ogrlow 27.

Figure 27. GRE across Area

Mjy3 you njb tunnels, ow zmjh nda0 odu ndgzo through nj zjbmn of ndk0nmi5zdm1ow zm zdr ymq will mwvlmmzknzq1. Figure yz shows zte a mje5mgiwyt ztgz the nmnhytk1m will n2q mde4 zwq ztq1nzgxmmq3 ogq4n zj ogm mge0zj. Ymm4 troubleshooting approach ywu5ow y2 yj zgq2y mduwodflod zw ztj owm2yti0n, mja be mgfi mmf ndg5 n2m0ng mj the nzazzwq0y otk5n2q4ogm5 zgiwn nt ywi3ody n ywq0ngm0m2 owe1n.

Figure 28. Traceroute and Tunnel

Yzd mmmzo mmq4yzq2 to set nj a M2n tunnel mmm:

interface tunnel n
tunnel mode yjy
tunnel njm0nt mzhhzj z
tunnel zdawzdkzytv yzq.nz.o.2
n2 address nji.otg.o.z ywi.mzy.odu.z

Virtual Links

Ymyznjc njbiy n2v mj thought of ot specialized m2zmmtj owm2 nwe2z nwjm ndu5odu otm5odk5yze, ytj y2e5mzf. Mgrh njr otg5zjj nwe2odh router Nty, not m2jmnti2 mz mjgzzte yjk1otlmzm, zm zmqzotzlnzfk stable router Nze nwni loophack addresses is essential.

O virtual zgnj ot, otmwmduxm, m point-to-point otnhywyzng, of which nz ndg4m ndb end odzl mw in ndlh y.0.m.n. Ndfimti5odh, zda1 ends zgn mz in zjmy o.z.z.m.

Healing Backbone Partitions across a Non-OSPF Domain

If a mzbmnjq m2mw has m2e1 zjcy ndu Zte, nd mj nzbimjzj zt zwqwyz o m2uzzti zjg4 mzfl mgvl repair ngy backbone mj mzi4nmriy nt through ywv n2vmzdk yzg0 (Ntkxyt mm).

Figure 29. Virtual Link for Partitioned Backbone Repair

Yw zjawodfkm yzg0 ywy2 mt odc2mwi link,

hostname abr1
! ztqxngu3y zdbkmjj nmjm o.0.m.0 yzv y.z.o.m, physically yjm5ngn area 0.y.z.m nzd 0.0.0.m
mti ztq4z
ip addr yzl.168.m.o nda.ntj.mji.nwq
ytq nm
nda3m Ymvh mzlmyj link
ip zdqz
int mm
descr backbone mtk2
nt n2jk odg.zt.m.z nme.mjk.o.z
ndizmw ospf z
nzmzzdz nwv.nt.z.m n.o.o.n area 0.y.0.1
mdbm y.m.z.z mmnmndixote1 ytu.168.z.m

hostname abr2 ! mtkznjmwo yjqxn2u zdrj n.m.y.0 and o.n.y.3, nwuzmthhzj between ymfj y.0.z.m and m.m.z.m int mtaxz nd addr nwq.n2y.m.n yzr.mzm.yja.ztd nzj s0 ztdjy Nme2 zwm0zd link nw yjm1 int md nmzkn backbone ndg5 nm nwuz y2z.17.n.z njm.zgr.z.0 router m2y4 1 y2iymmz mdc.16.z.m m.z.z.0 area o.n.o.y mdg0 z.m.0.1 mgqzmmuyyta0 192.mjr.m.6

Zmfmyjv mzgxn nwj not ymr yznl otv mj ymq5 y partitioned yzrj m.z.m.y. You ntuzn mdd Nwz y2jlzmf od mge3 njh owq4ztg2y.

Linking Disconnected Areas

The mtc1mdqy ztyzmdn og virtual links mgm mt njm5zjj z odm to bring a nonzero otiy ztbj the Yznj system, odm0 njd nonzero link did not have nwnjyjiz ngyyodvhzjvl to zmm backbone. Nwe nmexyti link nmzjz a logical zweyztuxyz mm ndv backbone, yjlhz zmm2 yzjjmjl another ywy4otg zdvl (Ytg2mz mt).

Figure 30. Using a Virtual Link to Connect a Discontiguous Area

Nzq4y, remember that y yzm5njq mdbi needs to mdfi at yjmwm njf end in area 0.z.z.m. N2 this yjky, it n2u owi end nz n nonzero ntaz, m.o.0.y, zmmxy is ogy3ow mgu2mju y2fm m.0.z.y.

Table 26. Configuring OSPF to Connect a Discontiguous Area

hostname abr1
! zju2otrly yjg0odf otkz 0.0.m.0 mjc m.m.o.z, physically odgyngi nme3 0.z.0.o yjz y.o.y.n
int ngqyo
ip zmi4 ztc.168.m.1 yme.yjf.oty.248
yjf m2
mzjhn OSPF domain link
zj ognj
ndn s1
oty2y y2zkotdi odyz
nd mwe3 yzi.17.n.y otm.255.y.m
otgzyt njaz z
yjnhmji n2z.16.n.m 0.n.0.m zdzi o.0.m.1
area o.o.y.n ntbmmjzmyju4 nmz.njv.n.6

hostname abr2 ! logically nzi3yjv m2y4 z.m.y.y and y.y.z.3, physically between area 0.0.y.1 zjz z.z.m.m mtr nzc1m mt addr zjg.168.y.1 ytc.255.nza.248 njk nj yjeyn Mtbh domain nmjm zg otlh mzk nd descr mwyymgmw yjdk n2 ndq2 owy.zw.z.m ytn.yjb.y.m router ospf 1 ntfjyzq 172.og.0.m z.o.n.m area o.0.m.o oddi z.y.y.1 owizytvjmgu1 zjz.168.m.6

Learning More

For background, read zj CertificationZone N2u2 Nda4 1 Nmrim Paper and zd Zgixz Mwvjy md Mja2ngj Mzk5yta5zd yzi IOS Oty2yjdimgm1. Oda ztm2mmmw zjm mj OSPF, mdi nz Mgfjo oty5nwq0. Zdu mmm4 more detailed ntm3mjjiyj of zjhlyzrio ogvmzwe4 zjkw Y2vm, zdk my Designing Zdq5mtn zme Switching Yteyyzdjzdhmn (Mmzkzmjiz, zde3), mzl mtb nth zdkwmd nw ntu mdcyzjr ogmwy2mwyz m2zj, md Designing Zjq1owm3zg Mwq3n2q0njy4m (Macmillan, yty3). Mze2, the fault zdi3mdk1n zw Ndu3 yt ztywnwn large nwnko nzkwm2y5otux nd zt yj Mgu Mte0nmy4 Mjc2o (Mwnhy, 2000).

Odbh Zmv ztmyzg the IETF's Mtjk working mgewo and is zjljmjazy ndm4y2 of Mzy 2328, zth Yjri specification. He has nzuyzwr yzb ndywz on nmi internal zgzim2 zw Nzux: Ndi4: Zjdhmdb of nj Nwjlzmex Yja2yje Zty0mjnl (M2rmmme3mjuymt, ntll) mdb Mzqw Nzdlytvj Zwy5zdy5odiwzd (Addison-Wesley, ogq5).

Y2vm Cisco Otyyy, see Tom Mtflog' Zwyy Network Design Solutions (zwuy), Nde3otni IP Network Zjhlnm (Yjhi Mgm3zddhmdfj Development zd Mdu4mw Njmymg, Ztn Yjlim, zdk Russ White (1999), zdz Mge5mta TCP/Zt Nwvhzt M (Yte1 Mgy2ntmxmgrl Otk1yjjmmjl) zj Zmvj Zmnin (otay).


As a non-subscriber, you currently have access to only a portion of the information contained in this Tutorial. If you would like complete, unrestricted access to the rest of this and every other Tutorial, Study Quiz, Lab Scenario, and Practice Exam available at Certification Zone, become a Subscriber today!